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Characterisation of Landscape with ForestFragmentation Dynamics  [PDF]
T. V. Ramachandra, Uttam Kumar
Journal of Geographic Information System (JGIS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jgis.2011.33021
Abstract: Land cover (LC) and land use (LU) dynamics induced by human and natural processes play a major role in global as well as regional patterns of landscapes influencing biodiversity, hydrology, ecology and climate. Changes in LC features resulting in forest fragmentations have posed direct threats to biodiversity, endangering the sustainability of ecological goods and services. Habitat fragmentation is of added concern as the residual spatial patterns mitigate or exacerbate edge effects. LU dynamics are obtained by classifying temporal remotely sensed satellite imagery of different spatial and spectral resolutions. This paper reviews five different image classification algorithms using spatio-temporal data of a temperate watershed in Himachal Pradesh, India. Gaussian Maximum Likelihood classifier was found to be apt for analysing spatial pattern at regional scale based on accuracy assessment through error matrix and ROC (receiver operating characteristic) curves. The LU information thus derived was then used to assess spatial changes from temporal data using principal component analysis and correspondence analysis based image differencing. The forest area dynamics was further studied by analysing the different types of fragmentation through forest fragmentation models. The computed forest fragmentation and landscape metrics show a decline of interior intact forests with a substantial increase in patch forest during 1972-2007.
Hybrid framework for mitigating illegitimate Peer Nodes in Multimedia file sharing in P2P
Ramesh Shahabadkara,Ramachandra V. Pujeri
International Journal of Computer Science Issues , 2012,
Abstract: Peer to Peer network is one of the frequently used application in terms of file sharing over a global large network. In such types of network, there can exists an illegitimate peer node who will attempt to have an unauthorized access to premium digital content. As it is very difficult to catch hold of the intruder or the illegal client inside the network, the proposed system will at least attempt to prevent access to the digital content available. The proposed system is focused on multimedia file sharing where the protocol will be designed in such a way that whenever any unauthorized peer node will attempt to download any premium digital content, the proposed model will assign a poison chunk of data to be forwarded to the illegitimate client. This phenomenon will result in exponential increase of download time rending discouragement to download the same file by the illegal downloader. While the protocol assures the secure delivery of the cleaner chunk of data to the legitimate client.
DISTRIBUTED APPROACH to WEB PAGE CATEGORIZATION USING MAPREDUCE PROGRAMMING MODEL
P.Malarvizhi,Ramachandra V.Pujeri
International Journal of Engineering and Technology , 2011,
Abstract: The web is a large repository of information and to facilitate the search and retrieval of pages from it,categorization of web documents is essential. An effective means to handle the complexity of information retrieval from the internet is through automatic classification of web pages. Although lots of automatic classification algorithms and systems have been presented, most of the existing approaches are computationally challenging. In order to overcome this challenge, we have proposed a parallel algorithm, known as MapReduce programming model to automatically categorize the web pages. This approach incorporates three concepts. They are web crawler, MapReduce programming model and the proposed web page categorization approach. Initially, we have utilized web crawler to mine the World Wide Web and the crawled web pages are then directly given as input to the MapReduce programming model. Here the MapReduce programming model adapted to our proposed web page categorization approach finds the appropriate category of the web page according to its content. The experimental results show that our proposed parallel web page categorization approach achieves satisfactory results in finding the right category for any given web page.
Radiation and mass transfer effects on an unsteady MHD free convection flow past a heated vertical plate in a porous medium with viscous dissipation
Prasad Ramachandra V.,Reddy Bhaskar N.
Theoretical and Applied Mechanics , 2007, DOI: 10.2298/tam0702135p
Abstract: An unsteady, two-dimensional, hydromagnetic, laminar free convective boundary-layer flow of an incompressible, Newtonian, electrically-conducting and radiating fluid past an infinite heated vertical porous plate with heat and mass transfer is analyzed, by taking into account the effect of viscous dissipation. The dimensionless governing equations for this investigation are solved analytically using two-term harmonic and non-harmonic functions. Numerical evaluation of the analytical results is performed and graphical results for velocity, temperature and concentration profiles within the boundary layer and tabulated results for the skin-friction coefficient, Nusselt number and Sherwood number are presented and discussed. It is observed that, when the radiation parameter increases, the velocity and temperature decrease in the boundary layer, whereas when thermal and solutal Grashof increases the velocity increases.
