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Interpenetrating polymeric network hydrogel for stomach-specific drug delivery of clarithromycin: Preparation and evaluation
Gupta Anish,Siddiqui Abdul,Datta Maurya,Ramchand Dhakar
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutics , 2010,
Abstract: The aim of this study was to develop a controlled release system targeting antibiotic delivery to the stomach. The hydrogels were synthesized by using chitosan, poly (acrylic acid) and poly (vinyl pyrrolidone) polymers crosslinked with glutaraldehyde and N,N′-methylenebisacrylamide. Interpenetrating polymeric network (IPN) hydrogels were prepared by varying the concentration of crosslinking agent (glutaraldehyde). The amount of chitosan, poly (acrylic acid), poly (vinyl pyrrolidone) and N,N′-methylenebisacrylamide were kept constant in all formulations. The effect of glutaraldehyde concentration on the swelling and release characteristics were evaluated. Modalities used to assess the most optimal hydrogel formulation included high liquid chromatography, FTIR analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, swelling studies, in vitro drug release study, mucoadhesive study and scanning electron microscopy. The result showed that IPN hydrogels were greater in swelling, more mucoadhesive and released more drug at lower pH values. Thus, it is believed that the antibiotic concentration in the stomach might be sustained through this formulation.
NASAL DRUG DELIVERY: SUCCESS THROUGH INTEGRATED DEVICE DEVELOPMENT
Dhakar RC
Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics , 2011,
Abstract: Transmucosal nasal delivery is a promising drug delivery option where common drug administrations (e.g., intravenous, intramuscular, or oral) are inapplicable. Recently, it has been shown that many drugs have better bioavailability by nasal route than by oral route. This has been attributed to rich vasculature and a highly permeable structure of the nasal mucosa coupled with avoidance of hepatic first-pass elimination, gut wall metabolism and/or destruction in the gastrointestinal tract. The physiology of the nose presents obstacles, but offers a promising route for non-invasive systemic delivery of numerous therapies and debatably drug delivery route to the brain. Intranasal microemulsions, gels and microspheres have gained increased interest in recent years as a delivery system for protein and peptides through nasal route. Since building a more efficient nasal drug delivery device requires not only better device design but a far more versatile technology platform; one that delivers optimal nasal deposition, with formulation flexibility to work successfully with the many variables of the formulation itself. Thus present review focuses on innovations in nasal drug delivery devices
Licensing of Instrumental Case in Hindi/Urdu Causatives
Gillian Ramchand
Nordlyd : Troms? University Working Papers on Language & Linguistics / Institutt for Spr?k og Litteratur, Universitetet i Troms? , 2011,
Abstract: In this paper, I revisit the licensing and interpretation of instrumental case-marked nominals in Hindi/Urdu causative constructions to argue against the hypothesis that the se-marked phrase corresponds to a demoted agent. Rather, I will argue that a more unified analysis of se-phrases can be achieved through an event-structural analysis, in line with the standard interpretation of other adverbials in the syntax. Since the ‘intermediate agent’ interpretation is only possible with indirect causatives in Hindi/Urdu, the event structural analysis proposed here also has implications for the direct vs. indirect causation distinction in the syntax.
Time and the event: The semantics of Russian prefixes
Gillian Ramchand
Nordlyd : Troms? University Working Papers on Language & Linguistics / Institutt for Spr?k og Litteratur, Universitetet i Troms? , 2004,
Abstract: In this paper, I draw on data from prefixation in Russian to argue for a basic distinction between event structure and temporal struc- ture. I present a linguistic semantics of verb and argument structure interpretation on the one hand, and a formal semantic implementa- tion of 'telicity' on the other, which makes sense of the generalisations apparently common to both domains. I will claim that the temporal domain embeds the event structure domain, and that the latter con- strains the former. At the same time, the different formal primitives that operate at the levels proposed form the basis for a principled linguistic distinction between the two tiers of composition: the event structure level encodes subevental relations and predicational rela- tions within those subevents; the temporal structure level introduces a t variable explicitly and relates it to the structure built up by the event level. Whether the event structure is homogenous or not will have an impact on whether the temporal variable chosen will be 'def- inite' or 'indefinite.' This latter claim then forms the basis for a new conception of the difference between perfective and imperfective verb forms in Russian.
