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Prognostic Value of the Ocular Trauma Score in Traumatic Open Globe Injuries in the Philippines: A Five-Year Retrospective Study —Prognostic Value of the Ocular Trauma Score in Open Globe Injuries  [PDF]
Raymond Nelson C. Regalado, Ruben Lim Bon Siong, Archimedes Lee D. Agahan, Anthony F. Felipe
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1104224
Abstract:
PURPOSE: To determine the prognostic value of the Ocular Trauma Score (OTS) in patients with traumatic open globe injuries. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of patients with traumatic open globe injuries seen in a tertiary eye center in the Philippines from 2008 to 2013. Patients with traumatic open globe injuries who were at least 18 years of age upon first consult and with documented visual acuity at the first, third and sixth months of follow up were included in the study. The following data were collected: age, sex, occupation, manner of injury, type of injury, location of injury, presence of globe rupture, endophthalmitis, perforation, retinal detachment and afferent pupillary defect, and visual acuity (VA) at presentation, month 1, month 3 and month 6. The OTS was computed from the available data. RESULTS: A total of 114 records were included. Open-globe (OG) injuries were more common in males (86.8%), between 18 - 39 y/o (64.9%) and who were manual workers (74.6%). Most were occupation-related (64%), seen within 1 - 3 days (55.3%), and treated both medically and surgically (92.1%). The most common type of OG injury was a penetrating laceration (82.5%), had an initial VA of 4/200 to light perception (57.9%), had no afferent pupillary defect (APD) (84.2%), and was located at zone I (73.7%). The most common OTS anatomical factor seen, when present, was an APD (15.8%). In all months, there was a significant positive correlation between OTS score and visual acuity. CONCLUSION: The OTS appeared to predict visual outcome as early as the first month post-injury, although correlation still exists at the 3rd and 6th months.
High Mortality in Adults Hospitalized for Active Tuberculosis in a Low HIV Prevalence Setting
Grace Lui, Rity Y. K. Wong, Florence Li, May K. P. Lee, Raymond W. M. Lai, Timothy C. M. Li, Joseph K. M. Kam, Nelson Lee
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0092077
Abstract: Background This study aims to evaluate the outcomes of adults hospitalized for tuberculosis in a higher-income region with low HIV prevalence. Methods A retrospective cohort study was conducted on all adults hospitalized for pulmonary and/or extrapulmonary tuberculosis in an acute-care hospital in Hong Kong during a two-year period. Microscopy and solid-medium culture were routinely performed. The diagnosis of tuberculosis was made by: (1) positive culture of M. tuberculosis, (2) positive M. tuberculosis PCR result, (3) histology findings of tuberculosis infection, and/or (4) typical clinico-radiological manifestations of tuberculosis which resolved after anti-TB treatment, in the absence of alternative diagnoses. Time to treatment (‘early’, started during initial admission; ‘late’, subsequent periods), reasons for delay, and short- and long-term survival were analyzed. Results Altogether 349 patients were studied [median(IQR) age 62(48–77) years; non-HIV immunocompromised conditions 36.7%; HIV/AIDS 2.0%]. 57.9%, 16.3%, and 25.8% had pulmonary, extrapulmonary, and pulmonary-extrapulmonary tuberculosis respectively. 58.2% was smear-negative; 0.6% multidrug-resistant. 43.4% developed hypoxemia. Crude 90-day and 1-year all-cause mortality was 13.8% and 24.1% respectively. 57.6% and 35.8% received ‘early’ and ‘late’ treatment respectively, latter mostly culture-guided [median(IQR) intervals, 5(3–9) vs. 43(25–61) days]. Diagnosis was unknown before death in 6.6%. Smear-negativity, malignancy, chronic lung diseases, and prior exposure to fluoroquinolones (adjusted-OR 10.6, 95%CI 1.3–85.2) delayed diagnosis of tuberculosis. Failure to receive ‘early’ treatment independently predicted higher mortality (Cox-model, adjusted-HR 1.8, 95%CI 1.1–3.0). Conclusions Mortality of hospitalized tuberculosis patients is high. Newer approaches incorporating methods for rapid diagnosis and initiation of anti-tuberculous treatment are urgently required to improve outcomes.