ORIGINAL ARTICLE: Identification of Practical Pharmacology Skills Useful for Good Clinical Practice
C Ramachandra Bhat,V. Shilpa, R. Divya
Journal of Krishna Institute of Medical Sciences University , 2012,
Abstract: Background: Awareness about animal ethics is increasing everywhere. This increased awareness coupled with strict regulations discouraging the use of animals for routine experiments have tied the hands of many pharmacologists. They are now forced to develop alternative experiments without using animals. At present, there is acute need to come out with more innovative and useful practical exercises for pharmacology practical sessions. In this background, the present study was undertaken to develop the much-needed alternative experiments. Aims and Objective: To identify new pharmacological practical skills useful for good clinical practice. Material and Methods: A pre-tested questionnaire was administered to 110 doctors of different categories like house surgeons, postgraduate students, assistant professors and professors who are working in a tertiary care hospital. They were asked to give their suggestions regarding new pharmacology practical skills useful for good clinical practice. Statistical analysis: Responses of the participants to the questions asked were tabulated and analyzed. Suggestions given by them were listed out and studied. Results: Use of emergency drugs, dosage calculation, drugs used in pregnancy, case discussions and prescription writing exercises received a lot of support from the participants. Research methodology, cost calculation, animal experiments and interpretation of data of animal experiments did not receive support from the participants. Suggestions given by the participants regarding useful pharmacological skills belonged to the areas like therapeutics, safe use of drugs, recent advances, analysis of information given by the medical representatives and analyzing articles in journals for knowing the efficacy of drugs. Conclusion: Exercises relevant to the clinical practice, as identified in this study, can be introduced as practical pharmacology exercises. Steps are to be taken to highlight the importance of research methodology and pharmaco-economics to the undergraduates.
Solar Potential in the Himalayan Landscape
T. V. Ramachandra,Gautham Krishnadas,Rishabh Jain
ISRN Renewable Energy , 2012, DOI: 10.5402/2012/203149
Abstract:
Solar Potential in the Himalayan Landscape
T. V. Ramachandra,Gautham Krishnadas,Rishabh Jain
ISRN Renewable Energy , 2012, DOI: 10.5402/2012/203149
Abstract: Estimation of solar energy reaching the earth’s surface is essential for solar potential assessment. Solar radiation data based on satellites provide higher spatial and temporal coverage of regions compared to surface based measurements. Solar potential of the Indian hill state of Himachal Pradesh has been assessed using reliable satellite based global horizontal insolation (GHI) datasets validated based on its complex terrain. Solar maps representing regional and temporal resource availability in the state have been generated using geographical information systems (GIS). Spatial analyses show that the state receives annual average GHI above 4.5?kWh/m2/day and a total of 99530395 million kWh (or million units, MU). The regional availability of GHI in Himachal Pradesh is influenced by its eclectic topography, seasons as well as microclimate. The lower and middle elevation zone (<3500?m) with tropical to wet-temperate climate receives higher GHI (>5?kWh/m2/day) for a major part of the year compared to the higher elevation zone (>3500?m) with dry-temperate to alpine climate (4–4.5?kWh/m2/day). Results show that Himachal Pradesh receives an average insolation of 5.86 ± 1.02–5.99 ± 0.91?kWh/m2/day in the warm summer months; 5.69 ± 0.65–5.89 ± 0.65?kWh/m2/day in the wet monsoon months; 3.73 ± 0.91–3.94 ± 0.78?kWh/m2/day in the colder winter months. 1. Introduction Energy plays a pivotal role in the development of a region. However, energy shortages in recent times, the imminent energy crisis, and threat of climate change have focused the attention for a viable sustainable alternative through renewable sources of energy. Sun being the vital source of renewable energy manifested in different forms in the solar system; it is necessary to understand the mechanism of energy flow involved. The geometry of the earth-sun movements causes large spatial, diurnal, and seasonal variations in the amount of solar radiation received on earth. The 23.5° tilt of the earth’s rotational axis with respect to the plane of orbital revolution causes larger annual variations near the poles and smaller variations near the equator [1]. Due to the variations in the sun-earth distance, intercepted solar radiation fluctuates by ±3.3% around its mean value. The variations, due to sunspots, prominences and solar flares, can be neglected as they constitute small fraction compared to the total energy emitted by the sun. The average solar radiation falling on the earth’s atmosphere called the solar constant is estimated to be 1.36?kW/m2. The presence of clouds, suspended dust, gas molecules,
Simultaneous detection of Hepatitis B virus and Hepatitis C virus in human plasma using Taq-man chemistry
Naresh Kumar Y,Rahmathulla S,Madhavi C,Ramachandra V V
Journal of Medical and Allied Sciences , 2011,
Abstract: Designing a rapid, reliable and sensitive assay, for detection of hepatitis B virus and Hepatitis C virus variants by real-time PCR, is challenging at best. A recent approach for quantifying the viral load using the sensitive fluorescence principle, was used in this study. A total of 350 samples were collected from outpatient unit, Center for Liver Research and Diagnostics (CLRD). Complete Human HBV DNA and HCV sequences were obtained from the National Centre for Biotechnology Information (NCBI); primers and probes were designed and synthesized from core, surface and x region of Hepatitis B and UTR region of HCV. Real-time based detection was done, using standard kit and in-house generated standards and RT-PCR protocols. A standard curve was generated by using the Smart Cycler II software and serial dilution 102 to 108 of cloned viral regions, the calibration curve was linear in a range from 102 to108 cp/ml for both HBV and HCV, with R2 value of 0.999 and 0.995. Out of 100 predetermined HCV negative samples, 02 samples were found positive with in-house developed RT-PCR assay, the positivity of this sample was confirmed by sequencing the amplified product. Low cost of this assay procedure and précised sample volume will permit the assay to be implemented for routine screening of Hepatitis B and C virus mono-infection and co-infection using Real Time PCR , Nucleic acid Chip technology and Fluorescent End Point detection systems. This assay is reproducible showing limited inter and intra assay variability. Our results correlated well with the standard kit for HBV and HCV virus monitor.
