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Search Results: 1 - 8 of 8 matches for " Rannveig Nordhagen "
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Kvinners og menns helse i historisk perspektiv
Rannveig Nordhagen
Norsk Epidemiologi , 2009,
Abstract: SAMMENDRAG Det f des flere gutter enn jenter, men det er helt fra fosterlivet, f dselen og videre i livet en overd delighet av gutter/menn. Dette m nsteret har holdt seg i dette hundre ret, men ikke for alle sykdommer. Det gjelder blant annet ikke for tuberkulose hos yngre, som i begynnelsen av hundre ret var den st rste trusselen mot liv og helse. Hvis vi g r lenger tilbake enn dette hundre ret synes ogs kvinner ha hatt hardere livsvilk r og st rre d delighet enn menn. Kvinners totale d delighet har imidlertid alltid ligget under menns i v rt land, skal vi d mme etter den f rste statistikk fra Eilert Sundt i midten av forrige rhundre. Overd delighet av gutter allerede i spedbarnsalderen har stor innvirkning p den gjennomsnittlige levetid, som er omtrent seks r h yere for kvinner enn menn. Overd delighet av menn i middel- og eldre alder skyldes for en stor del hjerte/kar-sykdommer, og f rer til et kende sprik mellom kj nnene i forventet gjenv rende levetid. I motsetning til dette bildet, rapporteres det en st rre sykelighet av ”ikke d delige” lidelser for kvinner, spesielt innenfor muskel-skjelettlidelser. Kvinner rapporterer ogs st rre sykelighet av hjerte/kar-sykdommer, selv om de har mye lavere d delighet for disse sykdommene. Det f rer til st rre sykefrav r og st rre andel uf retrygdede. Dette skjer ogs i de yngre aldersgruppene, og skyldes ikke at kvinner blir eldre enn menn. rsakene til kj nnsforskjellene i sykelighet og d delighet er gjenstand for mange spekulasjoner, uten at man sikkert vet hva det skyldes. Innvirkning av atferdsm nster og faktorer av biologisk, genetisk eller sosio konomisk natur er diskutert. Noen rapporter viser at hvis man korrigerer for forskjeller i blant annet forhold i arbeidslivet, forsvinner kj nnsforskjellene i forekomst at de mindre alvorlige lidelser. Nordhagen R. Women's and men's health in a historical perspective. Nor J Epidemiol
Ulikhet i helse og helsetjenestebruk hos nordiske barn etter foreldrenes utdannelse
Else-Karin Gr?holt,Rannveig Nordhagen
Norsk Epidemiologi , 2009,
Abstract: -
Er prenatale eller postnatale forhold viktigst for voksen helse? Eksemplet forh yet blodtrykk
Hans Magne Gravseth,Petter Kristensen,Rannveig Nordhagen
Norsk Epidemiologi , 2009,
Abstract: Artikkelen tar utgangspunkt i to forskjellige forklaringsmodeller for voksen sykdom: programmering og livsl pstiln rming. Programmering inneb rer en p virkning i en tidlig kritisk fase som resulterer i en varig skade, mens en livsl pstiln rming er studien av langsiktige effekter av p virkninger gjennom alle livsfaser. Disse to m tene forklare voksen sykdom p blir demonstrert ved bruke eksemplet forh yet blodtrykk. Vi oppsummerer funn i nyere studier som belyser hvordan determinanter i ulike livsfaser, s rlig i de f rste leve r, kan p virke senere blodtrykk. Man finner gjennomg ende en svak invers sammenheng mellom f dselsvekt og senere blodtrykk, og det er vist en svak gunstig effekt p blodtrykket av bli brystern rt. Tidlig innhentingsvekst er hovedsakelig vist ha en uheldig virkning p senere blodtrykk; det kan imidlertid v re fordelaktig i utviklingsland. BMI er sterkt assosiert med blodtrykk hos b de voksne og barn. Enkelte har ogs funnet en interaksjon mellom f dselsvekt og voksen BMI, med sterkest invers sammenheng mellom f dselsvekst og senere blodtrykk hos de med en h y voksen BMI. Siden b de blodtrykk og BMI sporer fra barndom til voksen alder, er tidlig forebygging viktig. Blant voksne er det tendens til en sosial gradient i blodtrykket, i hovedsak mediert gjennom tradisjonelle risikofaktorer. Ensidig fokusering p s vel programmering som p voksenlivets risikofaktorer har ofte begrenset forklaringsverdi. I en livsl pstiln rming, som har kommet som en respons p dette, tar man hensyn til b de programmering, livsstilsfaktorer og sosiale forhold. The paper describes two different explanation models for adult disease: programming and the life course approach. In programming, there is a stimulus or insult at an early critical period of development that has lasting significance, whereas a life course approach is the study of long-term effects of exposures during all stages of life. These two ways of explaining adult disease are demonstrated by using elevated blood pressure as an example. We summarize findings in newer studies on how determinants in different stages of life, especially during the earliest years, may influence later blood pressure. In general, a weak inverse association between birth weight and later blood pressure is found. Breast-feeding is shown to have a weak favourable effect on blood pressure. Early catch-up growth is generally seen having an adverse effect on later blood pressure; it could have some benefits in developing countries, however. BMI is at all ages strongly associated with blood pressure. An interaction
