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CURRENT THERAPEUTIC STRATEGY IN DIABETIC NEUROPATHY
Kaur Parminder,Kushwah A.S,Kaur Ravinderpal
International Research Journal of Pharmacy , 2012,
Abstract: Diabetic neuropathy (DN) is a group of multifactorial disorder in diabetic patients, which affects neuronal function of the whole body and is accompanied by nephropathy and angiopathy. Its prevalence increases with duration of diabetes and hyperglycaemia which can induce oxidative stress resulting in activation of multiple pathways which can damage the neurons alone or in combination. Symptoms of DN are prominent early in type 2 than in type 1. Neuropathic pain which can occur continuously only in 20-30% of the patients, otherwise pain was not reported. The drugs available for DN were not able to cure the disease but provide only symptomatic relief and were also associated with major side effects. Current therapy provided in this review alleviates the symptoms in clinical trials and thus will be recommended in order to stop the progression of disease. Despite the recent understanding regarding the pathogenesis of disease, till date only two drugs were approved by FDA for DN, α-lipoic acid is available in several countries and epalrestat in Japan, which is also associated with side effects but they are tolerable.
Status of Herbal Drugs in Cardiovascular Research: A Review
Ravinderpal Kaur *, Kushwah A.S , Parminder Kaur
Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biological Research , 2013,
Abstract: Globally, cardiovascular diseases (CVD) constitute a leading cause of mortality. Heart disease in India occurs 10 to 15 years earlier than in the west. One fifth of the deaths in India are from coronary heart disease (CHD). The global burden of disease due to cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) is escalating, principally due to a sharp rise in the developing countries which are experiencing rapid health transition. More than 2000 plants have been listed in the Traditional (Herbal/Alternative) systems of medicine and some of these are providing comprehensive relief to the people suffering from cardio-vascular diseases, specially “hyperlipidemia” and “ischemic heart disease”. WHO reports indicate that around eighty percent of the global population still relies on botanical drugs and several herbal medicines have advanced to clinical use in modern times. This review work explains chemical and pharmacological status of various cardioprotective plants including phytoconstituents responsible for cardioprotection, pharmacological screening model and mechanism involved in cardioprotection.
Advances in Intrusion Detection System for WLAN  [PDF]
Ravneet Kaur
Advances in Internet of Things (AIT) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ait.2011.13007
Abstract: A wireless network is not as secure as compare the wired network because the data is transferred on air so any intruder can use hacking techniques to access that data. Indeed it is difficult to protect the data and provide the user a secure information system for lifetime. An intrusions detection system aim to detect the different attacks against network and system. An intrusion detection system should be capable for detecting the misuse of the network whether it will be by the authenticated user or by an attacker. Cross layer based technique help to make decision based on two layer physical layer where we compute RSS value and on MAC layer where one compute RTS-CTS time taken. This will reduce the positive false rate.They detect attempts and active misuse either by legitimate users of the information systems or by external. The paper has higlighted the advances in intrusion detection in wireless local area network.
Role of Cross Layer Based Intrusion Detection System for Wireless Domain  [PDF]
Ravneet Kaur
Int'l J. of Communications, Network and System Sciences (IJCNS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ijcns.2012.52010
Abstract: Wireless mesh networks are very common both for organizations and individuals. Many laptops, computers have wireless cards pre-installed for buyer. However a wireless networking has many security issues. An intrusions detection system aim to detect the different attacks against network and system. An intrusion detection system should be capable for detecting the misuse of the network whether it will be by the authenticated user or by an attacker. They detect attempts and active misuse either by legitimate users of the information systems or by external. The present paper deals with cross layer based intrusion detection system for wireless domain—a critical anlaysis. The present paper deals with role of cross layer based intrusion detection system for wireless domain.
Stem Reserve Mobilization and Sink Activity in Wheat under Drought Conditions  [PDF]
Anil K. Gupta, Kamaljit Kaur, Narinder Kaur
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2011.21010
Abstract: The effect of water deficit on stem reserve mobilization and sink activity in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars, viz., C306 (drought tolerant) and PBW343 (drought sensitive) was studied. Drought was maintained in pot raised plants by withholding irrigation at 95 days after sowing (DAS), i.e. just five days before the initiation of anthesis. Drought induced a significant reduction in mean biomass of all the internodes of sensitive cultivar as compared to those of tolerant one. Mobilized dry matter and mobilization efficiency were observed to be higher in the internodes of tolerant cultivar, both under control and stress conditions, which resulted in enhanced translocation of stem reserves to the grains. Water soluble carbohydrates (WSC), which mainly occur as fructans, were observed to be higher in the internodes of tolerant cultivar than those of sensitive one. When drought was applied, fructans were mobilized more effectively from the internodes of tolerant cultivar. A significantly higher sucrose synthase activity in the grains of tolerant cultivar, under drought conditions, increased the sink strength by unloading the assimilates in the sink, thereby increasing further mobilization of assimilates to the grains. Grains of sensitive cultivar attained maturity much earlier as compared to the tolerant one, both under control and stress conditions. The longer duration of grain maturation in tolerant cultivar supported enhanced mobilization of stem reserves, thus restricting heavy decrease in grain yield, under stress conditions, as compared to the sensitive cultivar. It may, therefore, be concluded that certain characteristics viz., enhanced capability of fructan storage, higher mobilization efficiency, stronger sink activity and longer duration of grain maturation might help the drought tolerant cultivar in coping the stress conditions
Body Composition, Dietary Intake and Physical Activity Level of Sedentary Adult Indian Women  [PDF]
Gurpreet Kaur, Kiran Bains, Harpreet Kaur
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2012.311206
