Abstract:
We investigate the time neutral formulation of quantum cosmology of Gell-Mann and Hartle. In particular we study the proposal discussed by them that our Universe corresponds to the time symmetric decoherence functional with initial and final density matrix of low entropy. We show that our Universe does not correspond to this proposal by investigating the behaviour of small inhomogeneous perturbations around a Friedman-Robertson-Walker model. These perturbations cannot be time symmetric if they were small at the Big Bang.

Abstract:
We derive a relationship between two different notions of fidelity (entanglement fidelity and average fidelity) for a completely depolarizing quantum channel. This relationship gives rise to a quantum analog of the MacWilliams identities in classical coding theory. These identities relate the weight enumerator of a code to the one of its dual and, with linear programming techniques, provided a powerful tool to investigate the possible existence of codes. The same techniques can be adapted to the quantum case. We give examples of their power.

Abstract:
We investigate the evolution of small perturbations around charged black strings and branes which are solutions of low energy string theory. We give the details of the analysis for the uncharged case which was summarized in a previous paper. We extend the analysis to the small charge case and give also an analysis for the generic case, following the behavior of unstable modes as the charge is modified. We study specifically a magnetically charged black 6-brane, but show how the instability is generic, and that charge does not in general stabilise black strings and p-branes.

Abstract:
One of the main problems for the future of practical quantum computing is to stabilize the computation against unwanted interactions with the environment and imperfections in the applied operations. Existing proposals for quantum memories and quantum channels require gates with asymptotically zero error to store or transmit an input quantum state for arbitrarily long times or distances with fixed error. In this report a method is given which has the property that to store or transmit a qubit with maximum error $\epsilon$ requires gates with error at most $c\epsilon$ and storage or channel elements with error at most $\epsilon$, independent of how long we wish to store the state or how far we wish to transmit it. The method relies on using concatenated quantum codes with hierarchically implemented recovery operations. The overhead of the method is polynomial in the time of storage or the distance of the transmission. Rigorous and heuristic lower bounds for the constant $c$ are given.

Abstract:
Quantum Error Correction will be necessary for preserving coherent states against noise and other unwanted interactions in quantum computation and communication. We develop a general theory of quantum error correction based on encoding states into larger Hilbert spaces subject to known interactions. We obtain necessary and sufficient conditions for the perfect recovery of an encoded state after its degradation by an interaction. The conditions depend only on the behavior of the logical states. We use them to give a recovery operator independent definition of error-correcting codes. We relate this definition to four others: The existence of a left inverse of the interaction, an explicit representation of the error syndrome using tensor products, perfect recovery of the completely entangled state, and an information theoretic identity. Two notions of fidelity and error for imperfect recovery are introduced, one for pure and the other for entangled states. The latter is more appropriate when using codes in a quantum memory or in applications of quantum teleportation to communication. We show that the error for entangled states is bounded linearly by the error for pure states. A formal definition of independent interactions for qubits is given. This leads to lower bounds on the number of qubits required to correct $e$ errors and a formal proof that the classical bounds on the probability of error of $e$-error-correcting codes applies to $e$-error-correcting quantum codes, provided that the interaction is dominated by an identity component.

Abstract:
We investigate the stability of the extremal black p-brane which contains a n-form and a dilaton. We show that the instability due to the s-mode, which was present in the uncharged and non-extremal p-brane, disappears in the extreme case. This is shown to be consistent with an entropy argument which shows that the zero entropy of the extremal black hole is approached more rapidly than the zero entropy of the black p-brane, which would mean an instability would violate the second law of thermodynamics.

Abstract:
Peebles has suggested an interesting method to trace back in time positions of galaxies called the least action method. This method applied on the Local Group galaxies seems to indicate that we live in an $\Omega\approx 0.1$ Universe. We have studied a CDM N-body simulation with $\Omega=0.2$ and $H=50 kms^{-1}/Mpc$ and compare trajectories traced back from the Least Action Principle and the center of mass of the particle forming CDM halos. We show that the agreement between these set of trajectories is at best qualitative. We also show that the line of sight peculiar velocities are underestimated. This discrepancy is due to orphans, CDM particles which do not end up in halos. By varying the density parameter $\Omega$ in the least action principle we show that using this method we would underestimate the density of the Universe by a factor of 4-5.

Abstract:
We show how to carry out quantum logical operations (controlled-not and Toffoli gates) on encoded qubits for several encodings which protect against various 1-bit errors. This improves the reliability of these operations by allowing one to correct for one bit errors which either preexisted or occurred in course of operation. The logical operations we consider allow one to cary out the vast majority of the steps in the quantum factoring algorithm. Thus, our results help bring quantum factoring and other quantum computations closer to reality

Abstract:
We present an approach using quantum walks (QWs) to redistribute ultracold atoms in an optical lattice. Different density profiles of atoms can be obtained by exploiting the controllable properties of QWs, such as the variance and the probability distribution in position space using quantum coin parameters and engineered noise. The QW evolves the density profile of atoms in a superposition of position space resulting in a quadratic speedup of the process of quantum phase transition. We also discuss implementation in presently available setups of ultracold atoms in optical lattices.

Abstract:
We present a generalized version of the discrete time quantum walk, using the SU(2) operation as the quantum coin. By varying the coin parameters, the quantum walk can be optimized for maximum variance subject to the functional form $\sigma^2 \approx N^2$ and the probability distribution in the position space can be biased. We also discuss the variation in measurement entropy with the variation of the parameters in the SU(2) coin. Exploiting this we show how quantum walk can be optimized for improving mixing time in an $n$-cycle and for quantum walk search.