Biobanken i Den norske mor og barn unders kelsen
Kjersti S. R?nningen,Liv Paltid,Helle M. Meltzer,Rannveig Nordhagen
Norsk Epidemiologi , 2009,
Abstract: Biobanker for langtidslagring av biologisk materiale blir en viktigere og viktigere del av epidemiologiske studier. I planleggingen av en biobank er det en rekke avgj relser som m tas for sikre best mulig oppslutning b de med hensyn til f inn s mange pr ver som mulig og oppn best mulig pr vekvalitet b de p kort og lang sikt. Den norske mor og barn unders kelsen (MoBa) skal inkludere 100 000 svangerskap og f lge mor, far og barn i lang tid fremover. Innsamlingen av data startet i ett fylke i 1999, og omfatter i dag hele landet. Siden det tas blodpr ver to ganger fra hver kvinne, blodpr ve fra far og navlesnorsblod fra barna, betydde dette at Biobanken for MoBa m tte planlegges for kunne motta og langtidslagre over 380 000 pr vesett. Ved Biobanken ved Nasjonalt folkehelseinstitutt lagres fullblod, plasma, urin, DNA og spesialr r til senere RNA isolering. Rekruttering til MoBa foreg r ved 52 av landets sykehus. Pr vene sendes per post til Biobanken ved Folkehelseinstituttet for prosessering. Per januar 2006 er over 200 000 pr vesett lagret ved Biobanken. Denne artikkelen gir en kortfattet oversikt over oppbyggingen av Biobanken og logistikken knyttet til innsamlingen av biologisk materiale, fra blodet tappes til det er sikkert lagret og klart til tas ut p et senere tidspunkt, kanskje mange r inn i fremtiden. The biobank in The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study.Long term storage of biological material is becoming a critical component of many epidemiological studies. In designing specimen repositories, efforts need to be made to balance future needs for samples with logistical constraints necessary to process and store samples in a timely fashion. The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study was started in 1999 and aims at including 100,000 pregnancies, and will follow mother, father and child for many years to come. The Biobank was faced with the challenge to receive and store over 380,000 biological samples from pregnant women, their partners and their children for up to 100 years. Biological specimens include whole blood, plasma, DNA and urine. The samples are collected at 52 hospitals in all parts of Norway and are mailed to the central Biobank in Oslo for processing and long term storage. As of January 2006, over 200,000 sample sets have been collected and stored at the Biobank. Here we describe the current Biobank structure and present the logistics for sample handling from the drawing of blood in the hospitals till retrieval of samples many years into the future.
Coverage of Cervical Cancer Screening in 57 Countries: Low Average Levels and Large Inequalities
Emmanuela Gakidou ,Stella Nordhagen,Ziad Obermeyer
PLOS Medicine , 2008, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.0050132
Abstract:
Dynamic scaling in stick-slip friction
J. Feder,H. Nordhagen,W. A. Watters
Physics , 2005,
Abstract: We introduce a generalized homogeneous function to describe the joint probability density for magnitude and duration of events in self-organized critical systems (SOC). It follows that the cumulative distributions of magnitude and of duration are power-laws with exponents $\alpha$ and $\tau$ respectively. A power-law relates duration and magnitude (exponent $\gamma$) on the average. The exponents satisfy the dynamic scaling relation $\alpha=\gamma\tau$. The exponents classify SOC systems into universality classes that do not depend on microscopic details provided that both $\alpha<1$ and $\tau<1$. We also present new experimental results on the stick-slip motion of a sandpaper slowly pulled across a carpet that are consistent with our criteria for SOC systems. Our experiments, as well as experiments by others, satisfy our dynamic scaling relation. We discuss the relevance of our results to earthquake statistics.
