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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 223889 matches for " Rajalakshmi R Lakshman "
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Development of a questionnaire to assess maternal attitudes towards infant growth and milk feeding practices
Rajalakshmi R Lakshman, Jill R Landsbaugh, Annie Schiff, Wendy Hardeman, Ken K Ong, Simon J Griffin
International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1479-5868-8-35
Abstract: We designed a 57-item (19 questions), self-administered questionnaire to measure the following four domains- 1) type of milk feeding, decision making and sources of advice; 2) frequency and quantity of milk feeds; 3) attitudes to infant feeding and growth; and 4) theory-based beliefs about following infant feeding recommendations. Forty mothers completed the questionnaire on two occasions six days apart (to assess test-retest reliability) and then participated in a semi-structured, open-ended telephone interview covering the same domains (to assess criterion validity). Percentage agreement, Cohen's Kappas (for categorical variables) and Spearman's correlation coefficients (for continuous variables) were used to quantify reliability and validity. Internal consistency between theory-based constructs (self-efficacy, outcome expectancy and intention) was quantified by Chronbach's alpha.Of the 57 questionnaire items 51 (89%) had percentage agreement above 70% indicating good test-retest reliability, and the remaining 6 items had moderate or substantial levels of agreement (kappa 0.41-0.68). Comparing questionnaire with interview coding (validity), percentage agreement was above 66% for 39/57 items (68%). Of the 16 items with percentage agreement below 66%, only five had kappa values below 0.20 (two items had insufficient interview responses). Internal consistency was 0.51, 0.79 and 0.90 for self-efficacy, outcome expectancy and intention respectively.This questionnaire could be a useful tool in understanding the determinants of infant feeding and the 'causal mechanism' of interventions that target infant feeding practices to prevent early obesity.Rapid weight gain during infancy is recognised as an important risk factor for later obesity[1-3]. Most parents are poor at recognising overweight and obesity in their children[4-7] and one in five children in England are already overweight when they start school[8]. Hence early prevention of obesity has become a national priori
A novel school-based intervention to improve nutrition knowledge in children: cluster randomised controlled trial
Rajalakshmi R Lakshman, Stephen J Sharp, Ken K Ong, Nita G Forouhi
BMC Public Health , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-10-123
Abstract: We developed a card game 'Top Grub' and a 'healthy eating' curriculum for use in primary schools. Thirty-eight state primary schools comprising 2519 children in years 5 and 6 (aged 9-11 years) were recruited in a pragmatic cluster randomised controlled trial. The main outcome measures were change in nutrition knowledge scores, attitudes to healthy eating and acceptability of the intervention by children and teachers.Twelve intervention and 13 control schools (comprising 1133 children) completed the trial. The main reason for non-completion was time pressure of the school curriculum. Mean total nutrition knowledge score increased by 1.1 in intervention (baseline to follow-up: 28.3 to 29.2) and 0.3 in control schools (27.3 to 27.6). Total nutrition knowledge score at follow-up, adjusted for baseline score, deprivation, and school size, was higher in intervention than in control schools (mean difference = 1.1; 95% CI: 0.05 to 2.16; p = 0.042). At follow-up, more children in the intervention schools said they 'are currently eating a healthy diet' (39.6%) or 'would try to eat a healthy diet' (35.7%) than in control schools (34.4% and 31.7% respectively; chi-square test p < 0.001). Most children (75.5%) enjoyed playing the game and teachers considered it a useful resource.The 'Top Grub' card game facilitated the enjoyable delivery of nutrition education in a sample of UK primary school age children. Further studies should determine whether improvements in nutrition knowledge are sustained and lead to changes in dietary behaviour.In England, about 10% of children are obese, with a further 20-25% of children overweight [1]. Modelling estimates suggest that 40% of Britons are likely to be obese by 2025, and by 2050 Britain could be a mainly obese society [2]. The UK Government made a public service agreement target to 'reduce the proportion of overweight and obese children to 2000 levels by 2020' in the context of a broader strategy to tackle obesity as a whole'[3]. It is es
Cost-effective method of serotyping streptococcus pneumoniae using staphylococcal co-agglutination
Rajalakshmi B,Kanungo R
Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology , 2001,
Abstract: Typing of Streptococcus pneumoniae to determine the serotype prevalence has paved the way for polyvalent vaccines to prevent invasive pneumococcal infection. Variation of serotype prevalence in different geographical areas necessitates typing of strains from these areas for effective vaccine protection. High cost of antisera very often is a hindering factor in undertaking this exercise. We have tried to evaluate typing by co-agglutination to reduce cost. Clinical isolates of S.pneumoniae from Pondicherry and surrounding Tamil Nadu were serotyped using antisera coated Staphylococcus aureus Cowan I strain and compared with standard quellung reaction. There was hundred percent correlation. By this method we could determine the serotypes causing invasive infections in this area. A commercially available Pneumotest kit was used as source of type specific antisera. Serotype 1 was found to be the major isolate (20.1%) by both the tests. Twenty-four isolates (13%) belonged to the nonvaccine types. Rest of the isolates was made up by serotypes 6, 5, 19, 23 and 12. Co-agglutination method was found to be a simple rapid and economical technique. Ten milliliters of the reagent could be made, using 0.1 ml of standard antisera. Shelf life was found to be six months at 40C.
FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF BILAYER LIQUISOLID TABLETS OF ATORVASTATIN CALCIUM AND FELODIPINE
K. Rajesh,R. Rajalakshmi
International Research Journal of Pharmacy , 2013,
Abstract: Oral route is one of the most popular routes of drug delivery due to its ease of administration, patient compliance, and flexible design of dosage forms. Though it is a convenient route it provides several challenges to the formulator to design a medication. The objective of this study was to develop and evaluate bilayer liquisolid tablets of Atorvastatin calcium as immediate release layer and Felodipine as sustained release layer, to provide polytherapy through a single tablet. The new mathematical model was used to formulate various liquisolid compacts of Atorvastatin calcium and Felodipine and compared with the direct compression tablets. Fourier Transform Infra Red Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were performed and there was no significant interaction between drug and excipients. The release rates of prepared liquisolid compacts were higher compared to the directly compressed tablets. Dissolution profiles were carried out by using model independent approach. Felodipine liquisolid tablets follow Zero order as “best fit model”.
Corrosion Inhibition Effect of Dicycloimine Hydrochloride (DCI) on Mild Steel in 1M HCl
R. Rajalakshmi,S. Subhashini
Journal of Chemistry , 2010, DOI: 10.1155/2010/968340
Abstract:
Comparison of vitamin D levels in obese and non obese patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome in a South Indian population
Lakshmi R. Lakshman,Binu Parameswaran Pillai,Rahul Lakshman,Harish Kumar
International Journal of Reproduction, Contraception, Obstetrics and Gynecology , 2013, DOI: 10.5455/2320-1770.ijrcog20130915
Abstract: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common metabolic abnormality occurring in young women of reproductive age. Low vitamin D levels were found to be associated with the development of obesity and insulin resistance in young women with PCOS. The study was conducted as a prospective observational study involving 121 women with PCOS. The diagnosis of PCOS cases were based on the revised Rotterdam consensus criteria. Vitamin D levels were compared in the obese and non obese PCOS groups and also with the controls. In the PCOS group, sixty subjects were obese with BMI of ≥25 kg/m2 and forty seven subjects were found to be non obese. In the control group, sixteen subjects were obese and sixty five subjects were non obese. The mean vitamin D level in the PCOS group was 15.45±7.88 ng/ml and in the control group was 12.83±5.76ng/ml. The mean vitamin D levels in the obese and non obese group with PCOS were 16.11±8.9ng/ml and 14.61±6.1ng/ml respectively. Majority of the patients and controls had vitamin D deficiency and there was no difference in the vitamin D levels in PCOS group and controls as well as obese and non obese groups. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2013; 2(3.000): 336-343]
A comparative study of verbal IQ, performance IQ and verbal IQ-performance IQ disparity among Turner syndrome patients and patients with primary amenorrhoea due to other aetiologies
Lakshmi R. Lakshman,Rahul Lakshman,D. M. Vasudevan
International Journal of Reproduction, Contraception, Obstetrics and Gynecology , 2012, DOI: 10.5455/2320-1770.ijrcog001212
Abstract: Background: Assessing disparity in IQ is important in selecting an occupation and thus helping people lead a productive life. In Turner syndrome patients, this shall be more important as assessment of verbal IQ- and performance IQ disparity could be used in helping them select an occupation so that productivity and quality of life is not grossly compromised. Methods: Based on karyotyping, 30 patients with turner syndrome and 30 patients with primary amenorrhoea due to other aetiologies were selected for the study. Cytogenetic analysis was done for every case using G-banding technique. Assessment of intellectual functions was done using Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS). Results: Mean value of PIQ of X0 (turner) was 74.67 and that of XX (other amenorrhoea patients) was 90.30. Mean value of VIQ of X0 (turner) was 93.67 and that of XX (other amenorrhoea patients) was 93.60. Mean value of VIQ and PIQ disparity of X0 (turner) was 18.67 and that of XX (other amenorrhoea patients) was 3. Conclusions: Turner syndrome patients have high VIQ-PIQ disparity when compared to other primary amenorrhoea patients. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2012; 1(1.000): 22-25]
Drought and UV stress response in Spilanthes acmella Murr., (tooth-ache plant)
Reshmi G. R.,Rajalakshmi R.
