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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 152 matches for " Rajamanickam Baskar "
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Emerging role of radiation induced bystander effects: Cell communications and carcinogenesis
Rajamanickam Baskar
Genome Integrity , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/2041-9414-1-13
Abstract: Extensive epidemiological and toxicological research over several decades has focused on the health effects of radiation to understand the risk of exposure to both public and workforce. Ionizing radiation has been used in both diagnostic and therapeutic medical applications and described as a double-edged sword [1]. However, there are considerable concerns about the detrimental health effects associated with direct radiation exposure [1-3] even on metabolically inactive cells [4,5]. Radiation is harmful in terms of risks to health from accidental exposure and its role as a carcinogen [6], however on the other side it is beneficial for the use of various diagnostic and therapeutic procedures such as the treatment of cancer. Radiotherapy (RT) continues to be an important therapeutic modality for the treatment of cancer. RT for cancers allows killing of the cancer cells but also shows a risk for adverse consequences such as tissue atrophy and formation of secondary tumors at the same organ, or at some distanced part of body [7]. Furthermore, radiation exposure during diagnostic (e.g. X-rays, CT-scans) and RT procedures shows varying health effects in the general population and also in cancer patients [8-14]. But with cancer survivors living longer, there is a growing concern regarding the risk of radiation-induced secondary cancers in patients treated with ionizing radiation. The situation is important for children, who are inherently more radiosensitive and therefore at greater risk for radiation induced post-radiotherapy cancer development [15-17].The DNA damage response system, which maintains the survival and genomic stability of the cell, represents a vital line of defense against various exogenous and endogenous DNA damaging agents [18]. Radiation can induce apoptosis or trigger DNA repair mechanisms. In general minor DNA damage is thought to halt cell cycle to allow effective repair, while more severe damage can induce an apoptotic cell death program. Until rela
Biological response of cancer cells to radiation treatment
Rajamanickam Baskar
Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences , 2014, DOI: 10.3389/fmolb.2014.00024
Abstract: Cancer is a class of diseases characterized by uncontrolled cell growth and has the ability to spread or metastasize throughout the body. In recent years, remarkable progress has been made toward the understanding of proposed hallmarks of cancer development, care, and treatment modalities. Radiation therapy or radiotherapy is an important and integral component of cancer management, mostly conferring a survival benefit. Radiation therapy destroys cancer by depositing high-energy radiation on the cancer tissues. Over the years, radiation therapy has been driven by constant technological advances and approximately 50% of all patients with localized malignant tumors are treated with radiation at some point in the course of their disease. In radiation oncology, research and development in the last three decades has led to considerable improvement in our understanding of the differential responses of normal and cancer cells. The biological effectiveness of radiation depends on the linear energy transfer (LET), total dose, number of fractions and radiosensitivity of the targeted cells or tissues. Radiation can either directly or indirectly (by producing free radicals) damages the genome of the cell. This has been challenged in recent years by a newly identified phenomenon known as radiation induced bystander effect (RIBE). In RIBE, the non-irradiated cells adjacent to or located far from the irradiated cells/tissues demonstrate similar responses to that of the directly irradiated cells. Understanding the cancer cell responses during the fractions or after the course of irradiation will lead to improvements in therapeutic efficacy and potentially, benefitting a significant proportion of cancer patients. In this review, the clinical implications of radiation induced direct and bystander effects on the cancer cell are discussed.
Cancer and Radiation Therapy: Current Advances and Future Directions
Rajamanickam Baskar, Kuo Ann Lee, Richard Yeo, Kheng-Wei Yeoh
International Journal of Medical Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: In recent years remarkable progress has been made towards the understanding of proposed hallmarks of cancer development and treatment. However with its increasing incidence, the clinical management of cancer continues to be a challenge for the 21st century. Treatment modalities comprise of radiation therapy, surgery, chemotherapy, immunotherapy and hormonal therapy. Radiation therapy remains an important component of cancer treatment with approximately 50% of all cancer patients receiving radiation therapy during their course of illness; it contributes towards 40% of curative treatment for cancer. The main goal of radiation therapy is to deprive cancer cells of their multiplication (cell division) potential. Celebrating a century of advances since Marie Curie won her second Nobel Prize for her research into radium, 2011 has been designated the Year of Radiation therapy in the UK. Over the last 100 years, ongoing advances in the techniques of radiation treatment and progress made in understanding the biology of cancer cell responses to radiation will endeavor to increase the survival and reduce treatment side effects for cancer patients. In this review, principles, application and advances in radiation therapy with their biological end points are discussed.
Thymoquinone Induces Telomere Shortening, DNA Damage and Apoptosis in Human Glioblastoma Cells
Resham Lal Gurung,Shi Ni Lim,Aik Kia Khaw,Jasmine Fen Fen Soon,Kirthan Shenoy,Safiyya Mohamed Ali,Manikandan Jayapal,Swaminathan Sethu,Rajamanickam Baskar,M. Prakash Hande
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0012124
Abstract: A major concern of cancer chemotherapy is the side effects caused by the non-specific targeting of both normal and cancerous cells by therapeutic drugs. Much emphasis has been placed on discovering new compounds that target tumour cells more efficiently and selectively with minimal toxic effects on normal cells.