Influence of Surfactant and Salt Concentration on the Rheological Properties of Three Different Microstructures of Associative Polyelectrolytes Obtained by Solution Polymerization  [PDF]
Areli I. Velazquez-Garcia, Gregorio Cadenas-Pliego, Claudia C. Rivera-Vallejo, Enrique J. Jiménez-Regalado
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2014.514139
Abstract:

The rheological properties of three different microstructures of hydrophobically modified alkalisoluble polymers (telechelic, multisticker and combined) in the presence of various concentrations of anionic surfactant and salt (NaCl) were investigated. Associative polymers containing both ionic sites and small number of hydrophobic groups were obtained, and their thickening properties in aqueous solutions, were investigated. Solution polymerization was used for obtaining the different polymers. Relationships between hydrophobe, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and NaCl concentration are proposed. Owing to the competition between attractive hydrophobic interaction and repulsive electrostatic interactions, such hydrophobically modified polymers exhibit various rheological behaviors in aqueous solutions, depending on microstructure of polyelectrolyte, SDS and NaCl concentrations.

PROPAGANDA: DODELIKE WAPEN VAN DIE KOMMUNISME
C. Nelson
Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies , 2012, DOI: 10.5787/7-2-821
Abstract: During the Second World War the effectiveness and importance of the applicetionof propaganda in influencing a mess society became evident. Under the influence ofHitlet and his follower Joseph Goebbels the use of propaganda was developed intoa fine art and was systematically used to convey Nazi ideas to the uninformed masses.Nowadays this seme weapon is used by the Communists to extend their influencebeyond the borders of the Soviet Union. Propaganda may be seen as the deliberate attempt by an individual or group. toinfluence another person or group so that in a given situation the reaction of theinfluenced person will be that desired by the group. It is not always possible toinfluence everyone, as people identified as 'nuclear-personalities' have certain attitudesof long standing which they are normally not apt to surrender. The great masses,however, are 'uninformed stuff' and have no strong opinions of their own, but tendto be guided by their need to belong to a group. Hence their opinions are determinedby those of the group. It is towards reaching the group - the masses - that thepropaganda programme is directed. By means of the radio, newspapers, and othermedia certain ideas are transplanted beyond their borders. This process is usually80 ingeniously conducted that the groups influenced are not aware of it. One of thereasons why they are ceught unawares may be attributed to the fact that the propagandistconfronts them with certain ideas on nationalism or peace which are acceptedby the group. Under this cover the real motives - in this cese the Communist valuesand way of thinking - are conveyed. It is in these hidden and underlying motivesthat the real threat to any state lies, as the bulk of its society is gradually indoctrinatedto come to accept certain Communistic principles, giving the Communist Governmentthe opportunity to extend its sphere of influence and mainstay over another govemment.In this fashion countries are subjugated without any wars being fought.
THE ROLE OF SEA POWER IN THE SOVIET UNION'S STRATEGY FOR WORLD DOMINATION
C. Nelson
Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies , 2012, DOI: 10.5787/8-2-787
Abstract: Twenty-one years ago, in 1956, Nikita Khrushchev, First Secretary of the Party, directed the folowing warning to the Western democratic states: 'Whether you like it or not, history is on our side. We will bury YOU.' Since Khrushchev directed this brutally straightforward warning to the Western World that it is the Soviet Union's long-range foreign policy objective to dominate the entire world, the Kremlin has ferociously striven towards the attainment of this goal. Thus all steps, all action and all planning by the Kremlin during the past few decades have formed part of a diabolical and merciless plan to overthrow capitalism during 'the second half of the twentieth century'
Identification of Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 3 (FGFR3) as a Protein Receptor for Botulinum Neurotoxin Serotype A (BoNT/A)
Birgitte P. S. Jacky,Patton E. Garay,Jér?me Dupuy,Jeremy B. Nelson,Brian Cai,Yanira Molina,Joanne Wang,Lance E. Steward,Ron S. Broide,Joseph Francis,K. Roger Aoki,Raymond C. Stevens,Ester Fernández-Salas
PLOS Pathogens , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1003369
Abstract: Botulinum neurotoxin serotype A (BoNT/A) causes transient muscle paralysis by entering motor nerve terminals (MNTs) where it cleaves the SNARE protein Synaptosomal-associated protein 25 (SNAP25206) to yield SNAP25197. Cleavage of SNAP25 results in blockage of synaptic vesicle fusion and inhibition of the release of acetylcholine. The specific uptake of BoNT/A into pre-synaptic nerve terminals is a tightly controlled multistep process, involving a combination of high and low affinity receptors. Interestingly, the C-terminal binding domain region of BoNT/A, HC/A, is homologous to fibroblast growth factors (FGFs), making it a possible ligand for Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptors (FGFRs). Here we present data supporting the identification of Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 3 (FGFR3) as a high affinity receptor for BoNT/A in neuronal cells. HC/A binds with high affinity to the two extra-cellular loops of FGFR3 and acts similar to an agonist ligand for FGFR3, resulting in phosphorylation of the receptor. Native ligands for FGFR3; FGF1, FGF2, and FGF9 compete for binding to FGFR3 and block BoNT/A cellular uptake. These findings show that FGFR3 plays a pivotal role in the specific uptake of BoNT/A across the cell membrane being part of a larger receptor complex involving ganglioside- and protein-protein interactions.
