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Homology modeling and ligand interaction of Cytochrome b protein
Rohith Kumar Anugolu,Shravan Kumar Gunda,Rajiv Varman Kakarla
Journal of Medical and Allied Sciences , 2011,
Abstract: Cytochrome b is a component of respiratory chain complex III, also known as the bc1 complex or ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase. These complexes are involved in electron transport and the generation of ATP and thus play a vital role in the cell. The cytochrome bc1 complex is a membrane-bound enzyme that catalyses the transfer of electrons from ubiquinol to cytochrome c, coupling this process to the translocation of protons across the inner mitochondrial membrane. The function of proteins is generally determined by its three-dimensional (3D) structure. Thus, it would be useful to know the 3D structure of the thousands of protein sequences that are emerging from many genome projects. Structural studies on bio-molecules have changed our perception of the biological world in the last twenty years. A number of efforts have been made on structure prediction. One such technique that has found a wide appreciation is Homology modeling which aims at predicting the 3D structure of biomolecules, relying heavily on resources such as pattern/function and sequence. However, the three-dimensional structure of cytochrome b subunit protein (Accession number C4PKA1) from Homo sapiens remains unknown. In the present study, effort was made to generate the three-dimensional (3D) structure of the cytochrome b based on available template (1BGY) structural homologues from Protein Data Bank and the model validated with standard parameters (Procheck). With the predicted model, the ligand was subjected to docking study using FlexX docking tool. Flexible docking was carried out with the HEM - Protoporphyrin X [Heme] as ligand; which was found to bind at His267, Ile268 and Val343 residues on given generated protein. We therefore concluded that the above mentioned residues were the key residue sites for ligand binding. The predicted model showed better results than the template structure with 0% disallowed regions. This study will be used in broad screening of the protein in the respiratory process and can be further implemented in future drug designing.
Bilateral Canalis Craniopharyngeus Lateralis.
Dharwal Kumud,Varman Poonam
Revista Argentina de Anatomia Online , 2012,
Abstract: Out of the 150 skulls studied, the interior of two skulls showed additional large foramina communicating with the sphenoidal air sinuses, at the anterolateral angles of sella turcica. The site, size and shape suggested them to be the congenitally formed Sternberg’s canals. The morphometric, morphogenic and clinical perspectives of these canals were studied.
Self retaining contact lens system for vitreous surgery
Chalam Kakarla,Shah Vinay
Indian Journal of Ophthalmology , 2004,
Abstract: We describe the principle and design of a new self-retaining contact lens system for vitreous surgery. The system has three lenses: the plano-concave, prism and magnifying lens. This system is based on the principle of a direct imaging contact lens, designed for a 150-200mm focal length operating microscope. The contact lenses are designed to have an inferior concave surface [radius of curvature (ROC) 7.7mm], modified by the addition of four footplates to provide stability and centration during vitreous surgery. The lenses are used with a drop of viscoelastic material placed between the concave surface of the contact lens and cornea. This induces negative suction and helps retain the lens in position during surgery. These specially designed lenses provide a stable, well-centered, high-resolution, magnified view of the fundus. This system eliminates the need for a skilled assistant or for suturing the lens to the sclera during vitreous surgery.
Aqueous Interleukin-6 (IL-6) Level Is a Marker for Treatment Resistance to Bevacizumab in Age-Related Macular Degeneration —Aqueous Cytokines after Bevacizumab  [PDF]
Kakarla V. Chalam, Sandeep Grover, Sankarathi Balaiya, Ravi K. Murthy
Open Journal of Ophthalmology (OJOph) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojoph.2014.41005
Abstract:

Background: To prospectively evaluate the effect of intravitreal bevacizumab on aqueous levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in patients with exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and to correlate clinical outcomes of patients and aqueous cytokine levels before and after injection. Methods: The study group consisted of 30 eyes from 30 patients with exudative AMD who underwent intravitreal injection of bevacizumab three times at monthly intervals. The aqueous samples prior to the 1st injection (baseline) and 3rd injection were analyzed for VEGF and IL-6 levels, evaluating the effect of 2 doses of intravitreal bevacizumab. Study patients were sub-grouped based upon change in central subfield (CSF) macular thickness on SD-OCT, at 8 weeks. Group 1 included patients (n = 14) with a decrease in CSF thickness greater than 10% from the baseline and were categorized to have improved. Group 2 included patients (n = 16) who had a decrease in CSF thickness 10% or less and were considered treatment-resistant. Results: There was no statistically significant change in aqueous VEGF and IL-6 levels after intravitreal bevacizumab. In sub-group analysis, in both Groups 1 and 2 patients, aqueous IL-6 levels showed a better correlation with CSF thickness on SD-OCT (r =

Identification of differentially expressed proteins in response to Pb stress in Catharanthus roseus
SP Kumar, PAM Varman, BDR Kumari
African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology , 2011,
Abstract: Lead (Pb) is a widespread nonessential heavy metal in cells and causes molecular damage to plants through the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which can be alleviated by enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidant machinery of the plant. In the present study, proteomic studies at 3, 6, 12 and 24 days demonstrated that the effect of 150 μM Pb on Catharanthus roseus. In response to Pb, a total of 76 proteins, out of the 95 differentially expressed proteins, were subjected to MALDI-TOF-MS Of these, 46 identities were identified by PMF and 19 identities were identified by microsequencing. Basic metabolisms such as photosynthesis, photorespiration and protein biosynthesis in C. roseus leaves were without exception strongly inhibited at the beginning of Pb treatment. On the other hand, tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, glycolysis, shikimate pathway, phytochelatin synthesis, redox homeostasis and signaling proteins were induced during recovery period. Such defense systems play an important role in maintaining the survival and growth of C. roseus under strong and sustained oxidative stress.
