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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 7685 matches for " Rahman MD. Mostafeezur "
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Cannabinoids Facilitate the Swallowing Reflex Elicited by the Superior Laryngeal Nerve Stimulation in Rats
Rahman Md. Mostafeezur, Hossain Md. Zakir, Hanako Takatsuji, Yoshiaki Yamada, Kensuke Yamamura, Junichi Kitagawa
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0050703
Abstract: Cannabinoids have been reported to be involved in affecting various biological functions through binding with cannabinoid receptors type 1 (CB1) and 2 (CB2). The present study was designed to investigate whether swallowing, an essential component of feeding behavior, is modulated after the administration of cannabinoid. The swallowing reflex evoked by the repetitive electrical stimulation of the superior laryngeal nerve in rats was recorded before and after the administration of the cannabinoid receptor agonist, WIN 55-212-2 (WIN), with or without CB1 or CB2 antagonist. The onset latency of the first swallow and the time intervals between swallows were analyzed. The onset latency and the intervals between swallows were shorter after the intravenous administration of WIN, and the strength of effect of WIN was dose-dependent. Although the intravenous administration of CB1 antagonist prior to intravenous administration of WIN blocked the effect of WIN, the administration of CB2 antagonist did not block the effect of WIN. The microinjection of the CB1 receptor antagonist directly into the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) prior to intravenous administration of WIN also blocked the effect of WIN. Immunofluorescence histochemistry was conducted to assess the co-localization of CB1 receptor immunoreactivity to glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 (GAD67) or glutamate in the NTS. CB1 receptor was co-localized more with GAD67 than glutamate in the NTS. These findings suggest that cannabinoids facilitate the swallowing reflex via CB1 receptors. Cannabinoids may attenuate the tonic inhibitory effect of GABA (gamma-aminobuteric acid) neurons in the central pattern generator for swallowing.
The effect of minocycline on the masticatory movements following the inferior alveolar nerve transection in freely moving rats
Rahman MD. Mostafeezur, Hossain MD. Zakir, Yoshiaki Yamada, Kensuke Yamamura, Koichi Iwata, Barry J. Sessle, Junichi Kitagawa
Molecular Pain , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1744-8069-8-27
Abstract: The number of Iba1-immunoreactive (IR) cells both in prV and motV was significantly larger in IAN-X rats compared with sham rats on day 3 after IAN-X. The intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of MC caused a significant reduction of the number of Iba1-IR cells both in prV and motV that was evident on day 14 after IAN-X. Furthermore, a significant reduction of the number of Iba1-IR cells could be observed in motV but not in prV after microinjection (m.i.) of MC into the motV of IAN-X rats. The rats also exhibited a significant decrease in the head-withdrawal threshold on the side ipsilateral to the IAN-X compared to the threshold before IAN-X and it lasted to day 14. In addition, IAN-X markedly affected the ability to rat to carry out mastication. The number of complete masticatory sequences was significantly decreased. Furthermore, the total masticatory sequence time and food preparatory (PP) period duration was significantly elongated in compared to sham rats. Although IAN-X significantly affected the total number of chewing cycles within the RC period of a masticatory sequence, it had no effect on the duration of the chewing cycles. On the other hand, systemic administration of MC (both i.p. and m.i.) in IAN-X rats significantly improved decreased head-withdrawal threshold and the impaired masticatory jaw movements.The present findings reveal that the strong modulation of masticatory jaw movements occurs following microglial cell activation after IAN-X, and the modulation recovers after inhibition of the microglial cell activation by MC, suggesting that microglial cell activation in the motV as well as in the prV has a pivotal role in modulating mastication following trigeminal nerve injury associated with orofacial neuropathic pain.
Expression of TRPV1 Channels after Nerve Injury Provides an Essential Delivery Tool for Neuropathic Pain Attenuation
Hossain Md. Zakir, Rahman Md. Mostafeezur, Akiko Suzuki, Suzuro Hitomi, Ikuko Suzuki, Takeyasu Maeda, Kenji Seo, Yoshiaki Yamada, Kensuke Yamamura, Shaya Lev, Alexander M. Binshtok, Koichi Iwata, Junichi Kitagawa
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0044023
Abstract: Increased expression of the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channels, following nerve injury, may facilitate the entry of QX-314 into nociceptive neurons in order to achieve effective and selective pain relief. In this study we hypothesized that the level of QX-314/capsaicin (QX-CAP) - induced blockade of nocifensive behavior could be used as an indirect in-vivo measurement of functional expression of TRPV1 channels. We used the QX-CAP combination to monitor the functional expression of TRPV1 in regenerated neurons after inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) transection in rats. We evaluated the effect of this combination on pain threshold at different time points after IAN transection by analyzing the escape thresholds to mechanical stimulation of lateral mental skin. At 2 weeks after IAN transection, there was no QX-CAP mediated block of mechanical hyperalgesia, implying that there was no functional expression of TRPV1 channels. These results were confirmed immunohistochemically by staining of regenerated trigeminal ganglion (TG) neurons. This suggests that TRPV1 channel expression is an essential necessity for the QX-CAP mediated blockade. Furthermore, we show that 3 and 4 weeks after IAN transection, application of QX-CAP produced a gradual increase in escape threshold, which paralleled the increased levels of TRPV1 channels that were detected in regenerated TG neurons. Immunohistochemical analysis also revealed that non-myelinated neurons regenerated slowly compared to myelinated neurons following IAN transection. We also show that TRPV1 expression shifted towards myelinated neurons. Our findings suggest that nerve injury modulates the TRPV1 expression pattern in regenerated neurons and that the effectiveness of QX-CAP induced blockade depends on the availability of functional TRPV1 receptors in regenerated neurons. The results of this study also suggest that the QX-CAP based approach can be used as a new behavioral tool to detect dynamic changes in TRPV1 expression, in various pathological conditions.
