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Sense of Coherence in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease
Randi Opheim,May Solveig Fagermoen,Lars-Petter Jelsness-J?rgensen,Tomm Bernklev,Bj?rn Moum
Gastroenterology Research and Practice , 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/989038
Abstract: Background and Aim. Sense of coherence (SOC) is a health-promoting concept reflecting a person’s view of life and response to stressful situations and may be of importance in coping with chronic illness. The aim of this study was to explore associations between SOC and sociodemographic, disease-related, and personal characteristics in a sample of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Methods. Measures included sociodemographic and disease-related data, the Sense of Coherence Scale, General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSE), and Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS-5). Results. In total, 428 IBD patients had evaluable questionnaires (response rate 93%). The overall mean SOC total score was 66.25 (SD 11.47) and with no statistically significant difference between patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) and patients with Crohn’s disease (CD). In the multivariate analyses, higher GSE scores were significantly associated with higher SOC scores and higher FSS-5 scores were significantly associated with lower SOC scores in both UC and CD. Conclusion. GSE and FSS-5 contributed more to the variance in SOC than sociodemographic and disease-related variables. Longitudinal studies are warranted to investigate the value of SOC as a predictor of disability, medication adherence, coping behavior, and health-related quality of life. 1. Introduction The inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), Crohn’s disease (CD), and ulcerative colitis (UC) are chronic inflammatory disorders of the gastrointestinal tract of unknown etiology. The course of disease is characterized by periods of symptom flares and periods with quiescent disease. Common symptoms are diarrhea, bloody stools, fever, fatigue, and abdominal pain [1–3]. As with many chronic diseases, IBD patients’ quality of life and psychosocial function have been shown to be influenced by their disease [4–8]. Further, patients diagnosed with IBD at a young age and with a severe disease course have an increased risk for work disability [9]. Coping with a chronic illness such as IBD involves complex cognitive, physical, emotional, psychological, and behavioral processes [5]. Patients must be able to manage complex medication regimens, find meaning in and adapt to changeable life conditions, and deal with emotions associated with the fact that the disease is not curable. The unpredictable disease course also poses challenges for the patients’ daily life as well their life in general [10]. Given the complexity of living with a chronic illness, personal resources may be of importance for patients’ well-being, quality of life, and ability to
Forbidden Fruit Tastes the Sweetest—A Study of Norwegians’ Consumption Pattern of Chocolate, Sweets, Salty Snacks, Soft Drinks and the Like  [PDF]
Annechen Bahr Bugge, Randi Lavik
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2012.312212
Abstract: The theme of this study is eating and drinking patterns for products of which the health authorities want the Norwegian people to reduce their consumption. Although consumption development has shown positive trends over the past few years, Norwegians still have a much higher intake of such products than what is advisable. The study showed that only a small proportion had not eaten chocolate, sweets, sweet pastries, salty snacks etc. in the last seven days. Young people, men, people with low education and people living in households with children had the highest eating and drinking frequency of these kinds of products. Gender and age had the strongest impact on eating and drinking frequency. However, women had a higher eating rate of chocolate and sweets, and men had a higher eating and drinking frequency of salty snacks and sugary soda. People with low education had a considerably higher frequency of drinking sugary soda than people with high education. Among those who ate these products weekly, there were many who expressed that they would prefer to avoid such products, but that they were often tempted. Among those who ate these products a few times a month or less, few said that they did not like chocolate, sweets, etc. The main reason for having a relatively low eating and drinking frequency was that they perceived such products as unhealthy and fattening. Although there were only a few in the group of respondents who were concerned with healthy eating that had not eaten any of the listed products in the past seven days, this group had a significantly lower frequency of eating chocolate, sweets, etc. than the group that was not concerned with this. It was also clear that people who were health conscious to a greater extent limited eating of such products to the weekends and special occasions than those who were not. In order to succeed in reducing eating and drinking frequency of these products, it will be necessary to draw attention to product availability and social acceptance.
