Abstract:
This article puts forth a process applicable to central force scatterings. Under certain assumptions, we show that in attractive force fields a high speed particle with a small mass speeding through space, statistically loses energy by colliding softly with large masses that move slowly and randomly. Furthermore, we show that the opposite holds in repulsive force fields: the small particle statistically gains energy. This effect is small and is mainly due to asymmetric energy exchange of the transverse (i.e., perpendicular) collisions. We derive a formula that quantifies this effect (Eq. 12). We then put this work in a broader statistical context and discuss its consistency with established results.

Abstract:
I first give an overview of the thesis and Matrix Product States (MPS) representation of quantum spin chains with an improvement on the conventional notation. The rest of this thesis is divided into two parts. The first part is devoted to eigenvalues of quantum many-body systems (QMBS). I introduce Isotropic Entanglement, which draws from various tools in random matrix theory and free probability theory (FPT) to accurately approximate the eigenvalue distribution of QMBS on a line with generic interactions. Next, I discuss the energy distribution of one particle hopping random Schr\"odinger operator in 1D from FPT in context of the Anderson model. The second part is devoted to ground states and gap of QMBS. I first give the necessary background on frustration free (FF) Hamiltonians, real and imaginary time evolution within MPS representation and a numerical implementation. I then prove the degeneracy and FF condition for quantum spin chains with generic local interactions, including corrections to our earlier assertions. I then summarize my efforts in proving lower bounds for the entanglement of the ground states, which includes some new results, with the hope that they inspire future work resulting in solving the conjecture given therein. Next I discuss two interesting measure zero examples where FF Hamiltonians are carefully constructed to give unique ground states with high entanglement. One of the examples (i.e., $d=4$) has not appeared elsewhere. In particular, we calculate the Schmidt numbers exactly, entanglement entropies and introduce a novel technique for calculating the gap which may be of independent interest. The last chapter elaborates on one of the measure zero examples (i.e., $d=3$) which is the first example of a FF translation-invariant spin-1 chain that has a unique highly entangled ground state and exhibits signatures of a critical behavior.

Abstract:
We prove that the complex conjugate (c.c.) eigenvalues of a smoothly varying real matrix attract (Eq.15). We offer a dynamical perspective on the motion and interaction of the eigenvalues in the complex plane, derive their governing equations and discuss applications. C.c. pairs closest to the real axis, or those that are ill-conditioned, attract most strongly and can collide to become exactly real. As an application we consider random perturbations of a fixed matrix M. If M is normal, the total expected force on any eigenvalue is shown to be only the attraction of its c.c. (Eq. 24) and when M is circulant the strength of interaction can be related to the power spectrum of white noise. We extend this by calculating the expected force (Eq. 41) for real stochastic processes with zero-mean and independent intervals. To quantify the dominance of the c.c. attraction, we calculate the variance of other forces. We apply the results to the Hatano-Nelson model and provide other numerical illustrations. It is our hope that the simple dynamical perspective herein might help better understanding of the aggregation and low density of the eigenvalues of real random matrices on and near the real line respectively.

Abstract:
We propose a method which we call "Isotropic Entanglement" (IE), that predicts the eigenvalue distribution of quantum many body (spin) systems (QMBS) with generic interactions. We interpolate between two known approximations by matching fourth moments. Though, such problems can be QMA-complete, our examples show that IE provides an accurate picture of the spectra well beyond what one expects from the first four moments alone. We further show that the interpolation is universal, i.e., independent of the choice of local terms.

Abstract:
The method of "Isotropic Entanglement" (IE), inspired by Free Probability Theory and Random Matrix Theory, predicts the eigenvalue distribution of quantum many-body (spin) systems with generic interactions. At the heart is a "Slider", which interpolates between two extrema by matching fourth moments. The first extreme treats the non-commuting terms classically and the second treats them isotropically. Isotropic means that the eigenvectors are in generic positions. We prove Matching Three Moments and Slider Theorems and further prove that the interpolation is universal, i.e., independent of the choice of local terms. Our examples show that IE provides an accurate picture well beyond what one expects from the first four moments alone.

