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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 4256 matches for " Randall Davis "
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Retooling Perspectives on Technology’s Role in Language Education
Randall Davis
Studies in Self-Access Learning Journal , 2011,
Abstract: Broad assumptions are commonly made on how technology, including anything from computers, whiteboards, and iPads, can transform and revolutionize teaching, independent learning, assessment, and other educational initiatives. Furthermore, changes in school programs are at times instituted at break-neck speeds with little understanding of the effects that technology can have on the actual learning process. This "perspectives" piece calls for a need to maintain realistic expectations and to invest in training, not devices
Adjoint Methods for Guiding Adaptive Mesh Refinement in Wave Propagation Problems
Brisa N. Davis,Randall J. LeVeque
Mathematics , 2015,
Abstract: One difficulty in developing numerical methods for hyperbolic systems of conservation laws is the fact that solutions often contain regions where much higher resolution is required than elsewhere in the domain, particularly since the solution may contain discontinuities or other localized features. The Clawpack software deals with this issue by using block-structured adaptive mesh refinement to selectively refine around propagating waves. For problems where only a target area of the total solution is of interest, a method that allows identifying and refining the grid only in regions that influence this target area would significantly reduce the computational cost of finding a solution. In this work, we show that solving the time-dependent adjoint equation and using a suitable inner product with the forward solution allows more precise refinement of the relevant waves. We present acoustics examples in one and two dimensions and a tsunami propagation example. To perform these simulations, the use of the adjoint method has been integrated into the adaptive mesh refinement strategy of the open source Clawpack and GeoClaw software. We also present results that show that the accuracy of the solution is maintained and the computational time required is significantly reduced through the integration of the adjoint method into AMR.
Nietzsche’s Best Life: The Ten Greatest Attributes of the Ubermensch, & a Comparison to Aristotle’s Virtuous Person  [PDF]
Randall Firestone
Open Journal of Philosophy (OJPP) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojpp.2017.73020
Abstract: The paper first outlines the 10 primary attributes of the Ubermensch, Nie-tzsche’s ideal person, with numerous quotations. Those attributes are self-determination, creativity, becoming, overcoming, discontent, flexibility, self-mastery, self-confidence, cheerfulness, and courage. The paper then compares Nietzsche’s Ubermensch with Aristotle’s virtuous person. Nietzsche describes more of an attitude towards life and a process of living which are similar to a means as compared to Aristotle’s objective character traits which are goals or ends in themselves. The paper concludes that Nietzsche does a better job of describing the best human life—one that is dynamic, passionate, and unique; consisting of self-growth and creativity; and filled with new experiences, insights, and adventures.
Differential Indicators of Diabetes-Induced Oxidative Stress in New Zealand White Rabbits: Role of Dietary Vitamin E Supplementation
Randall L. Davis,Christy L. Lavine,Melissa A. Arredondo,Patrick McMahon,Thomas E. Tenner, Jr.
Experimental Diabetes Research , 2002, DOI: 10.1080/15604280214279
Abstract: Determination of reliable bioindicators of diabetes-induced oxidative stress and the role of dietary vitamin E supplementation were investigated. Blood (plasma) chemistries, lipid peroxidation (LPO), and antioxidant enzyme activities were measured over 12 weeks in New Zealand White rabbits (control, diabetic, and diabetic + vitamin E). Cholesterol and triglyceride levels did not correlate with diabetic state. PlasmaLPOwas influenced by diabetes and positively correlated with glucose concentration only, not cholesterol or triglycerides. Liver glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activity negatively correlated with glucose and triglyceride levels. Plasma and erythrocyte GPX activities positively correlated with glucose, cholesterol, and triglyceride concentrations. Liver superoxide dismutase activity positively correlated with glucose and cholesterol concentration. Vitamin E reduced plasma LPO, but did not affect the diabetic state. Thus, plasmaLPOwas the most reliable indicator of diabetes-induced oxidative stress. Antioxidant enzyme activities and types of reactive oxygen species generated were tissue dependent. Diabetes-induced oxidative stress is diminished by vitamin E supplementation.
Thousands of Positive Reviews: Distributed Mentoring in Online Fan Communities
Julie Ann Campbell,Cecilia Aragon,Katie Davis,Sarah Evans,Abigail Evans,David P. Randall
Computer Science , 2015, DOI: 10.1145/2818048.2819934
Abstract: Young people worldwide are participating in ever-increasing numbers in online fan communities. Far from mere shallow repositories of pop culture, these sites are accumulating significant evidence that sophisticated informal learning is taking place online in novel and unexpected ways. In order to understand and analyze in more detail how learning might be occurring, we conducted an in-depth nine-month ethnographic investigation of online fanfiction communities, including participant observation and fanfiction author interviews. Our observations led to the development of a theory we term distributed mentoring, which we present in detail in this paper. Distributed mentoring exemplifies one instance of how networked technology affords new extensions of behaviors that were previously bounded by time and space. Distributed mentoring holds potential for application beyond the spontaneous mentoring observed in this investigation and may help students receive diverse, thoughtful feedback in formal learning environments as well.
