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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 670 matches for " Raw "
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Uncovering Consumer Mindsets Regarding Raw Beverages  [PDF]
Ryan Zemel, Attila Gere, Petraq Papajorgji, Glenn Zemel, Howard Moskowitz
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2018.93020
Abstract: Nutritional fads in the health and fitness world are constantly changing. Each new craze has its believers and critics. For the consumer, “what to believe” becomes a topic filled with uncertainty. This paper presents a systematic approach to understanding what consumers believe about the health messaging of “raw beverages”. The paper presents both substantive results from US consumers, as well as demonstrates a general approach by which researchers can more deeply understand the consumer mind with respect to the specifics of health and wellness issues.
A Study on the Radioactivity Level in Raw Materials, Final Products and Wastes of the Phosphate Fertilizer Industries in Bangladesh  [PDF]
Md. Abdus Samad, Md. Abu Haydar, Md. Idris Ali, Debasish Paul, Md. Mahbubur R. Bhuiyan, Sheikh Mohammad A. Islam
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2012.310158
Abstract: A study on the detection of probable radionuclides and their activity concentrations in the raw material (phosphate rock), final product (fertilizer) and waste samples collected from all the phosphate fertilizer factories (total two factories—A Diammonium Phosphate, DAP and a Triple Super Phosphate, TSP factory) in Bangladesh were carried out. A total of seven types of samples (grossly divided into solid and liquid types); liquid waste, waste-mixed river water, normal river water, phosphate rock, phosphate fertilizer, solid waste and normal soil; were analyzed under this study. Raw material samples were collected only from the TSP fertilizer factory. Fertilizer, solid and liquid waste samples were collected from both the factories under study. Moreover, normal soil and natural surface water samples from the suitable areas adjacent to the factories were also collected for the comparison purpose. The samples were analyzed by gamma ray spectrometry technique using a Hyper-Pure Germanium (HPGe) detector of 40% relative efficiency. The analysis of the samples showed that only natural radionuclides such as 226Ra, 232Th and 40K were present in the samples and no traces of artificial radioactivity were found in any of the samples. 40K was found below the detection limit in some samples. The analysis of the samples in the case of TSP fertilizer factory showed that the average activity concentrations of 226Ra and 232Th and 40K in raw materials were 851.27 ± 7.10, 19.63 ± 6.57 and 54.06 ± 5.93 Bq/kg, respectively, in final product 211.90 ± 4.74, 42.48 ± 10.56 Bq/kg and ND (Not Detected), respectively, in solid waste 187.49 ± 4.88, 70.06 ± 11.76 and 289.27 ± 40.24 Bq/kg, respectively and in liquid waste 6.26 ± 0.63, 10.01 ± 1.39 Bq/L and ND, respectively. The measured results in the case of samples collected from DAP fertilizer factory showed that the average activity concentrations of 226Ra and 232Th and 40K in the final product were 17.31 ± 3.92, 69.74 ± 9.88 and 48.46 ± 17.22 Bq/kg, respectively, in solid waste 24.47 ± 4.15, 164.62 ± 11.08, 191.52 ± 33.74 Bq/kg, respectively and in liquid waste 3.59 ± 1.05, 37.08 ± 3.30 Bq/L and ND, respectively. Considering the stored raw materials and wastes the part of the ambient environment of the factory, radium equivalent activity, radiation hazard index and external annual effective dose to the workers and public due to these materials were also calculated and compared with world average values.
Production of Refractory Lining for Diesel Fired Rotary Furnace, from Locally Sourced Kaolin and Potter’s Clay  [PDF]
Fatai Olufemi Aramide, Saliu Ojo Seidu
Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering (JMMCE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jmmce.2013.13014
Abstract: This research was conducted to formulate a refractory lining recipe for lining diesel fired rotary furnace from locally sourced kaolin, using locally sourced potter’s clay as binder. Six samples (A-F) of kaolin clay mined locally from Apata II area, Ondo road, in Ile-Ife,Nigeria, were roasted at 1200oC held for 8 hours, mixed with different percentages of raw kaolin and appropriately made into briquettes using potter’s clay of good plasticity as binder. The samples were tested for various refractory properties. The result showed that sample mixes A (100% chamotte), B (80% chamotte, 20% rawkaolin) and C (60% chamotte, 40% raw kaolin) are considered to have good properties. However, the optimum material-mix for the refractory bricks lining, with particular reference to the highest thermal shock resistance was found to be 80% chamotte mixed with 20% raw kaolin.
