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OALib Journal期刊

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Preparation and characterization of diltiazem nanocapsules: Influence of various polymers
Kumar G,Bhat Amit,Rani Shoba
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutics , 2010,
Abstract: Nanocapsules are submicroscopic colloidal drug delivery system and are composed of an oily or an aqueous core surrounded by a thin polymeric membrane. Nanocapsules have recently generated lot of interest in the area of controlled release with availability of biocompatible and biodegradable polymers. Nanocapsules of diltiazem were prepared with an objective of achieving controlled release of the drug in order to reduce the frequency of administration of drug, to obtain more uniform plasma concentration, and to improve patient compliance. Diltiazem was chosen as the model drug, as it is widely used in the treatment of chronic conditions such as hypertension and angina which require prolonged therapy. Nanocapsules were prepared by the interfacial deposition technique by taking different concentrations of polymers and phospholipid mixture. Five best formulations were selected based on the encapsulation efficiency. The morphology of nanocapsules was assessed by scanning electron microscope and they were found to be smooth, spherical, and discrete. The particles followed normal size distribution with particle size in the range of 20 to 380 nm. In vitro release studies indicated prolonged release for all polymers for 48 hours, with polycaprolactone as the best polymer releasing about 95 to 98%. The formulations were stable at 4°C but unstable at 25°C, and hence recommended for storage in refrigeration. Thus, it can be concluded that nanocapsules are a useful technology for controlled release of diltiazem.
Breast calcifications in women with end-stage renal disease on maintenance hemodialysis
Sivakumar V,Rani Ch. Shoba,Lakshmi A,Lakshmi B
Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation , 2011,
Abstract:
Bioinformatics Education—Perspectives and Challenges
Shoba Ranganathan
PLOS Computational Biology , 2005, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pcbi.0010052
Abstract:
Bioinformatics education--perspectives and challenges.
Ranganathan Shoba
PLOS Computational Biology , 2005,
Abstract:
Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome in Urban India
Apurva Sawant,Ranjit Mankeshwar,Swarup Shah,Rani Raghavan,Gargi Dhongde,Himanshu Raje,Shoba D'souza,Aarti Subramanium,Pradnya Dhairyawan,Seema Todur,Tester F. Ashavaid
Cholesterol , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/920983
Abstract: Background. Metabolic syndrome (MS) is characterised by a constellation of individual risk factors of cardiovascular disease. Materials and Methods. The current study was a population-based survey of cohort of subjects in the metropolitan city of Mumbai. A total of 548 subjects, who attended the CARDIAC evaluation camp, were recruited in the study. Participants with complete fasting lipid profiles, blood glucose, and known cardiac risk markers were evaluated. Results. On applying modified NCEP ATP III, we found out that nearly 95% of the subjects had at least one abnormal parameter. We found the prevalence of MS in our study population to be 19.52%. The prevalence of MS in males was almost double than females (=.008). The overall prevalence of BMI (>23 kg/m2) was 79.01%. Increased hypertriglyceridemia and decreased levels of HDL-C were found to be more in males (<.0001). Conclusion. The low percentage of subjects with normal and controlled parameters suggests that there is a need for awareness programs and lifestyle interventions for the prevention and control of MS.
Secretome: clues into pathogen infection and clinical applications
Shoba Ranganathan, Gagan Garg
Genome Medicine , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/gm113
Abstract: The secretome constitutes the entire set of secreted proteins, representing up to 30% of the proteome of an organism [1], and includes functionally diverse classes of molecules such as cytokines, chemokines, hormones, digestive enzymes, antibodies, extracellular proteinases, morphogens, toxins and antimicrobial peptides. Some of these proteins are involved in a host of diverse and vital biological processes, including cell adhesion, cell migration, cell-cell communication, differentiation, proliferation, morphogenesis, survival and defense, virulence factors in bacteria and immune responses [2]. Excretory/secretory proteins (ESPs) circulating throughout the body of an organism (for example, in the extracellular space) are localized to or released from the cell surface, making them readily accessible to drugs and/or the immune system. These characteristics make these molecules extremely attractive targets for novel vaccines and therapeutics, which are currently the focus of major drug discovery research programs [2-4]. In particular, proteins secreted by pathogens (bacterial, protozoan, fungal, viral or helminth) mediate interactions with the host, because these are present or active at the interface between the pathogen and the host cells, and can regulate or mediate the host responses and/or cause disease [5,6].A brief overview of the currently available methods for generating and analyzing pathogen secretome data is presented, followed by a critical analysis of their contribution to our understanding of pathogen infection and host responses, especially in comparison to other genome analysis approaches. Some early successes in the applications of secretome data in the areas of therapeutic target identification, diagnostic tools and pathogen control are also presented.Genome sequence analysis is based on transcript profiling and computational analysis. The computational prediction of secreted proteins seeks to identify the presence of signal peptides, which are cons
