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Direct Democracy in Decision Making for Mega-Projects: A New Culture of “Governance in Partnership”?
Rainer ROTHFU,Camilla PERRONE,Rogério MORORó
Journal of Settlements and Spatial Planning , 2012,
Abstract: Decision making for urban and transport infrastructure mega-projects has been increasingly contested in the recent past. Citizens obviously do not see themselves well enough represented through the elected politicians. Regular information and participation fora do not seem to offer satisfactory co-decision opportunities for increasingly critical citizens. The paper analyses the theoretical background of the current planning crisis and suggests more radical forms of citizens’ involvement: The hypothesis suggests that instruments for direct democratic decision making can open up new pathways to support the break-through of the citizens’ will. The paper analyses an interesting case study where two referenda around the same issue closely followed each other: Firstly, a top-down initiated referendum with a tendentious formulation of the question and with strong single-sided media support and, secondly, a referendum initiated by a citizens’ petition. Even though the citizens’ initiative managed to win the referendum, invalidating the previous decisions, a new challenge lies in the lacking motivation of political leaders to implement it. Finally, the case study helps to formulate some proposals for improvement of direct democratic instruments. The main lesson that can be learned from the case study, however, is that our societies are in desperate need for a new “culture of governance in partnership” with the people, the stakeholders and the affected neighbouring societies. Political decision making and planning needs more transparent, fair and honest communication, exchange and mutual respect and learning. Such culture would make societies more liveable and, at the same time, resilient against any sort of crisis.
Supertranslations to All Orders*  [PDF]
Rainer Dick
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2010.11007
Abstract: We calculate the transformation laws of the general linear superfield and chiral superfields under supertranslations to all orders in the translation parameters . We use the superfield formalism with complete expansions of the component fields in the coordinate shifts . The results show in particular how a general supertranslation transforms each component field of a supermultiplet into a complete superfield. The results also provide complete parametri-zations of orbits of component fields under supertranslations.
Collapsing Schwarzschild Interior Solution  [PDF]
Rainer Burghardt
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2015.613195
Abstract: We extend the static interior Schwarzschild solution to a collapsing model by applying geometrical methods. We examine the field quantities and field equations in the comoving and non-comoving observer systems. The collapsing stellar object contracts asymptotically to its minimum extent and needs an infinitely long time to arrive at the final state. The event horizon of the exterior Schwarzschild solution is not reached or even crossed. A geometric model of ECOs (eternally collapsing objects) is presented.
Association of the CLC-Kb T481S polymorphism with childhood hypertension  [PDF]
Rainer Büscher
Health (Health) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/health.2010.27103
Abstract: Essential hypertension is a difficult diagnosis in children and the gene of the renal-epithelial chloride channel ClC-Kb is potentially predisposing. In vitro studies have shown that a common ClC-Kb threonine481serine (T481S) polymorphism leads to enhanced chloride channel activity and may predispose for hypertension (HT). We therefore analysed children at risk for HT for the T481S polymorphism and associated genotype with blood pressure (BP) status. A total of 48 children with essential hypertension (mean age 14.4 ± 2.7 years, 26 male; 22 female; mean BP 143.4 ± 7.5/88 ± 5.8 mmHg) were compared with 78 children with white-coat HT (WCHT), who showed occasionally hypertensive BP values, which were not confirmed by ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (mean age 13.7 ± 2.5 years, 49 male, 29 female; mean BP 122.4 ± 4.3/68.2 ± 3.5 mmHg). Other causes of HT were excluded. Allelic frequencies of hypertensive patients were not significantly different from those with WCHT (HT: A 0.84; T 0.16 vs. WCHT: A 0.85; T 0.15). However, the T-allele was observed more frequently in WCHT subjects with systolic and diastolic BP exceeding the 90th percentile (A 0.71; T 0.29, n = 34, p < 0.05, considered as borderline hypertensive). The preliminary data suggest that children with WCHT carry the ClC-Kb T481S polymorphism more often and that this variant may predispose for development of arterial HT.
