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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 955 matches for " Rajeev Krishnadas "
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Sustained remission of rheumatoid arthritis with a specific serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressant: a case report and review of the literature
Rajeev Krishnadas, Ranjit Krishnadas, Jonathan Cavanagh
Journal of Medical Case Reports , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1752-1947-5-112
Abstract: We describe a 60-year-old Indian man with rheumatoid arthritis diagnosed 15 years ago who had minimal response to multiple therapies with disease-modifying agents and whose arthritis symptoms surprisingly remitted when he was started on a specific serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressant, three years ago, for co-morbid major depression. This remission has been maintained with this medication, and the patient is currently not taking any antirheumatoid medications.Possible mechanisms linking substrates of mood disorders and inflammation are reviewed in this case report, particularly the serotonergic system. Evidence seems to suggest a significant interaction between the serotonergic systems and inflammation. This interaction seems to be bidirectional. An understanding of this relation is most important to gain insight not only into pathophysiological mechanisms underlying this condition, but also into how treatments for these conditions may complement each other and possibly provide greater therapeutic options in both of these disabling conditions.Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic, disabling condition that primarily affects joints, producing an inflammatory synovitis that often progresses to destruction of the articular cartilage and ankylosis of the joints. Prevalence of RA is 1.16% in women and 0.44% in men in the United Kingdom [1]. A similar prevalence has been reported in India [2]. The mainstay of pharmacologic therapy for RA includes the use of disease-modifying agents (DMARDs) like sulfasalazine and methothrexate, and more recently, "biologic agents" like anti-TNF-α agents [3].Conservative estimates suggest that major depressive disorder affects between 13% and 17% of patients with RA [4]. Major depressive disorder is thought to be an independent risk factor for both work disability and mortality in those with RA [5]. Clinical associations between medical illnesses and major depressive disorder are not solely attributable to illness-induced disability
Relationship of cognitive function in patients with schizophrenia in remission to disability: a cross-sectional study in an Indian sample
Rajeev Krishnadas, Brian P Moore, Ajita Nayak, Ramesh R Patel
Annals of General Psychiatry , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1744-859x-6-19
Abstract: This study was conducted in the Psychiatric Unit of a General Hospital in Mumbai, India. Cognitive function in 25 patients with schizophrenia in remission was compared to 25 normal controls. Remission was confirmed using the brief psychiatric rating scale (BPRS) and scale for the assessment of negative symptoms (SANS). Subjects were administered a battery of cognitive tests covering aspects of memory, executive function and attention. The results obtained were compared between the groups. Correlation analysis was used to look for relationship between illness factors, cognitive function and disability measured using the Indian disability evaluation and assessment scale.Patients with schizophrenia showed significant deficits on tests of attention, concentration, verbal and visual memory and tests of frontal lobe/executive function. They fared worse on almost all the tests administered compared to normal controls. No relationship was found between age, duration of illness, number of years of education and cognitive function. In addition, we did not find a statistically significant relationship between cognitive function and scores on the disability scale.The data suggests that persistent cognitive deficits are seen in patients with schizophrenia under remission. The cognitive deficits were not associated with symptomatology and functional disability. It is possible that various factors such as employment and family support reduce disability due to schizophrenia in developing countries like India. Further studies from developing countries are required to explore the relationship between cognitive deficits, functional outcome and the role of socio-cultural variables as protective factors.Neurocognitive dysfunction has been postulated as a core deficit in many major mental illnesses [1-3]. Rather than a gene that is linked to a specific illness, it is proposed that deficits in information processing could be endophenotypes that are inherited [4]. A constellation of these
Residual Negative Symptoms Differentiate Cognitive Performance in Clinically Stable Patients with Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder
Rajeev Krishnadas,Seethalakshmi Ramanathan,Eugene Wong,Ajita Nayak,Brian Moore
Schizophrenia Research and Treatment , 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/785310