The Epistemological Double Standard Inherent in Christian Metaphysical Beliefs  [PDF]
Randall S. Firestone
Open Journal of Philosophy (OJPP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojpp.2014.43033
Abstract: This paper uses comparative religion to critique Christian claims of possessing exclusively true metaphysical beliefs. In so doing, this paper takes a different approach than most other challenges to Christian metaphysical beliefs. Instead of directly responding to Christian arguments supporting their views, this paper challenges the Christian by pointing out that their grounds for rejecting the metaphysics of other religions will necessarily undermine the grounds of their own beliefs. Specifically, the paper takes the metaphysical beliefs of Hinduism, which has a metaphysics that appears both significantly different from and contrary to Christian dogma, and demonstrates that the same types of epistemological arguments that a Christian would almost certainly have to use against a Hindu can just as fruitfully be used to demonstrate the weaknesses, inconsistencies, and lack of evidential foundation that are prevalent in Christian metaphysical beliefs.
Naturalistic vs Supernatural Explanations: “Charting” a Course away from a Belief in God by Utilizing Inference to the Best Explanation  [PDF]
Randall S. Firestone
Open Journal of Philosophy (OJPP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojpp.2014.43034
Abstract: The article critiques the seven major arguments supporting a belief in God. The arguments are presented as Inferences to the Best Explanation with the use of charts. The charts graphically demonstrate that naturalistic explanations are being ignored by the theist, who favors inherently unverifiable supernatural explanations over naturalistic ones. The paper also discusses why metaphysical beliefs should not be trusted, and how such beliefs differ from scientific beliefs. The paper concludes that the arguments for the existence of God fail because the naturalistic explanations are the best explanations and should be accepted over the supernatural explanation of God. To the extent that the charting of all seven arguments is new, it should be a helpful explanatory tool, especially for students.
Why the Bible Cannot and Should Not Be Taken Literally  [PDF]
Randall S. Firestone
Open Journal of Philosophy (OJPP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojpp.2014.43035

This paper argues that there are at least five reasons why the claim that the Bible is to be taken literally defies logic or otherwise makes no sense, and why literalists are in no position to claim that they have the only correct view of biblical teachings. First, many words are imprecise and therefore require interpretation, especially to fill in gaps between general words and their application to specific situations. Second, if you are reading an English version of the Bible you are already dealing with the interpretations of the translator since the earliest Bibles were written in other languages. Third, biblical rules have exceptions, and those exceptions are often not explicitly set forth. Fourth, many of the Bible’s stories defy logic and our experiences of the world. Fifth, there are sometimes two contrary versions of the same event, so if we take one literally then we cannot take the second one literally. In each of these five cases, there is no literal reading to be found. Furthermore, this paper sets forth three additional reasons why such a literalist claim probably should not be made even if it did not defy logic to make such a claim. These include The Scientific Argument: the Bible contradicts modern science; The Historical Argument: the Bible is historically inaccurate; and The Moral Argument: the Bible violates contemporary moral standards.

Aliens, Humans, Animals, & Luck: Animal Treatment & Human Morality  [PDF]
Randall S. Firestone
Open Journal of Philosophy (OJPP) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojpp.2016.63026
Abstract: This paper proposes two thought experiments to demonstrate that our current treatment of animals is immoral. The first thought experiment involves aliens coming to earth and doing to us what we do to animals—eating us, confining us in farms and zoos, doing experiments on us, etc. Drawing on the latest scientific research on the abilities of animals, this thought experiment seeks to show that there are more relevant similarities between human beings and animals than most people realize, and that the differences between us and many other animals are not morally relevant. Moreover, this thought experiment attempts to appeal primarily to our sense of justice by tapping into our emotions for ourselves rather than to the usual approach which appeals to our emotions for animals. The second thought experiment is similar to the first, but more centrally emphasizes the idea of luck. It will, in part, take an approach recommended by Donald VanDeVeer to employ Rawl’s veil of ignorance to mask not only our natural and social starting places, but also our species—whether we are human or of another species. However, one serious objection made to VanDeVeer’s approach will be circumvented, namely, that it is difficult to imagine ourselves as an animal. Rather, we will imagine that evolution has made it so we are not the smartest and most powerful species on earth. This thought experiment invites us to ask ourselves that if there were only two species to consider and we were the less advanced of the two, would we still not expect to be treated with dignity and respect? Both analogies ultimately challenge us to ask the following question: What principles of justice would we choose to govern the interactions between species if we were not the most intelligent and powerful species on earth?
An Argument for Libertarian Free Will: Hard Choices Based on either Incomparable or Equally Persuasive Reasons  [PDF]
Randall S. Firestone
Open Journal of Philosophy (OJPP) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojpp.2017.71005
This articles proposes that the best explanation for hard choices, which are choices made when there are either incomparable options or equally appealing options, is the presence of libertarian free will; and that the two main alternatives, determinism and random choice, do not provide us with very compelling explanations. In the case of determinism, this is because the reasons supporting each option do not dictate or necessitate that we choose that option, and therefore any decision is necessarily underdetermined by the reasons for each option. Random choice fares no better since any choice made when the options are incomparable or equally appealing is supported by reasons and therefore is not random at all. As such, we should believe in free will. The article further reviews some of the current neuroscientific studies and explains how they do not show the absence of free will. The paper further argues that science likely could never prove that we do not have free will since showing that any decision is reflected or caused by our brain neurons firing does not show that the ultimate decision was not arrived at after a free will consideration of the issues. Lastly, the article suggests that the best way to view free will is as an attribute and ability that is always present, and as such there is no such thing as partial free will. Accordingly, we are fully responsible for the decisions we make and the actions we take. However, external and internal influences, especially those that lurk in our subconscious and of which we are not consciously aware, do mitigate our blameworthiness and praiseworthiness for those decisions.
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