Major Elements Geochemistry of Sedimentary Rocks from Corumbataí Formation, Santa Gertrudes Ceramic Pole, São Paulo, Brazil  [PDF]
Maria Margarita Torres Moreno, Rogers Raphael da Rocha, Letícia Hirata Godoy
Geomaterials (GM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/gm.2014.41002

We conducted a geochemical study of the major elements of 29 clay samples from 10 mining fronts, which are used for ceramic coatings at Santa Gertrudes Ceramic Pole, São Paulo, Brazil. This region is considered as the biggest ceramic pole in Latin America. The mines are located in Corumbataí Formation (Paraná Sedimentary Basin) and are mined in bench system. The samples were analyzed as a whole and along each profile to evaluate the variation of the concentration of major elements and weathering effects. The results show a differentiation into three groups: 1) carbonate clays; 2) lower portion samples; 3) upper portion samples, and properties that allow obtaining useful information about the use and selection of raw materials to the formulation of ceramic masses and for quality control of raw materials in order to achieve products of similar quality.

Measurements of Natural Radioactivity of Industrial Raw Materials from the West of Saudi Arabia (Arabian Shield)  [PDF]
Safia H. Q. Hamidalddin
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2015.64055
Abstract: Rock samples of industrial raw materials that are used in the building, from the West of Saudi Arabia (Arabian Shield), have been investigated using X-ray diffraction to identify the mineral chemical composition. The concentrations of Al%, Bi, Pb, Th, U, and K in ppm were measured by atomic absorption analysis. The activity concentrations in Bq/kg dry weight of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K were measured using gamma-ray spectrometry where the range and average were found to be (03.04 - 10.91) 07.90, (03.19 - 13.31) 09.14 and (95.59 - 361.52) 234.81 in Basalt, for Granite (33.81 - 89.13) 80.85, (28.42 - 112.77) 68.50 and (1260.13 - 1629.21) 1376.69, for Gold (00.78 - 11.84) 04.73, (01.48 - 4.69) 02.69 and (13.76 - 445.09) 197.58, for Andesite 05.72, 03.73 and 471.93, and for Marble 01.56, 01.38 and 10.15 respectively. Most results existing within the given values in building materials by UNSCEAR 1993 included Raeq (Bq/kg), D (nGy/h), Deff (mSv/y), Hex and Hin, which meant that it was safe for humans.
Development of Insulating Refractory Ramming Mass from Some Nigerian Refractory Raw Materials  [PDF]
O. A. Olasupo, J. O. Borode
Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering (JMMCE) , 2009, DOI: 10.4236/jmmce.2009.89058
Abstract: Insulating refractory ramming mass was developed from suitable Nigerian refractory raw materials. Rammed samples from several ratios of clay, silica, mica, bentonite and calcium aluminate cement (Durax) were prepared using the American Foundrymen Society (AFS) standard rammer. They were thereafter tested for such properties as apparent porosity, volumetric firing shrinkage, cold compression strength, green compression strength, loss on ignition, thermal shock resistance and refractoriness. Results indicate that eight ramming cycles were just enough for the production of the ramming masses. Two optimal ratios obtained from the experiments have a refractoriness of 1500℃ , good compression strength and excellent thermal shock resistance. They are therefore recommended for lining of rotary furnaces and crucible furnaces for the melting of ferrous and non-ferrous alloys. It could be concluded that the ramming mass serve as a viable alternative to foreign ramming mass at the same temperature application.
