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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 22721 matches for " Ramesh Kumar vijh "
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Identification of SNPs in Goats (Capra hircus) using RNA-Seq Analysis
Upasna Sharma,Priyanka Banerjee,Jyoti Joshi,Ramesh Kumar vijh
International Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances , 2012,
Abstract: Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) have become the marker of choice for genome-wide association studies. In order to provide the best genome coverage for the analysis of performance and production traits, a large number of relatively evenly distributed SNPs are needed. Gene-associated SNPs may fulfill these requirements of large numbers and genome wide distribution. In addition, gene-associated SNPs could themselves be causative SNPs for traits. The main objective of our work was to identify large numbers of gene-associated SNPs using high-throughput next generation sequencing. Transcriptome sequencing was conducted on 2 tissues viz. liver and kidney for 5 breeds of goat (Kanniadu, Osmanabadi, Black Bengal, Changthangi and Sirohi) using Illumina next generation sequencing technology. Approximately 46.4 million reads for Black Bengal, 61.9 from Kanniadu, 58.2 from Changthangi, 47.3 from Osmanabadi, 73.2 from Sirohi were obtained by sequencing gene transcripts derived from kidney while 37, 27.2, 19.4, 56.9 and 80.7 million reads were obtained by gene transcripts derived from liver. The analysis of total number of SNPs in liver and kidney revealed that out of a total of 68597 SNPs in liver, the total number of transversions was 21300 and the number of transitions was 47297. A total of 1574 SNPs of liver were complex. Similarly for kidney the total number of 72047 SNPs were categorised into 22774 transversions and 49273 transitions. The total number of complex SNPs in kidney was 1597. The number of transitions is more than double the number of transversions in both the tissues. Further analysis of transversion revealed a preponderance of cytosine and guanine change compared to other nucleotides. 12863 and 11319 transversions out of 21300 and 22774 transversions respectively for liver and kidney revealed this bias. When multiple individuals with different genetic backgrounds were used, RNA-Seq was very effective for the identification of SNPs. The SNPs identified in this report provides a much needed resource for genetic studies in goat and shall contribute to the development of a highdensity SNP array. Validation and testing of these SNPs using SNP arrays will form the material basis for genome association studies and whole genome-based selection in goats.
Ubiquitous Expression of Genes in tissues of Goat (Capra hircus) Using RNA-seq
Upasna Sharma,Priyanka Banerjee,Jyoti Joshi,Ramesh Kumar vijh
International Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances , 2012,
Abstract: Since very little information is available on goat transcriptome (only few sequenced genes and ESTs are available in the database), our main aim was to analyze the goat transcriptome for identification of ubiquitous genes through RNA-Seq approach, expression of genes across tissues and analyse the functional pathways which these highly expressed genes follow. RNA-Seq analysis was carried out on 10 tissues of Osmanabadi goats. The data was 2x76 base pair paired end reads generated using Illumina Genome Analyser GAIIx. More than 40 million reads per tissue were generated. The data was mapped using CLC Genomics Workbench on Ensembl cattle (Btau_4.0) genes version 62 downloaded from BioMart. The mapping statistics was discerned for each of the mapped gene for all the 10 tissues. There was a great deal of homology between the genes of cattle and goats and this was expected as both are ruminants and phylogenetically close to one another. The expression profile for genes of each of the 10 tissues was calculated in terms of RPKM values. The differential expression of genes among the different tissues was carried out using 3 algorithms. The genes common among the 3 algorithms were associated with GO IDs and the functional annotation was carried out by estimating the GO term occurrences using CateGOrizer web server. The study revealed that more than 75% genes are ubiquitously expressed (expressed in all tissues) with very limited number of tissue specific genes based on expression values (expressed in only one tissue). These genes are mostly related with the specific functions performed by various tissues.
Population Differentiation in Dromedarian Camel: A Comparative Study of Camel Inhabiting Extremes of Geographical Distribution
Priyanka Banerjee,Jyoti Joshi,Upasna Sharma,Ramesh Kumar Vijh
International Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances , 2012,
Abstract: The camel has not been subject to selective pressures and is not differentiated. The present study was undertaken to evaluate differentiation of camels inhabiting the extreme geographical habitats for the species. In this paper we compared the camel populations of India and Southern region of Africa to adjudge the differentiation between the two populations. Utilizing 12 microsatellite loci it has been demonstrated that the populations i.e., of India and South Africa are very well differentiated. The camel population of India shows differentiation among themselves owing to selection pressure and breeding for specific economic traits/parameters like carting, baggage, riding etc. The differentiation among the two camel populations was 23% while that of among population, within the two groups was 11%. A small group of Bactrian camel exhibited closeness to hill camels. Based on the published literature and in the present study it is evident that there is a general trend of increased population differentiation from South region of Africa to Indian subcontinent with India having highly differentiated populations.
