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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 204723 matches for " Ramón Soriguer "
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Distribución actual y dispersión del conejo europeo (Oryctolagus cuniculus) en Mendoza (Argentina)
Never Bonino,Ramón C. Soriguer
Mastozoolog?-a neotropical , 2004,
Plasma carotenoid levels in passerines are related to infection by (some) parasites
Jordi Figuerola,Guillermo López,Ramón Soriguer
Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution , 2014, DOI: 10.3389/fevo.2014.00047
Abstract: Plumage coloration plays an important role in intra and inter-sexual competition in birds. Many of the yellow, orange, or red colors present in birds are carotenoid dependent. Carotenoids cannot be synthetized de novo by birds and consequently should be obtained through their diet, and access to carotenoids may differ between individuals and species. In addition to ornamentation, carotenoids are important for bird physiology and it has been proposed that a trade-off in their allocation to these two functions occurs. Under this scenario parasites may play a central role in maintaining the honesty of plumage as a signaling system by increasing the demands for carotenoids for infection or damage control and/or by reducing carotenoid absorption in the intestines. We analyzed the relationship between (1) carotenoid concentrations in plasma and (2) blood and intestinal parasite richness and abundance in 22 species of passerines sampled in spring. Loads of different groups of parasites were unrelated so conclusions drawn from examining a particular group of parasites cannot be extrapolated to the whole community of pathogens and parasites inhabiting a host. At intraspecific level plasma carotenoid concentration was negatively related to the richness of intestinal parasites and the abundance of some groups of intestinal parasites, at interspecific level plasma carotenoid concentration was negatively related with the abundance of intestinal parasites. No relationship at intra- nor interspecific level was found between carotenoids and blood parasites. The results suggest that intestinal parasites play an important role in the evolution and maintenance of carotenoid-derived sexually selected ornamentations probably through a negative impact on the uptake of carotenoids at the gut.
Disentangling Vector-Borne Transmission Networks: A Universal DNA Barcoding Method to Identify Vertebrate Hosts from Arthropod Bloodmeals
Miguel Alcaide, Ciro Rico, Santiago Ruiz, Ramón Soriguer, Joaquín Mu?oz, Jordi Figuerola
PLOS ONE , 2009, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0007092
Abstract: Emerging infectious diseases represent a challenge for global economies and public health. About one fourth of the last pandemics have been originated by the spread of vector-borne pathogens. In this sense, the advent of modern molecular techniques has enhanced our capabilities to understand vector-host interactions and disease ecology. However, host identification protocols have poorly profited of international DNA barcoding initiatives and/or have focused exclusively on a limited array of vector species. Therefore, ascertaining the potential afforded by DNA barcoding tools in other vector-host systems of human and veterinary importance would represent a major advance in tracking pathogen life cycles and hosts. Here, we show the applicability of a novel and efficient molecular method for the identification of the vertebrate host's DNA contained in the midgut of blood-feeding arthropods. To this end, we designed a eukaryote-universal forward primer and a vertebrate-specific reverse primer to selectively amplify 758 base pairs (bp) of the vertebrate mitochondrial Cytochrome c Oxidase Subunit I (COI) gene. Our method was validated using both extensive sequence surveys from the public domain and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) experiments carried out over specimens from different Classes of vertebrates (Mammalia, Aves, Reptilia and Amphibia) and invertebrate ectoparasites (Arachnida and Insecta). The analysis of mosquito, culicoid, phlebotomie, sucking bugs, and tick bloodmeals revealed up to 40 vertebrate hosts, including 23 avian, 16 mammalian and one reptilian species. Importantly, the inspection and analysis of direct sequencing electropherograms also assisted the resolving of mixed bloodmeals. We therefore provide a universal and high-throughput diagnostic tool for the study of the ecology of haematophagous invertebrates in relation to their vertebrate hosts. Such information is crucial to support the efficient management of initiatives aimed at reducing epidemiologic risks of arthropod vector-borne pathogens, a priority for public health.