New Method of Palladium Metal Trapping through Resins in Antiviral Drug: Valacyclovir HCl  [PDF]
Keshava Navin Kumar Reddy, Murugulla Adharvana Chari, Mayur D. Khunt, V. V. N. K. V. Prasada Raju, Bojja Ramachandra Reddy, Vurimidi Himabindu, Ghanta Mahesh Reddy
International Journal of Organic Chemistry (IJOC) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ijoc.2013.34036
Abstract:

This process describes a novel technique for effective trapping of “Pd” metal through resins during the process development of L-valine, 2-[(2-amino-1,6-dihydro-6-oxo-9H-purin-9-yl) methoxy] ethyl ester, and mono hydrochloride known as a Valacyclovir hydrochloride (1). This technique is suitable for large-scale production of 1 and it is described here Pd metal trapping by using different resins.

 


Choosing Actuation Scheme for Optimal Performance of 3-DOF Planar Parallel Manipulators
S. Ramana Babu,V. Ramachandra Raju,K. Ramji
Advances in Mechanical Engineering , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/171682
Abstract: This paper describes how the actuation scheme affects the size and shape of the workspace of 3RPR and 3PRR, which are the two popular planar parallel manipulators. This study helps in achieving the required singularity-free zones for a specific task by adopting a suitable actuation scheme without resorting to changing the architecture of the manipulator. In addition, the performance index GCI for each actuation scheme has been evaluated and compared with each other. Finally, the GCI for each actuation scheme has been optimized subjected to the geometric constraints for the 3PRR planar parallel manipulator. 1. Introduction Parallel manipulators are robots that consist of separate serial chains that connect the fixed link to the moving end-effectors. Even though parallel manipulators possess several advantages like, high stiffness, low inertia, and large payload capacity, they are suffered from limited workspace, complicated singularities, and design difficulties. Many researchers have analyzed kinematics, dynamics, workspace, and control of parallel manipulators. Mohammadi Daniali et al. [1] presented an in-depth study of velocity relationships and singular conditions for general planar parallel robots. Gosselin [2] presents computational algorithms for kinematics and dynamics of planar and spatial parallel robots. Merelt et al. [3] solved the forward pose kinematics for a broad class of planar parallel manipulators. Y. Jin et al. [4] described a 3-limb selectively actuated parallel manipulator (SA-PM) in which the end-effecter exhibits either a 3-DOF spherical, 3-DOF translational, or a complete 6-DOF spatial motion depending on the types of the actuation chosen for the actuators. They also presented singularity analysis of the SA-PM based on geometry for all actuation schemes to facilitate the kinematic design of the manipulator. Arakelian et al. [5] proposed the legs of variable structure for the increase of reachable workspace of a spatial manipulator. Su et al. [6] studied trajectory planning and actuation schemes, which are crucial for their control. Ebrahimi et al. [7] presented a model of an actuation scheme and its effects on the singularities of parallel manipulators for a given path in the workspace. Actuation schemes and actuator relocation for serial planar manipulator have also been studied in detail by Matone and Roth [8] and Ramji et al. [9] respectively. Li and Xu [10] designed a new XYZ novel micromanipulator, which was called a 3-PRC manipulator in order to generate a cuboids’ shape workspace by using the (PZT) piezoelectric actuator
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