Diabetes Control: Role of Health Education and Other Factors. A Study in a Newspaper Industry
Krishnan N.,Varman M.,Roberts M.
Indian Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine , 2004,
Abstract:
Genotype x Environment interaction for kernel yield in groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.)
A. Mothilal, P. Vindhiya varman and N. Manivannan
Electronic Journal of Plant Breeding , 2010,
Abstract: Sixteen medium duration groundnut cultures were evaluated for kernel yield, stability and adaptation across fourenvironments. The G X E interaction was highly significant and both linear and non-linear component are equally importantfor yield stability. The genotype ICGV 92004 was classified as highly stable genotype over four environments because of itshigh mean kernel yield, with a regression coefficient close to unity and non-significant deviation from linearity
Combining ability analysis for seed yield and its components in Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).
K. Mohanasundaram, N. Manivannan and P. Vindhiya varman
Electronic Journal of Plant Breeding , 2010,
Abstract: Twenty four lines were crossed with two testers in an L x T mating design to estimate the combining ability for seed yield insunflower. Non-additive genetic variance played a preponderant role in the inheritance of all the characters studied viz., daysto 50 % flowering, days to maturity, plant height, head diameter, volume weight, hundred seed weight and seed yield perplant. The lines 27, 436 and tester 234A can be considered as superior parents in the present study as they recorded high per seperformance with positively significant general combining ability effect for seed yield/plant. Among the 48 hybrids evaluated,crosses viz., 234A x 436, 234A x 440 and 234A x 235 were considered as superior hybrids as they recorded high per seperformance and significant sca effect for seed yield/plant.
Phenotypic stability for kernel yield in groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.)
A. Mothilal, P. Vindhiya varman and N. Manivannan
Electronic Journal of Plant Breeding , 2010,
Abstract: The yield stability of 16 Spanish bunch groundnut genotypes were evaluated in four seasons consecutively forkernel yield per hectare. Two genotypes viz., ICGV 92206 and ICGV 93392 were found to be stable for kernelyield as they possessed non-significant deviation from the regression with regression coefficient nearing unity.
Molecular markers and their applications in fisheries and aquaculture  [PDF]
Tanya Chauhan, Kumar Rajiv
Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology (ABB) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/abb.2010.14037
Abstract: Genetic variation in a species enhances the capability of organism to adapt to changing environment and is necessary for survival of the species. Genetic variation arises between individuals leading to differentiation at the level of population, species and higher order taxonomic groups. The genetic diversity data has varied application in research on evolution, conservation and management of natural resources and genetic improvement programmes, etc. Development of Molecular genetic markers has powerful ability to detect genetic studies of individuals, populations or species. These molecular markers combined with new statistical developments have revolutionized the analytical power, necessary to explore the genetic diversity. Molecular markers and their statistical analysis revolutionized the analytical power, necessary to explore the genetic diversity. Various molecular markers, protein or DNA (mt-DNA or nuclear DNA such as microsatellites, SNP or RAPD) are now being used in fisheries and aquaculture. These markers provide various scientific observations which have importance in aquaculture practice recently such as: 1) Species Identification 2) Genetic variation and population structure study in natural populations 3) Comparison between wild and hatchery populations 4) Assessment of demographic bottleneck in natural population 5) Propagation assisted rehabilitation programmes. In this review article, we have concentrated on the basics of molecular genetics, overview of commonly used markers and their application along with their limitations (major classes of markers) in fisheries and aquaculture studies.
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