Reviewing the reviewers: the vague accountability of research ethics committees
Randi Shaul
Critical Care , 2002, DOI: 10.1186/cc1469
Abstract: Although the need to review the ethics of research conducted in humans is generally accepted, there is less agreement over the extent to which reviewers are responsible or answerable for the decisions they make. What is the nature of reviewer accountability? RECs, like their US and Canadian counterparts (institutional review boards and research ethics boards, respectively), are responsible for assessing human research protocols for conformity to ethical principles. (For the purposes of this commentary, the term 'REC' will be used to refer to research ethics committees, institutional review boards and research ethics boards.) This role is currently strained by increases in the number of protocols that are in need of review, the scientific and funding complexities of the protocols [1,2], and a lack of clear standards for assessment of ethics [3]. To maintain or, in many cases, to restore public and professional trust in the ethics of human research, such as that done in critical care units, it is imperative that steps be taken to clarify the accountability of RECs and their individual members.Although human research has yielded phenomenal health and social benefits, the global scientific community has an unfortunate track record of harmful and exploitative research studies, in which the welfare of participants was sacrificed to competing interests of the investigators (for reviews of cases see Katz [4], Jones [5] and Weijer [6]). In recent years, even in some of the world's most prestigious research centres there have been many examples of noncompliance with ethical principles, resulting in preventable serious adverse events and inappropriate recruiting of subjects [7].Since World War II there have been several attempts, at both national and international levels [8,9,10,11,12,13], to articulate ethical principles for the conduct of research that involves humans. These codes and guidelines typically call upon RECs to approve, reject, or demand modifications to protocol
Museum theriological collections for the study of genetic diversity
Ettore Randi
Hystrix : the Italian Journal of Mammalogy , 2008, DOI: 10.4404/hystrix-18.2-4400
Abstract: Molecular methods to analyse DNA variability are opening new perspectives in the role played by museums in biodiversity research. DNA can be extracted from specific tissue collections, as well as from traditional voucher specimens. Ancient and museum DNA research produce valuable information for defining the phylogenetic positions of extinct taxa, the reconstruction of molecular and organismal evolution in extinct species, the characterization of extinct populations, including animal diets or microbial infections. Historical DNA samples are important sources of information also for conservation and evolutionary studies. In this paper, the methods used for ancient DNA analysis and the main results reported in published studies are reviewed. Riassunto Le collezioni teriologiche museali e lo studio della variabilità genetica. I metodi di analisi del DNA aprono nuove prospettive per il ruolo dei musei nello studio della biodiversità. Il DNA può essere estratto da collezioni di tessuti, oppure dai tradizionali materiali museali. Le ricerche che utilizzano DNA antico e museale possono produrre informazioni utili per definire la posizione filogenetica di taxa, la ricostruzione dell’evoluzione molecolare e fenotipica di specie e la caratterizzazione di popolazioni estinte, incluse l’identificazione della dieta e la presenza di malattie infettive. L’analisi del DNA estratto da campioni storici può fornire informazioni importanti anche per ricerche di biologia della conservazione. Si analizzano i metodi utilizzati per l’analisi del DNA antico, corredati da un breve excursus dei risultati delle principali ricerche disponibili in letteratura.