Evaluation of the Use of Sodium Thiocyanate and Sodium Percarbonate in the Activation of the Lactoperoxidase System in the Conservation of Raw Milk without Refrigeration in the Ecuadorian Tropics  [PDF]
Martin Campos-Vallejo, Byron Puga-Torres, Luis Nú?ez-Naranjo, David De la Torre-Duque, Samantha Morales-Arciniega, Enrique Vayas
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2017.85036
Abstract: Milk production in Ecuador has enormous economic importance and large-, medium- and small-scale producers all participate in the market. There are multiple climatic regions, and dairy production is present in every one of them. High ambient temperatures in the Ecuadorian tropics represent a key challenge to the conservation of milk in the custody of smallholders. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the efficiency of the application of a chemical activator of the Lactoperoxidase System (LP-s) in the conservation of raw milk, at room temperature, in the Ecuadorian tropics. In the present study, sodium thiocyanate—0.36 g·L-1 of milk—and sodium percarbonate—1.36 g·L-1 of milk—as an activator of LP-s were used and the pH and microbiological characteristics (total coliforms, Staphylococcus aureus, total aerobes, molds and yeasts) of the milk at different storage times (0, 4 and 8 hours). The results obtained in the present study showed a significant difference between the two groups under study at 8 hours of storage at room temperature in all parameters (except yeasts where there was no growth in the two treatments), being relevant the significant decrease of the bacterial content. Thus the present study shows that the use of sodium thiocyanate and sodium percarbonate in the above described concentrations could be modulating the activation of LP-s that provides an efficient alternative for the conservation of the raw milk without refrigeration, improving the income for losses of the product and obtaining a raw material of good quality for sale or for further processing, mainly for small producers who do not have the economic resources to have refrigeration means for their product and who must transport their milk for considerably longer distances until they arrive at the collection centers or the processing plants for sale, thus showing that the method used in the present study is not only effective but also has a relatively low cost and easy application.
Detection of Glucomacropeptide in Raw Milk Adulterated with Cheese Whey in Ecuador  [PDF]
Byron Humberto Puga-Torres, Samantha Michele Morales-Arciniega, Luis Fabián Nú?ez Naranjo, David Isaías De la Torre-Duque, Rolando Martin Campos-Vallejo, Silvana Hipatia Santander-Parra, Enrique César Vayas-Machado
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2017.86040
Abstract: Milk is one of the products that can be adulterated in many ways affecting the quality of this and its derivatives. Glucomacropeptide (GMP) is a protein that is found only in the whey from the production of fresh cheese, enzymatically obtained from the coagulation of casein and which is commonly used to adulterate fresh or powdered milk. The aim of this study was to determine the adulteration of milk with cheese whey thought a molecular approach, where the glucomacropeptide was collected by sequential precipitation with trichloroacetic acid (ATC) and detected by polyacrylamidododecylsulfate gel electrophoresis (PAGE-SDS), using samples of fresh milk, intentionally adulterated with serum in the proportion of 0%, 1%, 5%, 10% and 15%. The results obtained showed that the detection of glucomacropeptide by electrophoresis was positive in all samples of adulterated milk, evidencing a band of 20.9 kDa in the reading, corresponding to the molecular weight of the GMP, showing that the technique used determines the adulteration in the milk, in a specific and sensitive way, also shows that in the evaluation of physical-chemical and microbiological parameters of milk, there are no significant differences between treatments, except for the pH that tends to decrease as the percentage of serum in the milk increases.
Mechanical, Microstructural and Mineralogical Analyses of Porous Clay Pots Elaborated with Rice Husks  [PDF]
Yeri Dah-Traoré, Lamine Zerbo, Mohamed Seynou, Raguilnaba Ouedraogo
Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering (JMMCE) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jmmce.2018.63019
Abstract: This paper deals with the elaboration of porous ceramic pots with raw clay materials and rice husks for water filtration. The basic raw clays have been mixed with rice husks at different ratio 10% and 15% weight (wt) and sintering at 1200°C, 1300°C and 1400°C for 30 minutes. The elaborated pots have been tested for their densification properties and filtration flow. The mineralogy and microstructure of pot have been also studied to explain the different results. The pot with 10% wt rice husks and sintering at 1300°C during 30 minutes presents a sufficient porosity and mechanical strength to be used for water filtration.
Characterization of Cellulosic Fibers by FTIR Spectroscopy for Their Further Implementation to Building Materials  [PDF]
Viola Hospodarova, Eva Singovszka, Nadezda Stevulova
American Journal of Analytical Chemistry (AJAC) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ajac.2018.96023
Abstract: Nowadays, the material recycling is a growing trend in development of building materials and therefore using of secondary raw materials for production new building materials is in accordance with sustainable development in civil engineering. Therefore, it is increasingly becoming crucial to accelerate the transition from application of non-renewable sources of raw materials to renewable raw materials. One fast renewable resource is natural plant fibers. The use of the cellulosic fibers as environmentally friendly material in building products contributes to the environmental protection and saves non-renewable resources of raw materials. Wood fibers and recycled cellulose fibers of waste paper appear as suited reinforcing elements for cement-based materials. In this paper, there is used application of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) on cellulose fibers coming from different sources. FTIR spectra of cellulose fiber samples are investigated and compared with reference sample of cellulose.
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