Abstract: Age related changes in body composition are associated with long term dietary intake profiles. Age related increase in body fat is primarily attributed to decline in physical activity and basal metabolic rate as well as dietary intake. The study was designed to assess the body composition, dietary intake and physical activity level of sedentary adult women of different age groups. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 152 sedentary adult women comprised of students and faculty from Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana. The relationship of body composition with dietary factors and physical activity level of women in four age groups i.e. 21 - 30, 31 - 40, 41 - 50 and 51 - 60 years was determined. A gradual increase (p ≤ 0.05) in anthropometric and body composition parameters such as weight, waist circumference, hip circumference, body mass index, fat mass and visceral fat rating was observed with the advancement of age. The lean body mass was decreased significantly (p ≤ 0.05) as the age progressed, the values for four age groups being 74.9, 68.9, 62.8 and 60.9%, respectively. Contrary to this fat mass increased with age, the corresponding values for four age groups being 15.7, 21.4, 26.6 and 29.2 kg, respectively. The percent adequacy of protein by four age groups was 69.6, 78.2, 80.0 and 66.3, respectively when compared to RDA while fat intake was much higher i.e. 245.5, 271.8, 288.4 and 250.8%, respectively. The energy intake was inadequate among all age groups, however, a significant (p ≤ 0.05) differ- ence was observed in daily energy consumption between the age groups. The mean physical activity level (PAL) of the subjects ranged between 1.49 - 1.60. The physical activity level values showed that majority of the subjects (87% - 94%) were having sedentary life style. Age is a crucial factor associated with body composition. A high fat mass and low lean body mass of the subjects was observed. Their diets were low in protein but high in fat. Majority of the subjects from different age groups had sedentary life style. A diet with higher protein and lesser fat combined with exercise can help in sustaining optimum body composition.
Rapid and Reliable Method of High-Quality RNA Extraction from Diverse Plants  [PDF]
Saroj Kumar Sah, Gurwinder Kaur, Amandeep Kaur
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2014.521329
Abstract: The isolation of high quality RNA is a crucial technique in plant molecular biology. The quality of RNA determines the reliability of downstream process like real time PCR. In this paper, we reported a high quality RNA extraction protocol for a variety of plant species. Our protocol is time effective than traditional RNA extraction methods. The method takes only an hour to complete the procedure. Spectral measurement and electrophoresis were used to demonstrate RNA quality and quantity. The extracted RNA was further used for cDNA synthesis, expression analysis and copy number determination through Real Time PCR. The results indicate that RNA was of good quality and fit for real time PCR. This high throughput plant RNA extraction protocol can be used to isolate high quality RNA from diverse plants for real time PCR and other downstream applications.
A New Approach to Software Development Fusion Process Model  [PDF]
Rupinder Kaur, Jyotsna Sengupta
Journal of Software Engineering and Applications (JSEA) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jsea.2010.310117
Abstract: There are several software process models that have been proposed and are based on task involved in developing and maintaining software product. The large number of software projects not meeting their expectation in terms of functionality, cost, delivery schedule and effective project management appears to be lacking. In this paper, we present a new software fusion process model, which depicts the essential phases of a software project from initiate stage until the product is retired. Fusion is component based software process model, where each component implements a problem solving model. This approach reduces the risk associated with cost and time, as these risks will be limited to a component only and ensure the overall quality of software system by considering the changing requirements of customer, risk assessment, identification, evaluation and composition of relative concerns at each phase of development process.
Exploring Design Level Class Cohesion Metrics  [PDF]
Kuljit Kaur, Hardeep Singh
Journal of Software Engineering and Applications (JSEA) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jsea.2010.34043
Abstract: In object oriented paradigm, cohesion of a class refers to the degree to which members of the class are interrelated. Metrics have been defined to measure cohesiveness of a class both at design and source code levels. In comparison to source code level class cohesion metrics, only a few design level class cohesion metrics have been proposed. Design level class cohesion metrics are based on the assumption that if all the methods of a class have access to similar para-meter types then they all process closely related information. A class with a large number of parameter types common in its methods is more cohesive than a class with less number of parameter types common in its methods. In this paper, we review the design level class cohesion metrics with a special focus on metrics which use similarity of parameter types of methods of a class as the basis of its cohesiveness. Basically three metrics fall in this category: Cohesion among Methods of a Class (CAMC), Normalized Hamming Distance (NHD), and Scaled NHD (SNHD). Keeping in mind the anomalies in the definitions of the existing metrics, a variant of the existing metrics is introduced. It is named NHD Modified (NHDM). An automated metric collection tool is used to collect the metric data from an open source software program. The metric data is then subjected to statistical analysis.
Analysis of Fusion Process Model—Case Study  [PDF]
Rupinder Kaur, Jyotsna Sengupta
Journal of Software Engineering and Applications (JSEA) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jsea.2012.53019
Abstract: Fusion Process Model is a software process model to enhance the software development process. Fusion process model have five fundamental phases and one fusion process controller to control and co-ordinate the overall development process. Fusion Process Model uses 3C-Model to generalize the process of solving the problem in each phase. 3C-Model, which helps in implementing component based development approach and provides firmer control over the software development process. Because of the component driven approach, the risk associated with cost and time is limited to component only and ensure the overall quality of software system, reduce the development cost and time by considering the changing requirements of customer, risk assessment, identification, evaluation and composition of relative concerns at each phase of development process. We have implemented Fusion Process Model to the design of a real world information system and evaluated this implementation with the initial project estimation.
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