On Signed Product Cordial Labeling  [PDF]
Jayapal Baskar Babujee, Shobana Loganathan
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/am.2011.212216
Abstract: A new concept of labeling called the signed product cordial labeling is introduced and investigated for path graph, cycle graphs, star-K1,n, Bistar-Bn,n, and Some general results on signed product cordial labeling are studied.
New Constructions of Edge Bimagic Graphs from Magic Graphs  [PDF]
Jayapal Baskar Babujee, Babitha Suresh
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/am.2011.211197
Abstract: An edge magic total labeling of a graph G(V,E) with p vertices and q edges is a bijection f from the set of vertices and edges to such that for every edge uv in E, f(u) + f(uv) + f(v) is a constant k. If there exist two constants k1 and k2 such that the above sum is either k1 or k2, it is said to be an edge bimagic total labeling. A total edge magic (edge bimagic) graph is called a super edge magic (super edge bimagic) if f(V(G)) = . In this paper we define super edge edge-magic labeling and exhibit some interesting constructions related to Edge bimagic total labeling.
Theory on the Dynamics of Feedforward Loops in the Transcription Factor Networks
Rajamanickam Murugan
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0041027
Abstract: Feedforward loops (FFLs) consist of three genes which code for three different transcription factors A, B and C where B regulates C and A regulates both B and C. We develop a detailed model to describe the dynamical behavior of various types of coherent and incoherent FFLs in the transcription factor networks. We consider the deterministic and stochastic dynamics of both promoter-states and synthesis and degradation of mRNAs of various genes associated with FFL motifs. Detailed analysis shows that the response times of FFLs strongly dependent on the ratios (wh = γpc/γph where h = a, b, c corresponding to genes A, B and C) between the lifetimes of mRNAs (1/γmh) of genes A, B and C and the protein of C (1/γpc). Under strong binding conditions we can categorize all the possible types of FFLs into groups I, II and III based on the dependence of the response times of FFLs on wh. Group I that includes C1 and I1 type FFLs seem to be less sensitive to the changes in wh. The coherent C1 type seems to be more robust against changes in other system parameters. We argue that this could be one of the reasons for the abundant nature of C1 type coherent FFLs.
Detoxifying effect of Nelumbo nucifera and Aegle marmelos on hematological parameters of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)
Rajamanickam Vinodhini
Interdisciplinary Toxicology , 2010, DOI: 10.2478/v10102-010-0052-9
Abstract: The objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy of Nelumbo nucifera and Aegle marmelos on common carp exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of combined heavy metals (5 ppm) under laboratory conditions. The fish were treated with Nelumbo nucifera (500 mg/kg bwt) and Aegle marmelos (500 mg/kgbwt) for 30 days as a dietary supplement. The blood biochemical parameters of the fish were evaluated by analyzing the level of red blood cells (RBC), packed cell volume (PCV), hemoglobin concentration, glucose, cholesterol, iron and copper. The findings of the present investigation showed significant increase in hemoglobin (p<0.001), RBC (p<0.01) and PCV (p<0.01) of herbal drug-treated groups compared with metal-exposed fish. Conversely, glucose and cholesterol level in blood of common carp showed significant reduction compared with heavy-metal-exposed groups. All the values measured in Nelumbo nucifera and Aegle marmelos treated fish were restored comparably to control fish. Our results confirmed that Nelumbo nucifera and Aegle marmelos provide a detoxification mechanism for heavy metals in common carp.
Effect of heavy metals induced toxicity on metabolic biomarkers in common carp (Cyprinus Carpio L.)
Vinodhini Rajamanickam
Maejo International Journal of Science and Technology , 2008,
Abstract: This research paper presents the pathological effects of a sub-lethal concentration of heavy metals (cadmium, lead, nickel, and chromium) on common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). Total protein and levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in the liver tissue were measured. Compared with the control group a significant decrease of total protein (p < 0.001) was ascertained in the experimental group. The ALP on the other hand was significantly higher (p < 0.001). The values of ALT, AST, and LDH significantly decreased in the first day and then progressively increased afterwards (p < 0.001). The above results on the biochemical profile indicate marked hepatotoxic effects of heavy metals in common carp.
Effect of heavy metals on the level of vitamin E, total lipid and glycogen reserves in the liver of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)
Vinodhini Rajamanickam
Maejo International Journal of Science and Technology , 2008,
Abstract: The aim of this study is to examine some changes in the biochemical profile of the liver tissue of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) exposed to a sublethal concentration of heavy metal mixture (cadmium, chromium, nickel and lead). The biochemical profile, specifically glycogen, total lipid and vitamin E content in the liver tissue was examined and compared to that of the control group. The exposed group showed a marked decline in glycogen and vitamin E reserves. Conversely an increase in total lipid in comparison to control was observed. The result reflects the sensitivity of these biochemical parameters to the effects of sublethal levels of combined heavy metals for this the widely consumed freshwater fish.
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