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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 143 matches for " Rajamanickam Saravana "
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A complicated true sliding hernia presenting as a spontaneous enteroscrotal fistula in an adult
Rajamanickam Saravana,Yadav Ashok,Rai Anurag,Singh Devendra
Journal of Emergencies, Trauma and Shock , 2010,
Abstract: A 26-year-old man presented with an irreducible right inguino-scrotal swelling and fecal discharge from the scrotum. Exploratory laparotomy and inguinal exploration revealed that the caecum, appendix, and terminal ileum had herniated into the scrotum and had perforated through the skin forming a fecal fistula. The herniated gangrenous bowel was resected and a stoma fashioned. Spontaneous entero-scrotal fistulae are very rare and eight pediatric cases have been mentioned in literature till date. We report the first case of true sliding hernia presenting as spontaneous entero-scrotal fistula in an adult.
Theory on the Dynamics of Feedforward Loops in the Transcription Factor Networks
Rajamanickam Murugan
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0041027
Abstract: Feedforward loops (FFLs) consist of three genes which code for three different transcription factors A, B and C where B regulates C and A regulates both B and C. We develop a detailed model to describe the dynamical behavior of various types of coherent and incoherent FFLs in the transcription factor networks. We consider the deterministic and stochastic dynamics of both promoter-states and synthesis and degradation of mRNAs of various genes associated with FFL motifs. Detailed analysis shows that the response times of FFLs strongly dependent on the ratios (wh = γpc/γph where h = a, b, c corresponding to genes A, B and C) between the lifetimes of mRNAs (1/γmh) of genes A, B and C and the protein of C (1/γpc). Under strong binding conditions we can categorize all the possible types of FFLs into groups I, II and III based on the dependence of the response times of FFLs on wh. Group I that includes C1 and I1 type FFLs seem to be less sensitive to the changes in wh. The coherent C1 type seems to be more robust against changes in other system parameters. We argue that this could be one of the reasons for the abundant nature of C1 type coherent FFLs.
Emerging role of radiation induced bystander effects: Cell communications and carcinogenesis
Rajamanickam Baskar
Genome Integrity , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/2041-9414-1-13
Abstract: Extensive epidemiological and toxicological research over several decades has focused on the health effects of radiation to understand the risk of exposure to both public and workforce. Ionizing radiation has been used in both diagnostic and therapeutic medical applications and described as a double-edged sword [1]. However, there are considerable concerns about the detrimental health effects associated with direct radiation exposure [1-3] even on metabolically inactive cells [4,5]. Radiation is harmful in terms of risks to health from accidental exposure and its role as a carcinogen [6], however on the other side it is beneficial for the use of various diagnostic and therapeutic procedures such as the treatment of cancer. Radiotherapy (RT) continues to be an important therapeutic modality for the treatment of cancer. RT for cancers allows killing of the cancer cells but also shows a risk for adverse consequences such as tissue atrophy and formation of secondary tumors at the same organ, or at some distanced part of body [7]. Furthermore, radiation exposure during diagnostic (e.g. X-rays, CT-scans) and RT procedures shows varying health effects in the general population and also in cancer patients [8-14]. But with cancer survivors living longer, there is a growing concern regarding the risk of radiation-induced secondary cancers in patients treated with ionizing radiation. The situation is important for children, who are inherently more radiosensitive and therefore at greater risk for radiation induced post-radiotherapy cancer development [15-17].The DNA damage response system, which maintains the survival and genomic stability of the cell, represents a vital line of defense against various exogenous and endogenous DNA damaging agents [18]. Radiation can induce apoptosis or trigger DNA repair mechanisms. In general minor DNA damage is thought to halt cell cycle to allow effective repair, while more severe damage can induce an apoptotic cell death program. Until rela
Detoxifying effect of Nelumbo nucifera and Aegle marmelos on hematological parameters of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)
Rajamanickam Vinodhini
Interdisciplinary Toxicology , 2010, DOI: 10.2478/v10102-010-0052-9
Abstract: The objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy of Nelumbo nucifera and Aegle marmelos on common carp exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of combined heavy metals (5 ppm) under laboratory conditions. The fish were treated with Nelumbo nucifera (500 mg/kg bwt) and Aegle marmelos (500 mg/kgbwt) for 30 days as a dietary supplement. The blood biochemical parameters of the fish were evaluated by analyzing the level of red blood cells (RBC), packed cell volume (PCV), hemoglobin concentration, glucose, cholesterol, iron and copper. The findings of the present investigation showed significant increase in hemoglobin (p<0.001), RBC (p<0.01) and PCV (p<0.01) of herbal drug-treated groups compared with metal-exposed fish. Conversely, glucose and cholesterol level in blood of common carp showed significant reduction compared with heavy-metal-exposed groups. All the values measured in Nelumbo nucifera and Aegle marmelos treated fish were restored comparably to control fish. Our results confirmed that Nelumbo nucifera and Aegle marmelos provide a detoxification mechanism for heavy metals in common carp.