Consortium for the Human Information and Neurocognitive Endophenotype (CHINE) in mainland China: An example from neurological soft signs for neuropsychiatric disorders
Raymond C. K. Chan
Chinese Science Bulletin , 2011, DOI: 10.1007/s11434-011-4715-5
Abstract: Increasing efforts to identify alternate expressions of neuropsychiatric disorders that are broader than the DSM or ICD diagnostic criteria needed to diagnose them reflects a growing consensus that multidimensional expressions of neuropsychiatric disorders may advance the search for underlying etiological or modulatory factors. Endophenotypic research can be considered to be one of the most promising strategies to bridge the gap between genomic complexity and the phenotypic heterogeneity observed in neuropsychiatric disorders. However, the majority of endophenotype studies were limited to our western counterparts, very little has been done and initiated by scholars in mainland China. In this paper, we urge the need to establish a potential central consortium for endophenotypes to study neuropsychiatric disorders in mainland China. In particular, we illustrate a potential example of neurological soft signs in following the steps for building the consortium.
Improved Formulation of Scattering Matrices for Semi-Analytical Methods That Is Consistent with Convention
Raymond C. Rumpf
PIER B , 2011, DOI: 10.2528/PIERB11083107
Abstract: The literature describing scattering matrices for semi-analytical methods almost exclusively contains inefficient formulations and formulations that deviate from long-standing convention in terms of how the scattering parameters are defined. This paper presents a novel and highly improved formulation of scattering matrices that is consistent with convention, more efficient to implement, and more versatile than what has been otherwise presented in the literature. Semi-analytical methods represent a device as a stack of layers that are uniform in the longitudinal direction. Scattering matrices are calculated for each layer and are combined into a single overall scattering matrix that describes propagation through the entire device. Free space gaps with zero thickness are inserted between the layers and the scattering matrices are made to relate fields which exist outside of the layers, but directly on their boundaries. This framework produces symmetric scattering matrices so only two parameters need to be calculated and stored instead of four. It also enables the scattering matrices to be arbitrarily interchanged and reused to describe longitudinally periodic devices more efficiently. Numerical results are presented that show speed and efficiency can be increased by more than an order of magnitude using the improved formulation.
Simple Implementation of Arbitrarily Shaped Total-Field/Scattered-Field Regions in Finite-Difference Frequency-Domain
Raymond C. Rumpf
PIER B , 2012, DOI: 10.2528/PIERB11092006
Abstract: The total-field/scattered-field (TF/SF) formulation is a popular technique for incorporating sources into electromagnetic models like the finite-difference frequency-domain (FDFD) method. It is versatile and simplifies calculation of waves scattered from a device. In the context of FDFD, the TF/SF formulation involves modifying all of the finite-difference equations that contain field terms from both the TF and SF regions in order to make the terms compatible. While simple in concept, modifying all of the equations for arbitrarily shaped TF/SF regions is tedious and no solution has been offered in the literature to do it in a straightforward manner. This paper presents a simple and efficient technique for implementing the TF/SF formulation that allows the TF/SF regions to be any shape and of arbitrary complexity. Its simplicity and versatility are demonstrated by giving several practical examples including a diffraction grating, a waveguide problem, and a scattering problem with a cylindrical wave source.
Clouds and Instabilities in Supernova Remnant Structure: Interstellar Turbulence and Rippled Shocks
J. C. Raymond
Revista mexicana de astronomía y astrofísica , 2003,
Abstract:
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