Increased Endoparasite Infection in Late-Arriving Individuals of a Trans-Saharan Passerine Migrant Bird
Guillermo López, Joaquín Mu?oz, Ramón Soriguer, Jordi Figuerola
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0061236
Abstract: Earlier migration in males than in females is the commonest pattern in migrating passerines and is positively related to size dimorphism and dichromatism. The early arrival of males is a costly trait that may confer reproductive advantages in terms of better territories and/or mates. Given the physiological cost of migration, early migrants are those in best condition and accordingly the prevalence, load, and/or diversity of parasites is expected to increase in both sexes for late migrants. To test this hypothesis, we sampled 187 trans-Saharan migrant garden warblers Sylvia borin and 64 resident serins Serinus serinus (as a control for potential circannual patterns in parasite load) during spring migration in Spain. We assessed the prevalence of blood parasites (Haemoproteus, Plasmodium, and Leucocytozoon) and the prevalence and load of intestinal parasites (mainly coccidians and spirurids). The relationship between parasite (prevalence, load, and richness) and the timing of passage through a stopover area was tested using generalized linear models. Protandry occurs in the monomorphic garden warbler and males migrated on average 5.5 days before females. Intestinal parasite richness increased with the date of migration. The timing of migration was unrelated to the presence or load of the other parasite groups analyzed. Our results support the idea that the timing of migration is a condition-dependent trait and suggests that multiple intestinal parasite infestations could delay migration in birds. Even in monomorphic species parasites may play a role in sexual selection by delaying the arrival of the most infected individuals at breeding grounds, thereby further increasing the benefits of mating with early-arriving individuals.
Sarcoptic-mange detector dogs used to identify infected animals during outbreaks in wildlife
Samer Alasaad, Roberto Permunian, Francis Gakuya, Matthew Mutinda, Ramón C Soriguer, Luca Rossi
BMC Veterinary Research , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1746-6148-8-110
Abstract: In this paper we report on a study running over a period of 15?years, in which - for the first time to our knowledge - two disease-detector dogs were trained to follow the scent of Sarcoptes-infected animals and to find carcasses, even under the snow, and apparently no false positives were detected in fieldwork. Sarcoptic mange-detector dogs were used to collect the carcasses of 292 mangy wild animals and to identify, separate from their herd, and capture 63 mange-infected wild animals in the Italian Alps.Properly trained disease-detector dogs are an efficient and straightforward tool for surveillance and control of sarcoptic mange in affected wild animal populations.Despite the fact that the first known scientific experiment using dogs’ olfactory abilities dates back to the late nineteenth century [1], only limited scientific research has ever taken advantage of these animals’ sense of smell (e.g. [2,3]). Air-scent detection dogs are widely used by law enforcement agencies to identify narcotics, explosives, and contraband, and also by fire investigators to detect the presence of accelerant materials. Detector canines are also used by police, military, and rescue service to locate missing or lost peoples, natural or mass disasters victims, and for locating partial scattered human remains [4]. Thirty kinds of detector dogs have been documented [2], and recently dogs were used for bed bugs detection as a safer alternative to blind pesticide use [5], but to the best of our knowledge there are no cases of dogs having been trained to detect wildlife diseases.In the field of wildlife conservation, there are two key factors in disease monitoring and control (when the latter is feasible or desirable): (i) the rapid detection and removal of infected carcasses, and (ii) the rapid and accurate identification, separation and capture of the infected animals for treatment or euthanasia, if indicated [6-8]. Both infected carcasses and sick animals are potential sources of infectio
The curse of the prey: Sarcoptes mite molecular analysis reveals potential prey-to-predator parasitic infestation in wild animals from Masai Mara, Kenya
Francis Gakuya, Luca Rossi, Jackson Ombui, Ndichu Maingi, Gerald Muchemi, William Ogara, Ramón C Soriguer, Samer Alasaad
Parasites & Vectors , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1756-3305-4-193
Abstract: Our study revealed an absence of gene flow between the two herbivore (Thomson's gazelle and wildebeest)- and between the two carnivore (lion and cheetah)-derived Sarcoptes populations from Masai Mara (Kenya), which is in discrepancy with the host-taxon law described for wild animals in Europe. Lion- and wildebeest-derived Sarcoptes mite populations were similar yet different from the Thomson's gazelle-derived Sarcoptes population. This could be attributed to Sarcoptes cross-infestation from wildebeest ("favourite prey") of the lion, but not from Thomson's gazelle. The cheetah-derived Sarcoptes population had different subpopulations: one is cheetah-private, one similar to the wildebeest- and lion-derived Sarcoptes populations, and another similar to the Thomson's gazelle-derived Sarcoptes mite population, where both wildebeest and Thomson's gazelle are "favourite preys" for the cheetah.In a predator/prey ecosystem, like Masai Mara in Kenya, it seems that Sarcoptes infestation in wild