Genetic Discontinuities and Sub structuring in buffaloes of Indo Gangetic Plains
Upasna Sharma,Priyanka Banerjee,Jyoti Joshi,Ramesh Kumar vijh
International Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances , 2012,
Abstract: The Indo-Gangetic plains of India are fertile basin and have more than 23% buffaloes of India. Bhadawari is the only one recognised breed of buffalo in the basin. The population structure of this vast buffalo population was not known. In this present study, we generated data on 11 microsatellite markers on 625 buffaloes from Indo- Gangetic plains. We utilised landscape genetic tools combining molecular genetic data and spatial coordinates to decipher the genetic structure. We utilised wombling analysis and Bayesian clustering using Markov models. We also utilised Monmonier’s maximal difference algorithm for the identification of genetic barriers and tested their significance using 16 different genetic distances. The Womble analysis revealed three statistically significant barriers. The genetic bandwidth mapping revealed that buffaloes of Tarai area and Bhadawari buffaloes to have distinctive population structure. The buffaloes of Mau, Balia and Ghazipur also had a distinctive genetic structure. Most of the buffaloes of Central region of Indo-Gangetic plains were found to be heterogeneous. The variation in allele frequency in buffalo population in Indo Gangetic plains occurred at multiple scales. A sharp change in allele frequency in Eastern and Western Uttar Pradesh buffaloes was observed and detectable by all the techniques utilised and the buffalo population could be substructured into 5 clusters.
DGAT1 and ABCG2 polymorphism in Indian cattle (Bos indicus) and buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) breeds
Madhu S Tantia, Ramesh K Vijh, Bishnu P Mishra, Bina Mishra, ST Bharani Kumar, Monika Sodhi
BMC Veterinary Research , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1746-6148-2-32
Abstract: We screened the reported missense mutations in six cattle and five buffalo breeds. The DGAT1K and ABCG2Y alleles were found to be fixed in Indian cattle and buffalo breeds studied.This study provides an indirect evidence that all the Indian cattle and buffalo breeds have fixed alleles with respect to DGAT1 and ABCG2 genes reported to be responsible for higher milk fat yield, higher fat and protein percent.Significant development and refinement of analytical tools has resulted in identification of causal genes underlying QTLs (Quantitative Trait Loci) for various economic traits. is The detection of sequence variations of causal genes affecting the traits of interest are now possible in humans, animals and plants [1].Several studies in cattle [2-4] identified a QTL for milk production traits especially the milk fat percentage on chromosome 14 (BTA 14) near the centromeric region. A comparative positional candidate gene approach led to identification of the candidate gene coding acylcoA: diacylglycerol – acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1). DGAT1 is considered to be the key enzyme in controlling the synthesis rate of triglycerides in adipocytes. Smith et al. [5] demonstrated absence of lactation in knockout mice lacking both copies of DGAT1. Grisart et al. [6,7], Winter et al. [8] and Weller et al. [9] identified a polymorphism in exon 8 of the DGAT1 gene in Bos taurus, AA → GC exchange resulting in a non conservative substitution of amino acid 232 Lysine (K) → Alanine (A). This polymorphism has been associated with increased fat yield, fat and protein percent as well as decrease in milk and protein.Another segregating QTL for milk production trait on BTA 6 was found by many workers in various populations of Bos taurus [10-14]. The QTL centered around microsatellite BM143. Olsen et al. [15] used physical mapping and combined linkage and linkage disequilibrium mapping to fine map QTL region between ABCG2 and LAP3. Several genes like PKD2 [15], SPP1 (Osteopontin) gene [16,17] and
Characterization of the DGAT1 gene in the Indian buffalo (Bubalus bubalis)
Mishra, Bina;Tantia, Madhu S.;Kumar, S.T. Bharani;Vijh, Ramesh K.;
Genetics and Molecular Biology , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S1415-47572007000600012
Abstract: the positional candidate diacylglycerol o-acyltransferase (dgat1) gene affecting milk fat percentage is reported in indian buffaloes (bubalus bubalis). a comparison with chinese buffalo (bubalus bubalis) revealed eight exonic single nucleotide polymorphisms (snps), five of which were non-synonymous. a total of 19 snps were observed among diverse buffalo breeds in india. a unique 22 base insertion has been reported in the intron between exon ten and eleven.