Effect of heavy metals induced toxicity on metabolic biomarkers in common carp (Cyprinus Carpio L.)
Vinodhini Rajamanickam
Maejo International Journal of Science and Technology , 2008,
Abstract: This research paper presents the pathological effects of a sub-lethal concentration of heavy metals (cadmium, lead, nickel, and chromium) on common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). Total protein and levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in the liver tissue were measured. Compared with the control group a significant decrease of total protein (p < 0.001) was ascertained in the experimental group. The ALP on the other hand was significantly higher (p < 0.001). The values of ALT, AST, and LDH significantly decreased in the first day and then progressively increased afterwards (p < 0.001). The above results on the biochemical profile indicate marked hepatotoxic effects of heavy metals in common carp.
Effect of heavy metals on the level of vitamin E, total lipid and glycogen reserves in the liver of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)
Vinodhini Rajamanickam
Maejo International Journal of Science and Technology , 2008,
Abstract: The aim of this study is to examine some changes in the biochemical profile of the liver tissue of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) exposed to a sublethal concentration of heavy metal mixture (cadmium, chromium, nickel and lead). The biochemical profile, specifically glycogen, total lipid and vitamin E content in the liver tissue was examined and compared to that of the control group. The exposed group showed a marked decline in glycogen and vitamin E reserves. Conversely an increase in total lipid in comparison to control was observed. The result reflects the sensitivity of these biochemical parameters to the effects of sublethal levels of combined heavy metals for this the widely consumed freshwater fish.
Biological response of cancer cells to radiation treatment
Rajamanickam Baskar
Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences , 2014, DOI: 10.3389/fmolb.2014.00024
Abstract: Cancer is a class of diseases characterized by uncontrolled cell growth and has the ability to spread or metastasize throughout the body. In recent years, remarkable progress has been made toward the understanding of proposed hallmarks of cancer development, care, and treatment modalities. Radiation therapy or radiotherapy is an important and integral component of cancer management, mostly conferring a survival benefit. Radiation therapy destroys cancer by depositing high-energy radiation on the cancer tissues. Over the years, radiation therapy has been driven by constant technological advances and approximately 50% of all patients with localized malignant tumors are treated with radiation at some point in the course of their disease. In radiation oncology, research and development in the last three decades has led to considerable improvement in our understanding of the differential responses of normal and cancer cells. The biological effectiveness of radiation depends on the linear energy transfer (LET), total dose, number of fractions and radiosensitivity of the targeted cells or tissues. Radiation can either directly or indirectly (by producing free radicals) damages the genome of the cell. This has been challenged in recent years by a newly identified phenomenon known as radiation induced bystander effect (RIBE). In RIBE, the non-irradiated cells adjacent to or located far from the irradiated cells/tissues demonstrate similar responses to that of the directly irradiated cells. Understanding the cancer cell responses during the fractions or after the course of irradiation will lead to improvements in therapeutic efficacy and potentially, benefitting a significant proportion of cancer patients. In this review, the clinical implications of radiation induced direct and bystander effects on the cancer cell are discussed.