The Effect of Variable Electricity Tariffs in the Household on Usage of Household Appliances  [PDF]
Rainer Stamminger, Verena Anstett
Smart Grid and Renewable Energy (SGRE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/sgre.2013.44042
Abstract: Demand side management (DSM) has been discussed and investigated widely as a strategy to also influence residential energy consumption. Flexible energy tariffs are often proposed as a possible tool of DSM. However, real-life experience with this tool is rare. It was therefore the objective of this study to investigate under more realistic conditions how consumers are able and willing to adjust their residential energy consumption under the conditions of flexible energy tariffs with and without the support of intelligent smart appliances. Sixty-seven households in Germany within an experimental design with fictive tariff model (August 11 to July 12) driven by RWE Effizienz GmbH, as the energy utility, and Miele & Cie.KG, as the appliance manufacturer, were equipped with intelligent smart meters and 41 of them also with smart appliances (washing-machine and tumble-dryer). As a first part of the experiment, the energy tariff changed per hour and day by day, depending on the forecast of the availability of renewable energy in Germany between 10 €-Cent and 40 €-Cent per kWh. Consumers could respond to this change by adjusting the operation of their energyconsuming appliances either by themselves or—with the smart appliances—by a programmed start at low tariffs. The behaviour of the 41 consumers with smart appliances and their motivation are intensively investigated and analysed during this running two year project including several questionnaires. The consumers had to fill out daily a diary about the usage of their washing-machine, tumble-dryer, dishwasher and ironing devices. These data were matched with the actual tariff. This did allow identifying if and to which extend the consumers adjust their household activities depending on availability of solar and wind energy. These data were also used to calculate the cost savings by using the flexible tariff. In comparison to the costs of the fixed tariff of 25 €-Cent per kWh savings of 25% were realised on average. The results of a first phase already show that flexible tariffs are able to influence the operation of household appliances towards a flexible demand.
Evaluation of process management of postpartum hemorrhage due to uterine atony  [PDF]
Iris Holzer, Rainer Lehner
Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (OJOG) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojog.2013.37093
Abstract:

Objective: To evaluate the management process and the guidelines for management of postpartum hemorrhage due to uterine atony at the General Hospital Vienna, Medical University Vienna. Material and Methods: A retrospective analysis was carried out on all 24 cases of postpartum hemorrhage due to uterine atony with an estimated blood loss of more than 800 mL, in which standardized guidelines were obtained. We included all women who gave birth at the General Hospital of Vienna, the Medical University Vienna, during the period from January 1st 2003 and December 31st 2009 and who suffered blood loss 800 mL at minimum due to uterine atony. Results: The guidelines were in use for 14% - 71%. The average blood loss of the 24 cases with uterine atony was 1342 mL. Conclusion: The management process of postpartum hemorrhage due to uterine atony deviates from the hospital’s guidelines in many cases.

Development and Evaluation of the Posttraumatic Growth Status Inventory  [PDF]
Tatjana Alexander, Rainer Oesterreich
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2013.411120
Abstract:


Posttraumatic growth reflects beneficial psychological processes in persons with traumatic experiences. Existing measures of growth were criticized due to their retrospective self-report format that may cause biases in capturing the growth processes in individuals with several specific kinds of trauma, such as physical or psychological disabilities of close family members, bereavement and some others kinds of traumatic experience. In this case, the feelings of guilt may prevent the persons from being aware of the favorable personal changes. The objective of this study was to develop and to evaluate an alternative measuring instrument that uses a status quo response format instead of retrospective items and covers additional areas of growth-related changes. The samples comprised 440 adult persons with traumatic experience, including 181 parents of children with mental and/or physical disabilities. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses revealed a 7-factors solution, corresponding to the following subscales: Relationships to Others, New Possibilities, Personal Strength, Appreciation of Life, Spiritual Changes, Generativity, and Openness. Results showed good reliability and concurrent validity. The PGSI is recommended particularly for use in longitudinal studies as well as in samples of persons whose trauma relates to a severe psychological or physical disability in their families.


