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first time, we report photoacoustic (PA) signal detection in a cell placed
within the Michelson interferometer cavity in an attempt to relate
photoacoustic effect to the Michelson fringe shift as a result of changes in
the cell. Both detection schemes were investigated using IR absorption and
their sensitivities compared. Signals related to Michelson interferometer
fringe and PA effect have shown good correlations with each other using
different samples including some essential oils and their corresponding plant
part from which the essential oil is usually obtained. Results were encouraging
and will open the door widely to use the combined Michelson interferometer-photoacoustic
spectroscopy (PAS) in trace gas detection for different applications.
In this paper, I
have provided a brief introduction on M?bius transformation and explored some
basic properties of this kind of transformation. For instance, M?bius
transformation is classified according to the invariant points. Moreover, we
can see that M?bius transformation is hyperbolic isometries that form a group
action PSL (2, R) on the upper half
Endometriosis affects up to 1 every 5 women at their reproductive age, with variable
and complex symptomatology. Patients may be asymptomatic but may have pain
episodes or subfertility. Its negative impact is on patients’ health and
quality of life. Objective: it was to investigate the serum and peritoneal
fluid (PF) concentrations of Angiopoietin- 2, Interleukin-1β, and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor, aiming to evaluate their
diagnostic performance in endometriosis. Methods: Serum and peritoneal
fluid samples were taken from 112 women undergoing laparoscopy for infertility,
pelvic pain or adnexal masses. 61 diagnosed with endometriosis and 51 controlled.
Primary outcome was to estimate serum and PF concentrations of Angio-2, IL-1β and VEGF and secondarily correlate
these concentrations to disease stages thus assuming their diagnostic potential.
Results: Significant differences were found between patients and control as
regards serum and PF concentration of all studied markers except serum IL-1β. Serum Angio-2 and PF VEGF showed a significantly higher level in more advanced stages of endometriosis. PF VEGF
showed a positively significant correlation with the stage of the disease, spearman
coefficient t = 0.442 p = 0.014. PF concentrations of Angio-2 and Serum VEGF
did not show significant pattern changes with stage-related levels. Diagnostic
potential of serum and PF concentrations of the 3 markers were assessed by the
ROC curve. Angio-2 proved an excellent diagnostic ability for endometriosis.
PF and serum VEGF proved an equal diagnostic performance, whereas, PF IL-1β was the least efficient. Based on
the results, we suggested preliminary serum threshold values for these markers
to be used as diagnostic or follow-up landmarks with relatively acceptable
sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values.
Conclusion: Non-invasive predictive biomarkers for endometriosis were Serum Angio-2,
IL-1β, and VEGF independently or in
combination with the estimated threshold values. Serum Angio-2 merit is
considered as a novel marker for endometriosis due to its diagnostic power.