Theory on the Dynamics of Oscillatory Loops in the Transcription Factor Networks
Rajamanickam Murugan
Quantitative Biology , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0104328
Abstract: We develop a detailed theoretical framework for various types of transcription factor gene oscillators. We further demonstrate that one can build genetic-oscillators which are tunable and robust against perturbations in the critical control parameters by coupling two or more independent Goodwin-Griffith oscillators through either -OR- or -AND- type logic. Most of the coupled oscillators constructed in the literature so far seem to be of -OR- type. When there are transient perturbations in one of the -OR- type coupled-oscillators, then the overall period of the system remains constant (period-buffering) whereas in case of -AND- type coupling the overall period of the system moves towards the perturbed oscillator. Though there is a period-buffering, the amplitudes of oscillators coupled through -OR- type logic are more sensitive to perturbations in the parameters associated with the promoter state dynamics than -AND- type. Further analysis shows that the period of -AND- type coupled dual-feedback oscillators can be tuned without conceding on the amplitudes. Using these results we derive the basic design principles governing the robust and tunable synthetic gene oscillators without compromising on their amplitudes.
Theory on the mechanism of rapid binding of transcription factor proteins at specific-sites on DNA
Rajamanickam Murugan
Quantitative Biology , 2014,
Abstract: We develop revised theoretical ideas on the mechanism by which the transcription factor proteins locate their specific binding sites on DNA faster than the three-dimensional (3D) diffusion controlled rate limit. We demonstrate that the 3D-diffusion controlled rate limit can be enhanced when the protein molecule reads several possible binding stretches of the template DNA via one-dimensional (1D) diffusion upon each 3D-diffusion mediated collision or nonspecific binding event. The overall enhancement of site-specific association rate is directly proportional to the maximum possible sliding length (LA, square root of (6Do/kr) where Do is the 1D-diffusion coefficient and kr is the dissociation rate constant associated with the nonspecific DNA-protein complex) associated with the 1D-diffusion of protein molecule along DNA. Upon considering several possible mechanisms we find that the DNA binding proteins can efficiently locate their cognate sites on DNA by switching across fast-moving, slow-moving and reading states of their DNA binding domains in a cyclic manner. Irrespective of the type of mechanism the overall rate enhancement factor asymptotically approaches a limiting value which is directly proportional to LA as the total length of DNA that contains the cognate site increases. These results are consistent with the in vitro experimental observations.
The Effect of Angulated Radius Fractures in Forearm Rotation: A Computer Based Model  [PDF]
Saravana Vail Karuppiah, Saaqib Qureshi, Donal McNally
Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering (JBiSE) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jbise.2016.96024
Abstract: Background: Forearm fractures amongst children are quite a common presentation. The accuracy of correct alignment in forearm bones is important as it determines the degree of forearm rotation (pronation-supination). However in children due to the potential for continuous growth, a degree of angulation is acceptable. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of angulation of forearm fracture on forearm rotation using computer stimulation. Methods: Using a 3D computer modelling software (Wildfire Pro Engineer 4.0, Creo by PTC, Needham, MA), an accurate to scale model of the radius and ulna was replicated from a 7 year old forearm. A realistic representation of pronation/supination of the forearm was applied and a fracture at the junction of proximal one third and distal two third was created. A rotational simulation was created and ended when maximum pronation and supination was reached. Maximum pronation and supination was reached when either no more rotation could occur due to a misalignment of the radius and ulna or there was a collision of the bones. The simulation was repeated in increments of angulation of 2° up to 26°. The angulations that resulted in a combined range of motion (50° pronation and 80° supination) less than 130° were recorded as unacceptable and the others were as acceptable. Findings: The study showed that radius angulation fracture of >16° in the proximal third of the radius would result in an unacceptable reduction of pronation-supination to less than 130°. Conclusion: Patients with more >16° of radius angulation in a distal third shaft fracture of the radius may result in clinical reduction in forearm rotation.
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