animals is prey-to-predator-wise, depending on the predator's "favourite prey". More studies on the lion and cheetah diet and behaviour could be of great help to clarify the addressed hypotheses. This study could have further ramification in the epidemiological studies and the monitoring protocols of the neglected Sarcoptes mite in predator/prey ecosystems.Sarcoptes scabiei is a ubiquitous ectoparasite infecting more than 100 species of mammals, worldwide [1-3].An epidemic can result from the introduction of a single case of scabies into crowded living conditions [4], which may result in devastating mortality in wild and domestic animals [5], with huge economic losses affecting the world animal trade [6].Numerous epidemiological studies have been reported from different human, wild and domestic populations [7,8] but the epidemiology of sarcoptic mange is still not well understood and seems to differ between different areas and animal species of the world [1].Recently, there have been at
Temporal stability in the genetic structure of Sarcoptes scabiei under the host-taxon law: empirical evidences from wildlife-derived Sarcoptes mite in Asturias, Spain
Samer Alasaad, álvaro Oleaga, Rosa Casais, Luca Rossi, Annarita Min, Ramón C Soriguer, Christian Gortázar
Parasites & Vectors , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1756-3305-4-151
Abstract: The analysis of an 11-years interval period found little change in the genetic diversity (allelic diversity, and observed and expected heterozygosity). The temporal stability in the genetic diversity was confirmed by population structure analysis, which was not significantly variable over time. Population structure analysis revealed temporal stability in the genetic diversity of Sarcoptes mite under the host-taxon law (herbivore derived- and carnivore derived-Sarcoptes mite) among the sympatric wild animals from Asturias.The confirmation of parasite temporal genetic stability is of vital interest to allow generalizations to be made, which have further implications regarding the genetic structure, epidemiology and monitoring protocols of the ubiquitous Sarcoptes mite. This could eventually be applied to other parasite species.In the field of parasitology, different molecular markers have been used for parasite genetic characterization and genetic population studies. All molecular studies assume that genetic structure and diversity is relatively stable over time [1,2]. Since allele presence and frequency change over time due to genetic drift, and because of the gene flow between parasite populations from sympatric host species, the assumption of genetic stability may not be accurate [3].Here we describe, for the first time to our knowledge, a temporal analysis of microsatellite alleles and genetic structure at nine polymorphic loci to examine changes in genetic diversity of Sarcoptes mite over time.Sarcoptes mite continues to affect humans and a wide range of mammalian hosts worldwide [4], while the debate about its specificity by the host is still the subject of ongoing debate [5]. An epidemic can result, just from the introduction of a single case of scabies into crowded living conditions [6], which could entail devastating mortality in wild and domestic animals [7,8]. Moreover, recent biochemical and molecular approaches highlighted the threat of emerging acaricide
A revision of the distribution of Cabrera’s vole (Microtus cabrerae Thomas 1906) in Andalusia (southern Spain)
Jose Garrido-García,Ramón Soriguer,Diana Pérez-Aranda Serrano,Xosé Pardávila
Hystrix : the Italian Journal of Mammalogy , 2009, DOI: 10.4404/hystrix-19.2-4422
Abstract: This paper consists of a revision of existing records of Cabrera’s Vole Microtus cabrerae in Andalusia (south of Spain) and provides new data from a survey of both previously investigated and new areas. Cabrera’s voles were found at only three of the 17 previously known localities, whilst the species may be in fact extinct in 12 localities. Our results suggest that the species could have disappeared from the central part of the province of Granada. Nevertheless, fieldwork revealed 138 new localities in 24 UTM 10x10 km squares scattered throughout the Cazorla-Segura Mountains and the extreme north of the provinces of Almería and Granada. In 13 of these squares, the presence of the species was confirmed by the capture of 16 specimens. Despite the new localities discovered, the species should still be considered as ‘Critically Endangered’ in Andalusia. Riassunto Revisione della distribuzione dell'arvicola di Cabrera (Microtus cabrerae Thomas 1906) in Andalusia (Spagna meridionale) Il presente articolo consiste di una revisione dei dati disponibili sull'arvicola di Cabrera Microtus cabrerae in Andalusia (Spagna meridionale) e fornisce dati originali ottenuti tramite un'indagine svolta sia in aree già investigate, sia in aree mai monitorate in precedenza. L'arvicola di Cabrera è stata individuata solo in 3 delle 17 località segnalate in letteratura, mentre in 12 di esse potrebbe essere estinta. I risultati ottenuti suggeriscono che la specie sia attualmente scomparsa dalla porzione centrale della provincia di Granada. Tuttavia, le indagini hanno permesso di rilevare la presenza della specie in 138 nuove località distribuite in 24 quadrati UTM 10x10 km corrispondenti alla cetena montuosa di Cazorla-Segura e all'estrema parte settentrionale delle province di Almeria e Granada. In 13 quadrati la presenza è stata confermata tramite la cattura di 16 individui. Nonostante la scoperta di questi nuovi nuclei, la specie deve essere tuttora considerata "in pericolo critico"in Andalusia.