Filogeografia di alcune specie di mammiferi in Europa
Ettore Randi
Hystrix : the Italian Journal of Mammalogy , 2003, DOI: 10.4404/hystrix-14.0-4189
Abstract: La filogeografia si occupa dello studio della distribuzione geografica delle linee genetiche che sono presenti nelle popolazioni all'interno di una specie o in gruppi di specie filogeneticamente vicine. In Europa la distribuzione geografica della diversità genetica viene interpretata nel contesto dei cambiamenti climatici del Pleistocene, assumendo che i ripetuti cicli glaciali ed interglaciali abbiano determinato profonde trasformazioni nella distribuzione delle comunità e delle singole specie. Evidenze paleoecologiche e molecolari suggeriscono che le popolazioni di specie adattate ai climi temperati siano sopravissute alle glaciazioni in aree rifugio meridionali (sia nelle regioni Mediterranee che in Europa orientale), acquisendo caratteristiche genetiche peculiari. Nel corso dei periodi interglaciali, queste popolazioni hanno ricolonizzato l'Europa centrale e settentrionale, seguendo vie di dispersione che sono ricostruibili tramite l'analisi di specifici marcatori genetici. L'analisi filogeografica indica che ogni specie ha la propria storia. Tuttavia è possibile individuare alcuni "modelli" di filogeografia dei mammiferi in Europa: il modello classico dei rifugi meridionali (esemplificato dal caso del riccio, Erinaceus europaeus); un modello caratterizzato da successive fasi di colonizzazione da aree di speciazione in Eurasia (come nel caso del camoscio, Rupicapra), un modello caratterizzato dalla dislocazione settentrionale di intere popolazioni che scompaiono completamente dalle aree rifugio (come è avvenuto in alcune specie di chirotteri e di specie di ungulati a distribuzione settentrionale). Esistono, infine, casi di apparente mancanza di struttura filogeografica, come, ad esempio, nel caso del lupo e di altre specie ad elevato potenziale di dispersione e di flusso genico. L'analisi filogeografica consente di identificare alcune popolazioni di mammiferi distribuite nelle presunte aree di rifugio, comprendenti l'Italia centro-meridionale e la Sicilia, che hanno caratteristiche genetiche (e non solo genetiche) peculiari. L'analisi filogeografica contribuisce ad una miglior definizione della biodiversità e consente di ricostruire la storia delle popolazioni che si sono differenziate nel corso del Pleistocene.
Digitizing migration heritage: A case study of a minority museum
Randi Marselis
MedieKultur : Journal of Media and Communication Research , 2011,
Abstract: Museums are increasingly digitizing their collections and making them available to the public on-line. Creating such digital resources may become means for social inclusion. For museums that acknowledge migration history and cultures of ethnic minority groups as important subjects in multiethnic societies, digitization brings new possibilities for reaching source communities. This article describes Web projects conducted at Museum Maluku in Utrecht, the Netherlands. The article focuses on the museum’s experiences with cross-institutional Web projects, since digitization of the museum’s collection was initiated through collaboration with major national heritage institutions. The article also discusses how source communities through digital participation can become involved in building cultural heritage. Based on the case study of the Museum Maluku, it is argued that in order to design an appropriate mode of user participation as well as a sense of ownership it is crucial to take memory politics of source communities into account.
Carsten Stage: Tegningekrisen – som mediebegivenhed og danskhedskamp. Aarhus: Aarhus Universitetsforlag. 2011.
Randi Marselis
MedieKultur : Journal of Media and Communication Research , 2012,
Ingegerd Rydin & Ulrika Sj berg, Eds. (2008): "Mediated Crossroads: Identity, Youth Culture and Ethnicity: Theoretical and Methodological Challenges"
Randi Marselis
MedieKultur : Journal of Media and Communication Research , 2009,
Music as a Poetic Language
Randi Rolvsjord
Voices: A World Forum for Music Therapy , 2004,
Therapy as Empowerment: Clinical and Political Implications of Empowerment Philosophy in Mental Health Practises of Music Therapy
Randi Rolvsjord
Voices: A World Forum for Music Therapy , 2006,
Abstract: In this article the clinical and political implications of empowerment philosophy are elaborated with music therapy practices in mental health services as the point of departure. The concept and the philosophy of empowerment are discussed through a review of literature from community psychology, sociology and feminist psychology. Empowerment is connected to a resource-oriented perspective on music therapy that implies a focus upon the client's strengths and potentials and emphasizes the importance of collaboration and equality in the relationship between therapist and client.
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