Lexical Items in Complex Predications: Selection as Underassociation
Gillian Ramchand
Nordlyd : Troms? University Working Papers on Language & Linguistics / Institutt for Spr?k og Litteratur, Universitetet i Troms? , 2008,
Abstract: This paper examines the problem of selectional ‘matching’ effects in Bengali V-V complex predicates, and English denominal verbs within the context of a decompositional syntax/semantics for verbal meaning and a theory of lexical insertion under non-terminals. It argues that within the particular version of this kind of lexical insertion, as proposed by Ramchand 2008b , selection can be captured by the underassociation of category features constrained by Agree. In this way, I argue that we can achieve many of the effects of selection without any distinct lexical subcategorization frame, or sub-type of feature-checking, once we have a suitably articulated theory of lexical insertion.
ROSIGLITAZONE MALEATE MICROSPHERES FOR EXTENDING DRUG RELEASE: FORMULATION AND EVALUATION
Ram Chand Dhakar
International Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Development , 2010,
Abstract: The work was aim to formulate and evaluate mucoadhesive microspheres of Rosiglitazone Maleate for treatment of diabetes type-2 by combine the potential advantages of mucoadhesion with controlled drug delivery using various ratio of polymers. Mucoadhesive microspheres were prepared by emulsification solvent evaporation techniques. Microspheres were found discrete, spherical and free flowing. They ranged in particle size from 21-37 μm. The microspheres exhibits good mucoadhesive property in in-vitro wash off test and showed high drug entrapment efficiency. Rosiglitazone Maleate release from these microspheres was slowed, extended and depended on the type of polymer used. The formulation F1 and F2 showed consistent drug release for up to 12 h time period. Among all the formulations, F1 containing sodium carboxy methyl cellulose and F2 containing Carbopol 934 showed the reproducible results with best mucoadhesive profile and good surface morphology. The work has demonstrated that among all the formulations of microspheres, particularly those of formulation F1 are promising candidates for the sustained release of Rosiglitazone Maleate in the gastrointestinal tract.
Laccase Production from a Temperature and pH Tolerant Fungal Strain of Trametes hirsuta (MTCC 11397)
Kusum Dhakar,Anita Pandey
Enzyme Research , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/869062
Abstract: Laccase production by a temperature and pH tolerant fungal strain (GBPI-CDF-03) isolated from a glacial site in Indian Himalayan Region (IHR) has been investigated. The fungus developed white cottony mass on potato dextrose agar and revealed thread-like mycelium under microscope. ITS region analysis of fungus showed its 100% similarity with Trametes hirsuta. The fungus tolerated temperature from 4 to 48°C?±?2 (25°C opt.) and pH 3–13 (5–7 opt.). Molecular weight of laccase was determined approximately 45?kDa by native PAGE. Amplification of laccase gene fragment (corresponding to the copper-binding conserved domain) contained 200?bp. The optimum pH for laccase production, at optimum growth temperature, was determined between 5.5 and 7.5. In optimization experiments, fructose and ammonium sulfate were found to be the best carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively, for enhancing the laccase production. Production of laccase was favored by high carbon/nitrogen ratio. Addition of CuSO4 (up to 1.0?mM) induced laccase production up to 2-fold, in case of 0.4?mM concentration. Addition of organic solvents also induced the production of laccase; acetone showed the highest (2-fold) induction. The study has implications in bioprospecting of ecologically resilient microbial strains. 