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Dynamic Voltage Frequency Scaling (DVFS) techniques are used to improve energy efficiency of GPUs. Literature survey and thorough analysis of various schemes on DVFS techniques during the last decade are presented in this paper. Detailed analysis of the schemes is included with respect to comparison of various DVFS techniques over the years. To endow with knowledge of various power management techniques that utilize DVFS during the last decade is the main objective of this paper. During the study, we find that DVFS not only work solely but also in coordination with other power optimization techniques like load balancing and task mapping where performance and energy efficiency are affected by varying the platform and benchmark. Thorough analysis of various schemes on DVFS techniques is presented in this paper such that further research in the field of DVFS can be enhanced.
A new circuit technique for 65 nm technology is proposed in this paper for reducing the subthreshold and gate oxide leakage currents in idle and non idle mode of operation for footerless domino circuits. In this technique a p-type and an n-type leakage controlled transistors (LCTs) are introduced between the pull-up and pull-down network and the gate of one is controlled by the source of the other. For any combination of input, one of the LCT will operate near its cut off region and will increase the resistance between supply voltage and ground resulting in reduced leakage current. Furthermore, the leakage current is suppressed at the output inverter circuit by inserting a transistor below the n-type transistor of the inverter offering more resistive path between supply voltage and ground. The proposed technique is applied on benchmark circuits reduction of active power consumption is observed from 10.9% to 44.76% at different temperature variations. For same benchmark circuits, operating at two clock modes and giving low and high inputs at 25℃ and 110℃ temperatures the maximum leakage power saving of 98.9% is achieved when compared to standard footerless domino logic circuits.