Small Antennas for Wireless Micro-Systems
Rainer Wansch
Active and Passive Electronic Components , 2002, DOI: 10.1080/08827510211276
Abstract: This paper will describe the topology of wireless micro-systems networks and some of their key components. In particular we will deal with the antennas: loops, helices, F-antennas, patches and dielectrically loaded antennas.
Phenomenology of Graphite Burning in Air Ingress Accidents of HTRs
Rainer Moormann
Science and Technology of Nuclear Installations , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/589747
Abstract: Air ingress with graphite burning belongs to the accident scenarios in HTRs with potentially severe consequences. This paper gives an overview of basic phenomena of graphite burning like ignition conditions and moving reaction fronts. The pioneering graphite burning experiments of Don Schweitzer are successfully reevaluated. Ignition conditions are examined, and it is underlined that burning depends not only on graphite properties but also on the heat balance in the whole graphite arrangement. In graphite-moderated reactors, ignition occurs at about 650°C for small air flow rates: this means that normal operation temperatures in HTRs always allow for ignition. Fuel behaviour in air ingress, as determined in the KORA facility, is discussed: up to about 1300°C modern TRISO fuel is stable in air, but from 1500°C a complete, fast destruction is observed. Exemplary calculations on massive air ingress by chimney draught performed with REACT/THERMIX are outlined. For a hot bottom reflector there is a substantial time span before fuel is attacked. Because severe air ingress in well-designed HTRs belongs to beyond design basis accidents, the knowledge is fairly good. Concerning protecting measures, a more detailed examination of thick SiC layers is proposed. 1. Introduction Small HTR concepts are designed in a manner that the risk dominating accident in conventional reactors, failure of forced cooling followed by a core meltdown, can virtually be excluded as catastrophic source term contributor [1]. However, there are accident scenarios with severe consequences in HTRs, not existing for conventional reactors [2]: one weak point of HTRs is the small oxidation stability of graphite, the main component in the core, at high temperatures. It leads to potentially severe accidents in case of accidental air or steam ingress into the coolant circuit. This requires special attention also because most PBRs like the recently cancelled South African PBMR concept or the Chinese HTR-PM are for cost reasons not equipped with a pressure-retaining containment. This paper concentrates on air ingress events in HTRs, whose main consequences are (i)fuel element damage by corrosion (matrix graphite and in later accident stages fuel particles) or by temperature increase due to the reaction enthalpy of the oxidation process,(ii)corrosive attack on the graphitic core support structure until its failure,(iii)formation of burnable gas mixtures (CO) by air/graphite interaction and damages by their explosions,(iv)formation of graphite aerosols by the corrosive attack being vehicles for
Wake Behavior behind Turbine Cascades in Compressible Two-Dimensional Flows
Rainer Kurz
International Journal of Rotating Machinery , 2005, DOI: 10.1155/ijrm.2005.30
Abstract: The goal of the paper is to describe wake parameters of wakes from turbine cascades in compressible flows especially in planes where the leading edge of the following blade row would be located. Data from experiments with turbine cascades in compressible flow will be used to derive a theoretical approach which describes the wake growth and the recovery of the velocity deficit. The theory is based on similarity assumptions. The derived equations depend on simple and readily available parameters such as overall losses, exit angle, and Mach or Laval number. In compressible turbine flows, the influence of the inviscid flow field is of great importance. In this paper, an approach to take this influence into account when determining the behavior of the wake is presented. Correlations for basic characteristics of wakes in compressible flows are not readily available. Such correlations are necessary as input to unsteady flow and heat transfer calculation procedures for turbomachine blades. Based on available data on wake behavior in the compressible flow behind turbine blades, the correlations presented describe the wake behavior from the trailing edge to the confluence of the wakes of adjacent blades.
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