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Functional characterization of L-tryptophan transport across mammalian cornea
Mahendra Singh Rathore,Vipin Bihari Gupta
International Journal of Drug Delivery , 2011,
Abstract: In last few years transporter targeted drug delivery has drawn attention of research to identify and explore various nutrient transport systems including amino acid transporters for better drug delivery. The aim of present research work is to investigate the transport characteristics of L-tryptophan (L-try) across goat cornea. Transport of L-try was investigated using a glass diffusion cell for effect of concentration, pH, presence of other amino acids or metabolic inhibitor or dipeptide and tripeptide. The amount of L-try transported increased as the pH of L-try aqueous solution increased from 5 to 9. Inhibition was observed in L-try transport in absence of sodium ions where L-try solution was made isotonic with dextrose. Amino acids like L-histidine, L-arginine, L-lysine (cationic), L-glutamic acid, L-aspartic acid (anionic), glycine and L-proline (neutral) inhibited the L-try transport as compared to control (L-try alone). In presence of sodium azide and Ouabain the inhibition in L-try transport across goat cornea was observed while no marked inhibition was observed on L-try transport across goat cornea in presence of aspartame and glutathione. The L-try transport was favored up to concentration 1% w/v and at higher pH in presence of sodium ions through excised goat cornea. Functional presence of a sodium dependent L-try transport system as inhibited by ouabain having affinity to cationic and neutral amino acid is evident on goat cornea. Keywords: Cornea; Amino acid; Tryptophan; Transport
Probiotic-assisted colon-specific delivery of diclofenac sodium from guar gum matrix tablets: In vitro evaluation
Ghosh Prashant,Gupta Vipin,Gondoliya Bhavik,Rathore Mahendra
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutics , 2010,
Abstract: Purpose : The aim of present work was to investigate the in vitro release profile of diclofenac sodium from matrix tablets, which were prepared using guar gum with and without probiotics. Methods : Six matrix tablets formulations (F1-F6) of diclofenac sodium containing varying proportions of guar gum, 10-60% of tablet weight were prepared by wet granulation method and evaluated in vitro for their release profile. Four matrix tablets formulations (F7-F10) of diclofenac with guar gum (40%) were prepared incorporating varying concentration of commercial spores of lactobacillus and bifidobacterium species that are commonly found in colon microflora. Results : The tablets having same concentration of guar gum without probiotics (F4) showed a 54.47% cumulative release of diclofenac after 24 hr while that in presence of probiotics (F9) was 73.01%. These drug release studies were conducted without rat caecal content. In another set of experiments, the drug release studies were carried out in presence of rat caecal content. In such experiments, more than 95% drug was released from F4 and F9 formulations after 24 hr. Conclusion : The results showed that commercial probiotics are capable in digesting guar gum. These probiotics may be used to assist in colon delivery of drugs from formulations prepared with guar gum.
Lipoidal Soft Hybrid Biocarriers of Supramolecular Construction for Drug Delivery
Dinesh Kumar,Deepak Sharma,Gurmeet Singh,Mankaran Singh,Mahendra Singh Rathore
ISRN Pharmaceutics , 2012, DOI: 10.5402/2012/474830
Abstract: Lipid-based innovations have achieved new heights during the last few years as an essential component of drug development. The current challenge of drug delivery is liberation of drug agents at the right time in a safe and reproducible manner to a specific target site. A number of novel drug delivery systems has emerged encompassing various routes of administration, to achieve controlled and targeted drug delivery. Microparticulate lipoidal vesicular system represents a unique technology platform suitable for the oral and systemic administration of a wide variety of molecules with important therapeutic biological activities, including drugs, genes, and vaccine antigens. The success of liposomes as drug carriers has been reflected in a number of liposome-based formulations, which are commercially available or are currently undergoing clinical trials. Also, novel lipid carrier-mediated vesicular systems are originated. This paper has focused on the lipid-based supramolecular vesicular carriers that are used in various drug delivery and drug targeting systems. 1. Introduction The turn of century has witnessed a remarkable growth in drug discovery, development, and use. New drug delivery technologies are revolutionizing the development and creating R&D-focused pharmaceutical industries to suit the needs of the modern world. The scenario of pharmaceutical research is being steadily changed, by encouraging development of novel drug delivery of existing drug molecule instead of development of new chemical entities. The novel drug delivery approaches aim to develop a carrier system which can hold the molecule effectively and then navigate them towards the right destination without affecting the physiological conditions of the body. Vesicular system has achieved new heights during the last few years as an essential component of drug development. The phospholipid-mediated drug delivery has emerged as a powerful methodology for the treatment of various pathologies. The therapeutic index of traditional and novel drugs is enhanced via the increase of specificity due to targeting of drugs to a particular tissue, cell or intracellular compartment, the control over release kinetics, the protection of the active agent or a combination of the above [1–3]. From the last two decades, microparticulate lipoidal vesicular systems have been under extensive investigation as carriers for the improved delivery of a broad spectrum of agents, including chemotherapeutic agents, imaging agents, antigens, immunomodulators, chelating compounds, haemoglobin and cofactors, lipids, and
Genetic diversity among Indian phytopathogenic isolates of Fusarium semitectum Berkeley and Ravenel  [PDF]
Avinash Ingle, Mahendra Rai
Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology (ABB) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/abb.2011.23023
Abstract: We report total ten isolates of F. semitectum recovered from different hosts. Identity of these isolates was determined by morphological and cultural characteristics and confirmed by RAPD-PCR analysis using forty random primers. Morphologically all the ten isolates showed similarity, but based on RAPD-PCR analysis, these isolates can be categorized in three groups depending upon similarity co-efficient. Genetic similarity coefficients between pair wise isolates varied from 0.00 to 1.95 based on an unweighted paired group method of arithmetic average (UPGMA) cluster analysis. RAPD-PCR technique can be used as an important tool for the genetic differentiation among isolates of F. semitectum.