Abstract:
We generalize the previous results of [1] by proving unfrustration condition and degeneracy of the ground states of qudits (d-dimensional spins) on a k-child tree with generic local interactions. We find that the dimension of the ground space grows doubly exponentially in the region where rk<=(d^2)/4 for k>1. Further, we extend the results in [1] by proving that there are no zero energy ground states when r>(d^2)/4 for k=1 implying that the effective Hamiltonian is invertible.

Abstract:
We define an indefinite Wishart matrix as a matrix of the form A=W^{T}W\Sigma, where \Sigma is an indefinite diagonal matrix and W is a matrix of independent standard normals. We focus on the case where W is L by 2 which has engineering applications. We obtain the distribution of the ratio of the eigenvalues of A. This distribution can be "folded" to give the distribution of the condition number. We calculate formulas for W real (\beta=1), complex (\beta=2), quaternionic (\beta=4) or any ghost 0<\beta<\infty. We then corroborate our work by comparing them against numerical experiments.

Abstract:
Sinai chaos is characterized by exponential divergence between neighboring trajectories of a point billiard. If the repulsive potential of the finite-diameter fixed particle in the middle of the table is made smooth, the Sinai divergence persists with finite measure. So it does if the smooth potential is made attractive. So it still does if the potential is in addition made time-dependent (periodic). Then a systematic decrease in energy of the moving particle can be predicted to occur in both time directions for a long time. If so, classical entropy acquires an analog in real space.

Abstract:
By Bernoulli's law, an increase in the relative speed of a fluid around a body is accompanies by a decrease in the pressure. Therefore, a rotating body in a fluid stream experiences a force perpendicular to the motion of the fluid because of the unequal relative speed of the fluid across its surface. It is well known that light has a constant speed irrespective of the relative motion. Does a rotating body immersed in a stream of photons experience a Bernoulli-like force? We show that, indeed, a rotating dielectric cylinder experiences such a lateral force from an electromagnetic wave. In fact, the sign of the lateral force is the same as that of the fluid-mechanical analogue as long as the electric susceptibility is positive (\epsilon>\epsilon_{0}), but for negative-susceptibility materials (e.g. metals) we show that the lateral force is in the opposite direction. Because these results are derived from a classical electromagnetic scattering problem, Mie-resonance enhancements that occur in other scattering phenomena also enhance the lateral force.

Abstract:
The sub-volume scaling of the entanglement entropy with the system's size, $n$, has been a subject of vigorous study in the last decade [1]. The area law provably holds for gapped one dimensional systems [2] and it was believed to be violated by at most a factor of $\log\left(n\right)$ in physically reasonable models such as critical systems. In this paper, we generalize the spin$-1$ model of Bravyi et al [3] to all integer spin-$s$ chains, whereby we introduce a class of exactly solvable models that are physical and exhibit signatures of criticality, yet violate the area law by a power law. The proposed Hamiltonian is local and translationally invariant in the bulk. We prove that it is frustration free and has a unique ground state. Moreover, we prove that the energy gap scales as $n^{-c}$, where using the theory of Brownian excursions, we prove $c\ge2$. This rules out the possibility of these models being described by a conformal field theory. We analytically show that the Schmidt rank grows exponentially with $n$ and that the half-chain entanglement entropy to the leading order scales as $\sqrt{n}$ (Eq. 16). Geometrically, the ground state is seen as a uniform superposition of all $s-$colored Motzkin walks. Lastly, we introduce an external field which allows us to remove the boundary terms yet retain the desired properties of the model. Our techniques for obtaining the asymptotic form of the entanglement entropy, the gap upper bound and the self-contained expositions of the combinatorial techniques, more akin to lattice paths, may be of independent interest.