Diversity of Ethnomedicinal Plants in Boridand Forest of District Korea, Chhattisgarh, India  [PDF]
Ramesh Kumar Ahirwar
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2015.62047
Abstract: Present study deals with an extensive ecological assessment of natural forest areas under several in-situ conservation plots which have resulted from high rate of grazing and biotic pressure. Over-exploitation of forest and unwanted incidental fire cases decreased the diversity of several ethnomedicinally and economically valuable plants species from the Boridand forest region in Korea district, Chhattisgarh. The total number of plants reported in all three study sites, 41 plants species belonging to 26 families and 37 plant genera were identified. A field survey was conducted at three different study sites in Boridand forest, district Korea, Chhattisgarh as Plot A, Plot B and Plot C, during months March 2013 to February 2014 to identify the diversity of ethnomedicinal plants.
Improved Automotive CAN Protocol Based on Payload Reduction and Selective Bit Stuffing  [PDF]
B. Vinodh Kumar, J. Ramesh
Circuits and Systems (CS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/cs.2016.710291
Abstract: In this research paper, the implementation strategies of automotive controller area network protocol are investigated and the short messaging scheme with selective bit stuffing method to improve the effective utilization of its bandwidth has been proposed. There would be a sharp decrease in the performance of traditional CAN protocol because of considerable increase in the number of ECUs (Electronic Control Units) and infotainment gadgets connected in the vehicle architecture. The demand for safety, emission, diagnostics and comfort norms has steeply increased the number of messages in the 250 Kbps CAN network as the computational power of ECUs has gone up. To overcome this problem, the short CAN method has been proposed and the work is benchmarked with SAEJ1939 Heavy commercial vehicle CAN standard. The Matlab Simulink based short CAN has been modeled and the performance of the proposed system has evaluated using virtual instrument cluster. Experimental results have shown that compared to the traditional CAN, the proposed method has reduced the worst case response time of CAN extended frame from 160 μ sec to 144 μ sec. Selective bit stuffing technique has reduced the impact of bit stuffing over the payload and improved the utilization factor for the CAN bus without affecting the CAN message ID properties. The proposed algorithm has been modeled and simulated using CAN Matlab model Simulink and it has been verified using virtual CAN tool and real time CAN bus hardware.
Natural Remedies against Multi-Drug Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis  [PDF]
Ramesh Pandit, Pawan Kumar Singh, Vipin Kumar
Journal of Tuberculosis Research (JTR) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jtr.2015.34024
Abstract: Tuberculosis (TB), caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis is an infectious deadly disease and the treatment of which is one of the most severe challenges at the global level. Currently more than 20 chemical medications are described for the treatment of TB. Regardless of availability of several drugs to treat TB, the causative agent, M. tuberculosis is nowadays getting resistant toward the conventional drugs and leading to conditions known as Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) and extensively drug resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB). This situation has terrified the global health community and raised a demand for new anti-tuberculosis drugs. Medicinal plants have been used to cure different common as well as lethal diseases by ancient civilizations due to its virtue of variety of chemical compounds which may have some important remedial properties. The aim of the present review is to focus the anti-tubercular medicinal plants native to India as well as the plants effective against MDR or XDR-TB across the globe. In the present review, we have addressed 25 medicinal plants for TB and 16 plants effective against MDR-TB testified from India and 23 herbal plants described for MDR-TB across the world during 2011-2015. These herbal plants can serve as promising candidates for developing novel medications to combat multidrug resistant M. tuberculosis.
Life Cycle Energy Analysis of a Multifamily Residential House: A Case Study in Indian Context  [PDF]
Talakonukula Ramesh, Ravi Prakash, Karunesh Kumar Shukla
Open Journal of Energy Efficiency (OJEE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojee.2013.21006
Abstract: The paper presents life cycle energy analysis of a multifamily residential house situated in Allahabad (U.P), India. The study covers energy for construction, operation, maintenance and demolition phases of the building. The selected building is a 4-storey concrete structured multifamily residential house comprising 44 apartments with usable floor area of 2960 m2. The material used for the building structure is steel reinforced concrete and envelope is made up of burnt clay brick masonry. Embodied energy of the building is calculated based on the embodied energy coefficients of building materials applicable in Indian context. Operating energy of the building is estimated using e-Quest energy simulation software. Results show that operating energy (89%) of the building is the largest contributor to life cycle energy of the building, followed by embodied energy (11%). Steel, cement and bricks are most significant materials in terms of contribution to the initial embodied energy profile. The life cycle energy intensity of the building is found to be 75 GJ/m2 and energy index 288 kWh/m2 years (primary). Use of aerated concrete blocks in the construction of walls and for covering roof has been examined as energy saving strategy and it is found that total life cycle energy demand of the building reduces by 9.7%. In addition, building integrated photo voltaic (PV) panels are found most promising for reduction (37%) in life cycle energy (primary) use of the building.
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