Abstract: Cognitive deficits in various domains have been shown in patients with bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. The purpose of the present study was to examine if residual psychopathology explained the difference in cognitive function between clinically stable patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. We compared the performance on tests of attention, visual and verbal memory, and executive function of 25 patients with schizophrenia in remission and 25 euthymic bipolar disorder patients with that of 25 healthy controls. Mediation analysis was used to see if residual psychopathology could explain the difference in cognitive function between the patient groups. Both patient groups performed significantly worse than healthy controls on most cognitive tests. Patients with bipolar disorder displayed cognitive deficits that were milder but qualitatively similar to those of patients with schizophrenia. Residual negative symptoms mediated the difference in performance on cognitive tests between the two groups. Neither residual general psychotic symptoms nor greater antipsychotic doses explained this relationship. The shared variance explained by the residual negative and cognitive deficits that the difference between patient groups may be explained by greater frontal cortical neurophysiological deficits in patients with schizophrenia, compared to bipolar disorder. Further longitudinal work may provide insight into pathophysiological mechanisms that underlie these deficits. 1. Introduction Cognitive deficits represent stable traits in both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder [1]. Studies that have directly compared the two groups show qualitatively similar deficits, but quantitatively, milder deficits in bipolar disorder [2–4]. More recently, it has been postulated that this quantitative difference may depend on the presence or severity of psychotic symptoms [5, 6]. For example, Simonsen et al. found that as compared to those without psychosis, subjects with a history of psychosis, irrespective of the diagnosis, showed poorer performance on neurocognitive measures [5]. Additionally, depressive and negative symptoms have also been associated with cognitive deficits [7, 8]. However, very few studies have tried to address these issues during symptomatic remission. It is not clear if residual/subthreshold psychopathology during periods of remission would explain the trait difference between the two groups. In other words, do patients with schizophrenia perform poorer on cognitive tests than patients with bipolar disorder, due to the presence of
Factors associated with antenatal mental disorder in West Africa: A cross-sectional survey
Bola Ola, Jim Crabb, Adetokunbo Tayo, Selena H Gleadow Ware, Arup Dhar, Rajeev Krishnadas
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2393-11-90
Abstract: A prospective survey design was conducted in Lagos. Self reporting questionnaire 20 items - SRQ20 - assessed the presence of mental illness. The WHO Multi-country Study on Women's Health and Domestic Violence Questions assessed women's exposure to violence. Numerous variables potentially associated with mental illness including maternal socio-economic factors, maternal characteristics, obstetric variables and the characteristics of previous children were recorded. Direct logistic regression was performed to assess the impact of a number of variables on the likelihood of presence of mental disorder in the population.189 women were surveyed. 7% met the criteria for experiencing a common mental disorder according to their score on the SRQ-20. Of variables examined only the number of female children and the presence of inter personal violence predicted being a case of mental illness (OR = 3.400; 95%CI = 1.374 - 8.414 and OR = 5.676; 95%CI = 1.251 - 25.757 respectively).Rates of mental disorder found in our study were lower than those previously observed internationally and in Africa, perhaps reflecting stigma about disclosing symptoms. The predictive nature of violence on mental disorder is in keeping with international evidence. Our study demonstrated that exposure to inter personal violence within the last 12 months and increasing numbers of female children predict the presence of mental illness in a sample of pregnant Nigerian women. Training and education for primary health care and obstetric health workers should highlight these areas.There is increasing evidence that anxiety and depression are more prevalent in late pregnancy compared to the postpartum period and an increasing body of evidence highlights the role of antenatal stress on maternal mental health and childhood growth and development [1]. Pre-natal stress has been identified as referring to a range of events from exposure to traumatic events, self-reports of daily hassles and negative life events during
Indwelling Pleural Catheter Insertion Following Inefficient Thoracoscopic Decortication in Postpneumonic Empyema: Beneficial or Contraindicated?  [PDF]
Gabor Egri, Rakesh Krishnadas, Peter Froeschle
Open Journal of Thoracic Surgery (OJTS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojts.2013.34025
Abstract: Video assisted thoracic surgery in advanced stage postpneumonic empyema aims for thorough debridement and washout of the pleural space followed by an attempt to release the entrapped lung (decortication). When the latter isnt successful, and the patient is in a poor performance status, applying tube thoracostomy is the usual routine, to avoid conversion to thoracotomy and open decortication. Tube thoracostomy, however, is associated with complications necessitating further surgery, needs long term follow up and also entails quality of life distorting issues. To overcome these disadvantages, we instead inserted a PleurX® indwelling pleural catheter in four patients in the above situation. The method brought success (lung re-expansion and complete or partial pleurodesis) without the need for further surgery or quality of life problems in either patient. Although the use of the indwelling pleural catheter in infected pleural space is not recommended by manufacturers, we noted no complications.