The Influence of Coastal Access on Isotope Variation in Icelandic Arctic Foxes
Fredrik Dalerum, Anna Perbro, Rannveig Magnusdottir, Pall Hersteinsson, Anders Angerbj?rn
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0032071
Abstract: To quantify the ecological effects of predator populations, it is important to evaluate how population-level specializations are dictated by intra- versus inter-individual dietary variation. Coastal habitats contain prey from the terrestrial biome, the marine biome and prey confined to the coastal region. Such habitats have therefore been suggested to better support predator populations compared to habitats without coastal access. We used stable isotope data on a small generalist predator, the arctic fox, to infer dietary strategies between adult and juvenile individuals with and without coastal access on Iceland. Our results suggest that foxes in coastal habitats exhibited a broader isotope niche breadth compared to foxes in inland habitats. This broader niche was related to a greater diversity of individual strategies rather than to a uniform increase in individual niche breadth or by individuals retaining their specialization but increasing their niche differentiation. Juveniles in coastal habitats exhibited a narrower isotope niche breadth compared to both adults and juveniles in inland habitats, and juveniles in inland habitats inhabited a lower proportion of their total isotope niche compared to adults and juveniles from coastal habitats. Juveniles in both habitats exhibited lower intra-individual variation compared to adults. Based on these results, we suggest that foxes in both habitats were highly selective with respect to the resources they used to feed offspring, but that foxes in coastal habitats preferentially utilized marine resources for this purpose. We stress that coastal habitats should be regarded as high priority areas for conservation of generalist predators as they appear to offer a wide variety of dietary options that allow for greater flexibility in dietary strategies.
Productivity of goats and their contribution to household food security in high potential areas of East Africa: A case of Mgeta, Tanzania
LO Eik, GC Kifaro, SM Kiango, M Nordhagen, J Safari, LA Mtenga
African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development , 2008,
Abstract: This study evaluated smallholder production systems in the rural areas of Tanzania and their contribution to household protein supply. Animals kept on the farms were either a combination of dairy and meat goats, dairy goats only, meat goats only or dairy and meat goats in combination with pigs. Vegetable and fruit for sale and maize were the most important produce on the farms. Before introduction of dairy goats, meat goats and pigs were kept on farms with manure being an important output from the latter. The analysis of the systems was based on data collected on goat production performance in 1996 and a survey conducted in 2003 in four villages in Mgeta Division of Mvomero District, Morogoro, Tanzania. The systems involved pure Small East African goats, Norwegian goats and their crosses. Results indicated that lactation yield increased with increasing proportions of dairy goat genes with the purebred Norwegian dairy goats producing the highest amount of milk. However, these goats had higher kid mortality rate compared to the other genetic groups. The analysis of the production systems indicated wide variation with respect to protein supply. Estimated amount of animal protein available for human consumption within households was highest in the production system in which dairy goats were kept (22g/person/day) while the system with meat goats only supplied 1 g/person/day. It is concluded that the introduction of dairy goats has improved nutrition in Tanzanian households keeping dairy goats. Intake of animal protein is generally low in villages not keeping dairy goats in Morogoro Region, Tanzania. This research suggests smallholder dairy goat keeping being an effective tool for improving the diet. Livestock products not only provide high-value protein but are also important sources of a wide range of essential micronutrients such as iron and zinc, and vitamins such as vitamin A. In addition to milk and meat, manure is also an important by-product for farmers in this area, and is used to fertilize vegetable plots. For the large majority of people in the world, particularly in developing countries, livestock remains a desired source of food for nutritional value and taste. Multipurpose goats can be recommended introduced, particularly in low-income household in order to maximize food production and security.
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