Structural diversity of biologically interesting datasets: a scaffold analysis approach
Varun Khanna, Shoba Ranganathan
Journal of Cheminformatics , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1758-2946-3-30
Abstract: In this study, we note a two-fold enrichment of metabolite scaffolds in drug dataset (42%) as compared to currently used lead libraries (23%). We also note that only a small percentage (5%) of natural product scaffolds space is shared by the lead dataset. We have identified specific scaffolds that are present in metabolites and natural products, with close counterparts in the drugs, but are missing in the lead dataset. To determine the distribution of compounds in physicochemical property space we analyzed the molecular polar surface area, the molecular solubility, the number of rings and the number of rotatable bonds in addition to four well-known Lipinski properties. Here, we note that, with only few exceptions, most of the drugs follow Lipinski's rule. The average values of the molecular polar surface area and the molecular solubility in metabolites is the highest while the number of rings is the lowest. In addition, we note that natural products contain the maximum number of rings and the rotatable bonds than any other dataset under consideration.Currently used lead libraries make little use of the metabolites and natural products scaffold space. We believe that metabolites and natural products are recognized by at least one protein in the biosphere therefore, sampling the fragment and scaffold space of these compounds, along with the knowledge of distribution in physicochemical property space, can result in better lead libraries. Hence, we recommend the greater use of metabolites and natural products while designing lead libraries. Nevertheless, metabolites have a limited distribution in chemical space that limits the usage of metabolites in library design.An established idea of similarity-based virtual screening is that similar structures tend to have similar properties [1]. Diversifying the compound library collection for in silico and in vitro high-throughput screening without compromising biological activity remains an active research area. Chemical space i
Misdiagnosis of tuberculosis in patients with lymphoma
B Puvaneswaran, B Shoba
South African Medical Journal , 2013,
Abstract: Background. Since 1970, the incidence of lymphoma, a potentially curable disease, has risen by 80% in the general population and in HIVpositive patients. Given its clinical similarities to tuberculosis (TB), lymphoma may be misdiagnosed and patients treated unnecessarily with potentially harmful TB medication. Objectives. (i) To identify patients with a histological diagnosis of lymphoma who were previously misdiagnosed with TB; and (ii) to raise awareness of lymphoma as a differential diagnosis when TB has not been confirmed. Method. A retrospective study was conducted at Ngwelezane Hospital in rural KwaZulu-Natal, which serves an estimated population of 3 million. Using clinic notes and a questionnaire for patients attending the lymphoma clinic, we identified patients who had undergone failed TB treatment in the 12 months before their histological confirmation of lymphoma. Results. Twenty-one patients were included; 18 had been diagnosed with TB in the 12 months preceding the histological confirmation of lymphoma. All these patients subjectively reported TB treatment failure. Conclusions. Delay in diagnosing lymphoma or its misdiagnosis is an important clinical problem in South Africa, with the condition often misdiagnosed as TB. This subjects patients to incorrect treatment and potential harm. We propose an algorithm for the work-up of patients presenting with lymphadenopathy +/- constitutional symptoms, to assist diagnosis and management in resource-poor settings.
Performance Improvement of MIMO OFDM Systems through Channel Estimation
B Shoba,K Jayanthi
International Journal of Wireless & Mobile Networks , 2012,
Abstract: A brief overview of MIMO-OFDM system design has been discussed and its key techniques areintroduced. It also focuses on OFDM-based air interface, spatial channel modelling, transceiver design,channel estimation and minimizing the BER ratio by modifying the Maximum Likelihood function throughchannel estimation.
Beyond the Small-Angle Approximation For MBR Anisotropy from Seeds
Albert Stebbins,Shoba Veeraraghavan
Physics , 1994, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.51.1465
Abstract: In this paper we give a general expression for the energy shift of massless particles travelling through the gravitational field of an arbitrary matter distribution as calculated in the weak field limit in an asymptotically flat space-time. It is {\it not} assumed that matter is non-relativistic. We demonstrate the surprising result that if the matter is illuminated by a uniform brightness background that the brightness pattern observed at a given point in space-time (modulo a term dependent on the oberver's velocity) depends only on the matter distribution on the observer's past light-cone. These results apply directly to the cosmological MBR anisotropy pattern generated in the immediate vicinity of of an object like a cosmic string or global texture. We apply these results to cosmic strings, finding a correction to previously published results for in the small-angle approximation. We also derive the full-sky anisotropy pattern of a collapsing texture knot.
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