1. Introduction Laccases (phenol oxidases; E.C. 1.10.3.2.), also known as multicopper blue oxidases, belong to the oxidoreductase group of enzymes. Biochemically, they are glycoproteins carrying molecular mass between 50?kDa and 130?kDa [1]. Fungi, belonging to ascomycetes, deuteromycetes, and basidiomycetes, are known to produce laccases of ecological as well as biotechnological importance, such as biodegradation and bioremediation [1–4]. In addition, laccases are also responsible for various physiological functions in fungi [5]. Due to their broad specificity toward substrate, they can oxidize a range of chemical compounds leading to various industrial applications [6]. Enhancement of laccase production, by modifying the nutritional and physiological conditions during cultivation of promising fungi, is a prerequisite for their optimum utilization at industrial scale. Besides nutritional supplements, inducers like organic solvents and metal ions also play important role in production of laccases [3, 7, 8]. Isolation of new microbial strains of biotechnological applications from various ecological habitats is a prerequisite for industrial growth. The fungi capable of producing laccase at wider temperature and pH range are likely to play important role in biodegradation under low
Aspect and Verbal Prepositions
Gillian Ramchand,Mai Tungseth
Nordlyd : Troms? University Working Papers on Language & Linguistics / Institutt for Spr?k og Litteratur, Universitetet i Troms? , 2006,
Abstract: In this paper, we explore some previously unanalysed interactions between verbal aktionsart and prepositional complementation in Norwegian, namely the alternations between a DP object and PP complements with p ‘on/at’ and til ‘to/at’. We argue that a simple account based on [±telic] or [±quantized] features cannot be correct. Instead, we generalize the notion of path and homomorphism, and integrate it in a syntactic theory of how complex events are built up compositionally. The path structure introduced by the PP interacts with the path structure of the VP to produce complex events based on ‘homomorphic unity’ in much the same way as has been argued for in the Verb + Nominal domain (Krifka 1992). Specifically, an extended location (a p -PP) in the complement of and activity verb (in our terms, a process subevental projection) gives rise to a non-directed path for the event; a point location ( a til-PP) in the complement of an accomplishment verb (one which in our terms will contain a result subevental projection) gives rise to the specification of an endpoint.
Agricultural Water Conservation in the High Plains Aquifer and Arikaree River Basin  [PDF]
Adam Prior, Ramchand Oad, Kristoph-Dietrich Kinzli
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2013.57076
Abstract:

Yuma County is the top crop producing County in Colorado that is dependent on groundwater supplies from the High Plains aquifer for irrigation. The Arikaree River, a tributary of the Republican River in eastern Colorado, is supplied with water from the High Plains aquifer. The Arikaree River alluvium is also a habitat for many terrestrial invertebrates and the threatened Hybognathus hankinsoni (Brassy Minnow). The constant demand on the High Plains aquifer has created declining water levels at the linear rate of 0.183 m/year with the deepest pool in the Arikaree River drying up in 8 to 12 years. In addition to the demands for habitats, the surrounding irrigated agricultural lands require water for crop production. These challenges are currently confronting farmers in eastern Colorado and this research presents possible alternatives to meet these demands. This research presents a combination water balance model, water conservation model, and water conservation survey results from farmers in eastern Colorado to identify alternatives to extend the life of the Arikaree River. The first alternative was to examine the reduction in irrigation water from removing the 18 alluvial irrigation wells that could extend the Arikaree River pools from drying up for 30 years. The other scenario found that water conservation practices with participation of 43%, 57%, and 62% of farmers would extend the drying time to 20, 30, and 40 years, respectively. The final alternative studied was the required participation in conservation practices to stop the decline of the High Plains Aquifer. The analysis found that 77% participation of farmers in all conservation alternatives or reducing pumping by 62.9% would be necessary to stabilize the High Plains Aquifer.

Teledermatology - An Overview
Murthy Pendyala Srinivasa,Rajagopal Ramchand
Indian Journal of Dermatology , 2003,
Abstract:
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