Journal of Stress Physiology & Biochemistry , 2012,
Abstract: In the present investigation, experiments were conducted to investigate the growth, morphological, anatomical and biochemical responses of to UV and drought stresses in Spilanthes acmella (toothache plant). Results were shown that both UV and drought treatments retarded plant growth. Although there was no significant difference in the internal structure of leaf and stem. Morphometric changes such as curling of leaves and shiny surface due to waxy coatings were noticed in plants grown under UV radiation however these changes were absent in water stressed plants but yellowing was observed in the entire leaves. Chlorophyll content and relative water content in leaves were significantly affected by UV and drought. Relative water content markedly increased in UV treated plants and reduced in drought. In UV treated plants chlorophyll a, chlorophyll band total chlorophyll contents were considerably decreased than the drought treated plants. The carotenoid, flavonoids and anthocyanins concentration increased in both treatments. Changes in contents of antioxidative metabolites under the stresses were observed. Free proline and MDA accumulations also showed significant increase in droughttreatment than in UV treatment. During drought condition the catalase activity decreased as compared with the control plant whereas UV treated plants showed increase in the catalase activity.
Staminate Flower of Cocos Nucifera as Green Inhibitor for Mild Steel in HCl Medium
R. Rajalakshmi,A. S. Safina
Journal of Chemistry , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/138463
Abstract: Corrosion control methods, especially the use of inhibitors, have gained monumental importance in the present scenario of expunging corrosion and the quest for eco-friendly reasons continues. To arrive at an inexpensive non-toxic, eco-friendly inhibitor formulations the present study on the use of Staminate Flower extract of Cocos Nucifera has been carried out by the classical weight loss measurements and electrochemical polarization measurements. The acid extract could bring out a maximum of 97.3% inhibition of mild steel corrosion in 1M HCl. Thermodynamic parameters of the corrosion process were calculated from temperature study. The adsorptive behaviour of Staminate Flower extract in acid solution may be approximated both by Langmuir and Temkin type isotherms. The results obtained by Tafel, Linear polarization resistance, and impedance spectroscopy have been correlated with the classical weight loss measurements. Values of Tafel constant ba and bc confirmed that the Staminate Flower extract acts like mixed type inhibitor. Examination of the surface of the metal in the presence of the inhibitor confirmed the deposition of inhibitor on the metal surface. The Staminate Flower extract in HCl medium efficiently inhibits the corrosion and proved to be zero cost inhibitor, eco-friendly, non-toxic, and highly economical.
Phyto-Fungicides: Structure Activity Relationships of the Thymol Derivatives against Rhizoctonia solani  [PDF]
Kamlesh R. Chauhan, Thanh C. Le, Praveen Kumar Chintakunta, Dilip K. Lakshman
Journal of Agricultural Chemistry and Environment (JACEN) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jacen.2017.64012
Abstract: Thymol, the key component of the thyme oil and its derivatives were evaluated for their structure activity relationship as fungicide against Rhizoctonia solani. Since plant-based chemicals are considered as “Generally Recognized as Safe” (GRAS) chemicals, there is great potential to use those and synthetic derivatives against R. solani and other fungal pathogens, in vitro, and in the?greenhouse or field conditions. Among the six thymol derivatives evaluated, thymol acetate was considered as the most suitable commercially viable plant-based fungicide due to its superior efficacy as well as lowest residue.
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