Electron Ionization Cross Sections of PF3 Molecule  [PDF]
Rajeev Kumar
Journal of Applied Mathematics and Physics (JAMP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jamp.2015.312192
Abstract: Partial single and double differential cross sections with their sums through direct and dissociative ionization of PF3 have been evaluated at fixed electron energies 100 and 200 eV, by using modified Jain-Khare semi-empirical approach. To the best of my knowledge no other data of differential cross sections are available for the comparison. I have also calculated integral ionization cross sections with their ionization rate coefficients by using M-B distribution. No other data of partial ionization cross section are available till now. The sum/or total of evaluated partial cross sections reveal good agreement with available theoretical data.
Policy Initiative for Balance Regional Development and Growth  [PDF]
Rajeev Rana
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2018.814188
Abstract: The economics growth and development mostly coined together, and it was thought that growth itself led to development of the country but it was found that there are more dissimilarities than complementary. A higher growth will spontaneously lead development only when there is equitable distribution of resources and balancing regional development. But it did not happen in practices as high growth widen inequality and unequal distribution between the different groups of people in the societies as well between inter-state and intra-state to create regional imbalance, further as there is a transition period of the economy and urbanization took place it was experienced that regional imbalance widen in the term of class difference, gender discrimination (lower participation of women, as well alarming sex ratio), resources distribution, and per capital income. Further, the regional economic disparities create more inequality between savings, investment, and had interconnected map over the vicious cycle of corruption, demographic challenges, influencing chronic & infectious diseases, illicit trade, migration, food insecurity, and governance failures. The paper is addressing those various issues and thrust area of policy initiatives to present the causes of regional imbalance and growth as well the policy initiative for inclusive development.
An animal cell culture: Advance technology for modern research  [PDF]
Rajeev Nema, Sarita Khare
Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology (ABB) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/abb.2012.33030
Abstract: At the present time animal cell culture is more significant and multifarious application tool for current research streams. A lot of field assorted from animal cell culture such: stem cell biology, IVF technology, cancer cell biology, monoclonal antibody production, recombinant protein production, gene therapy, vaccine manufacturing, novel drug selection and improvement. In this review conclude animal cell culture as well as its requirements
Simulation & Performance Evaluation of QoS Routing Protocol for Adhoc Networks Using Directional Communication  [PDF]
Arvind Kumar, Rajeev Tripathi
Int'l J. of Communications, Network and System Sciences (IJCNS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ijcns.2012.512087
Abstract: A wireless ad-hoc network is a self-organized wireless network without fixed or backbone infrastructure. All nodes have routing capability and use peer-to-peer packet transmission or forward packets to other node using multi hop communication. Now days mobile ad-hoc networks are being used for different applications and traffics, so it require quality of service (QoS) support in routing protocol. In this paper, a modified QoS routing protocol using directional antenna has been proposed. High and normal priority can be assigned based on type of traffic. All the nodes in the path used by high priority flow are reserved as high priority flow for that flow and normal priority flow will avoid the paths used by high priority flows. If no disjoint paths are available, there may be two possibilities: Normal priority flows are blocked and other is, normal priority flows are allow using the coupled path with high priority flow. Blocking the normal priority flow, QoS routing protocol improves the performance of high priority flow. This concept may be use in emergency communication. Simulation results show that by assigning the priorities to flows, performance of high priority flows are improved and it will further improved by blocking the normal priority flow.
Enhancement in QoS for Hybrid Networks Using IEEE 802.11e HCCA with Extended AODV Routing Protocol  [PDF]
Shalini Singh, Rajeev Tripathi
Int'l J. of Communications, Network and System Sciences (IJCNS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ijcns.2015.86024
Abstract: The mobile ad hoc network (MANET) with infrastructure networks (hybrid networks) has several practical uses. The utility of hybrid network is increased in real time applications by providing some suitable quality of service. The quality thresholds are imposed on parameters like end-to-end delay (EED), jitter, packet delivery ratio (PDR) and throughput. This paper utilizes the extended ad hoc on-demand distance vector (AODV) routing protocol for communication between ad hoc network and fixed wired network. This paper also uses the IEEE 802.11e medium access control (MAC) function HCF Controlled Channel Access (HCCA) to support quality of service (QoS) in hybrid network. In this paper two simulation scenarios are analyzed for hybrid networks. The nodes in wireless ad hoc networks are mobile in one scenario and static in the other scenario. Both simulation scenarios are used to compare the performance of extended AODV with HCCA (IEEE 802.11e) and without HCCA (IEEE802.11) for real time voice over IP (VoIP) traffic. The extensive set of simulations results show that the performance of extended AODV with HCCA (IEEE 802.11e) improves QoS in hybrid network and it is unaffected whether the nodes in wireless ad hoc networks are mobile or static.
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