Lipomas of the Colon: A Surgical Challenge  [PDF]
Ketan Vagholkar, Mahendra Bendre
International Journal of Clinical Medicine (IJCM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ijcm.2014.56046
Abstract:

Lipomas of the colon are rare benign tumors second only to adenomas in their incidence. They are devoid of malignant potential. They usually become manifest by way of complications ranging from bleeding to acute intestinal obstruction. Radiological investigations may help to confirm the diagnosis in a significant number of non-emergent situations. However, confirmation of diagnosis is invariably done at the time of therapeutic intervention. A proper choice of therapeutic option between endoscopic or open surgical intervention needs to be made for a good outcome.

Small coronary vessel angioplasty: outcomes and technical considerations
Sudhir Rathore
Vascular Health and Risk Management , 2010, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/VHRM.S8161
Abstract: ll coronary vessel angioplasty: outcomes and technical considerations Review (4853) Total Article Views Authors: Sudhir Rathore Published Date October 2010 Volume 2010:6 Pages 915 - 922 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/VHRM.S8161 Sudhir Rathore Department of Cardiology, Atkinson Morley wing, St George’s Healthcare NHS Trust, London, UK Abstract: Small vessel (<3 mm) coronary artery disease is common and has been identified as independent predictor of restenosis after percutaneous coronary intervention. It remains controversial whether bare-metal stent (BMS) implantation in small vessels has an advantage over balloon angioplasty in terms of angiographic and clinical outcomes. Introduction of drug-eluting stent (DES) has resulted in significant reduction in restenosis and the need for repeat revascularization. Several DESs have been introduced resulting in varying reduction in outcomes as compared with BMS. However, their impact on outcomes in small vessels is not clearly known. It is expected that DES could substantially reduce restenosis in smaller vessels. Large, randomized studies are warranted to assess the impact of different DESs on outcomes in patients with small coronary arteries.
Ocular manifestations of epidemic dropsy
Rathore M
Indian Journal of Ophthalmology , 1982,
Abstract:
Small coronary vessel angioplasty: outcomes and technical considerations
Sudhir Rathore
Vascular Health and Risk Management , 2010,
Abstract: Sudhir RathoreDepartment of Cardiology, Atkinson Morley wing, St George’s Healthcare NHS Trust, London, UKAbstract: Small vessel (<3 mm) coronary artery disease is common and has been identified as independent predictor of restenosis after percutaneous coronary intervention. It remains controversial whether bare-metal stent (BMS) implantation in small vessels has an advantage over balloon angioplasty in terms of angiographic and clinical outcomes. Introduction of drug-eluting stent (DES) has resulted in significant reduction in restenosis and the need for repeat revascularization. Several DESs have been introduced resulting in varying reduction in outcomes as compared with BMS. However, their impact on outcomes in small vessels is not clearly known. It is expected that DES could substantially reduce restenosis in smaller vessels. Large, randomized studies are warranted to assess the impact of different DESs on outcomes in patients with small coronary arteries.Keywords: small coronary arteries, coronary artery disease, stent, drug-eluting stent, restenosis
PLANTEROSOMES: A POTENTIAL PHYTO-PHOSPHOLIPID CARRIERS FOR THE BIOAVAILABILITY ENHANCEMENT OF HERBAL EXTRACTS
Priyanka Rathore
International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research , 2012,
Abstract: Planterosomes, term “PLANTERO” means plant while “SOME” means cell-like. A novel emerging technique applied to phytopharmaceutical for the enhancement of bioavailability of herbal extract for medicinal applications. Since the two major limiting factors for molecules to pass the biological membrane for their absorption in the blood stream mainly includes lipid solubility and molecular sizes. There are many plant extracts having excellent bioactivity in vitro but low or less in vivo because of their poor lipid solubility and improper size of the molecule or both which result in poor absorption and bioavailability of constituents from plant extract and are destroyed in the gastric fluids when taken orally. Planterosomes are recent advanced forms of herbal formulations that have enhanced absorption rate, producing better bioavailability than conventional herbal extracts. Since they have improved pharmacological and pharmacokinetic parameters, they can be used in the treatment of the acute and chronic liver disease. Planterosomes are prepared by non conventional methods. Planterosomes absorption in GIT is greater resulting in increased plasma level than individual component. They act as a bridge between novel delivery system and conventional delivery system. Phospholipids molecule acting as vital carrier made up of water soluble head and two fat soluble tails, due to this nature they possess dual solubility and thus acting as an effective emulsifier. These drug-phospholipids complex can be formulated in the form of solutions, suspensions, emulsions, syrup, lotion, gel, cream, aqueous microdispersions, pill, capsule, powder, granules and chewable tablets. Planterosomes just like Phytosomes technology effectively enhanced the bioavailability of many popular herbal extracts including milk thistle, Ginkgo biloba, grape seed and ginseng etc.
AN OVERVIEW ON DYSLEXIA AND ITS TREATMENT
Swati Rathore
Journal of Global Pharma Technology , 2010, DOI: 10.1234/jgpt.v2i4.179
Abstract:
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