Spatio-Temporal Distribution of Injured Elephants in Masai Mara and the Putative Negative and Positive Roles of the Local Community
Domnic Mijele, Vincent Obanda, Patrick Omondi, Ramón C. Soriguer, Francis Gakuya, Moses Otiende, Peter Hongo, Samer Alasaad
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0071179
Abstract: Background Very few studies have ever focused on the elephants that are wounded or killed as local communities attempt to scare these animals away from their settlements and farms, or on the cases in which local people take revenge after elephants have killed or injured humans. On the other hand, local communities live in close proximity to elephants and hence can play a positive role in elephant conservation by informing the authorities of the presence of injured elephants. Methodology/Principal Findings Between 2007 and 2011, 129 elephants were monitored in Masai Mara (Kenya), of which 54 had various types of active (intentionally caused) or passive (non-intentionally caused) injuries. Also studied were 75 random control samples of apparently unaffected animals. The observed active injuries were as expected biased by age, with adults suffering more harm; on the other hand, no such bias was observed in the case of passive injuries. Bias was also observed in elephant sex since more males than females were passively and actively injured. Cases of passive and active injuries in elephants were negatively related to the proximity to roads and farms; the distribution of injured elephants was not affected by the presence of either human settlements or water sources. Overall more elephants were actively injured during the dry season than the wet season as expected. Local communities play a positive role by informing KWS authorities of the presence of injured elephants and reported 43% of all cases of injured elephants. Conclusions Our results suggest that the negative effect of local communities on elephants could be predicted by elephant proximity to farms and roads. In addition, local communities may be able to play a more positive role in elephant conservation given that they are key informants in the early detection of injured elephants.
Detusking Fence-Breaker Elephants as an Approach in Human-Elephant Conflict Mitigation
Matthew Mutinda, Geoffrey Chenge, Francis Gakuya, Moses Otiende, Patrick Omondi, Samuel Kasiki, Ramón C. Soriguer, Samer Alasaad
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0091749
Abstract: Background Human-elephant conflict (HEC) is a recurring problem that appears wherever the range of elephants and humans overlap. Different methods including the use of electric fences are used worldwide to mitigate this conflict. Nonetheless, elephants learn quickly that their tusks do not conduct electricity and use them to break down fences (fence-breakers). Methodology/Principal Findings In Lewa Wildlife Conservancy, Kenya, destructive elephants (Loxodonta africana) were monitored between 2010 and 2013. The fence-breaking rate reached four incidents (fence-breaking) per elephant per 100 days. Ten bull males and 57 females were identified as fence-breakers. The bulls were involved in 85.07% and the females in 14.93% of incidents. The Kenya Wildlife Service approved detusking (partial cutting of tusks) in four of the 10 fence-breakers as a way of preventing them from breaking down fences, thereby mitigating HEC in the Conservancy. The result of the detusking was a drastic six-fold reduction in damage to fences (range: 1.67 to 14.5 times less fence-breaking) by the four worst fence-breaker elephants, because with trimmed tusks elephants lack the tools to break down fences. Detusking could not totally eliminate fence destruction because, despite lacking their tools, elephants can still destroy fences using their heads, bodies and trunks, albeit less effectively. On the other hand, apart from inherent aesthetic considerations, the detusking of elephants may have certain negative effects on factors such as elephants' social hierarchies, breeding, mate selection and their access to essential minerals and food. Conclusions Elephant detusking seems to be effective in drastically reducing fence-breaking incidents, nonetheless its negative effects on behaviour, access to food and its aesthetical consequences still need to be further studied and investigated.
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