Contributions of Women’s Participation in the Local Government of Bangladesh  [PDF]
Md. Mizanur Rahman
Sociology Mind (SM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/sm.2015.53018
Abstract: Union Parishad (UP) as a unit of rural local government of Bangladesh has a history of 145 years but women’s representation was ensured only 2 decades ago. The paper is based on the argument that within the span of 2 decades, despite encountering huge challenges some women leaders (WLs) might have performed their role with their constrained participation in the UP. Against such a context, the paper is aimed at unraveling the research question: How did WLs perform in the UP amidst their challenges and constrained participation? The paper is based on hermeneutic phenomenological approach which was supported by case study, content analysis and observation methods. The findings of the paper revealed that having ensured their limited participation in the UP some women leaders were able to promote transparency and accountability, establish social justice and provide community services in the rural society.
Aerial Extent Analysis and Environmental Problems Identification of Matasagar and Sukhsagar Wetlands in Bangladesh Using GIS and Remote Sensing Tools  [PDF]
Md. Zakiur Rahman, Md. Shahedur Rashid
Journal of Geographic Information System (JGIS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jgis.2016.86054
Abstract: Bangladesh is a land of wetlands. Basically, most of them are freshwater wetlands and have great influence on the primary economic activities such as agriculture and fisheries of the country. Due to its important role in the harmonizing ecosystem, wetlands demand much attention as a significant part of our environment. Matasagar and Sukhsagar are very important historical wetlands of Bangladesh. But those are endangered today due to lack of public awareness of the dangers of their activities to the environment and unbridled profit making activities of the commercial users of the wetlands. Comparisons of maps and Google images from 1933 to present have shown that the forest areas of the wetlands have been progressively destroyed, and these have greatly affected the biodiversity of these areas mentioned. GIS (Geographic Information System) and remote sensing techniques are used to identify the changes in the aerial extent of those wetlands. This study also tried to explore present environmental conditions by in-situ observation. This is high time; some serious steps should be taken to ensure the conservation and preservation of these areas mentioned.
Aggression in Boys and Girls as Related to Their Academic Achievement and Residential Background  [PDF]
Md Shahinoor Rahman, Lailun Nahar
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2013.45065
Abstract:

The study was conducted to explore aggression in boys and girls as related to their academic achievement and residential background in Bangladesh. Stratified random sampling technique was used and total 80 respondents constituted the sample of the study. They were equally divided into boys and girls. Each group was again equally divided into high and low grade. Each subgroup was again equally divided into urban and rural residential background. Thus the study used a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial design consisting of two levels of gender (boy/girl), two levels of academic achievement (high grade/low grade) and two levels of residential background (urban/rural). The Bengali version of measure of aggressive behavior (Rahman, A. K. M. R., 2003) originally developed by Buss and Perry (1992) was used for the collection of data. It was found that regardless of gender, boys expressed more aggression than girls. Similarly, regardless of academic achievement, students with high academic grade will show more aggressive behavior than low academic grade students. Finally, students of urban areas will not show significantly more aggressive behavior than rural areas students. Thus the differential treatment in gender, academic achievement and residential background provides a new dimension in understanding aggression in rural and urban boys and girls.

Performance Evaluation of a miniPET Camera for Brain Scanning  [PDF]
Arif Mahmud, Md. Moshiur Rahman
International Journal of Medical Physics,Clinical Engineering and Radiation Oncology (IJMPCERO) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ijmpcero.2015.41010
Abstract:
A nuclear miniPET camera was constructed with 2 bucket rings, each having 8 BGO detector modules for brain scanning. After calibration of the camera, an experimental investigation of sensitivity was carried out to evaluate the performance of this PET scanner. The characteristics of NECR were examined for comparisons of count rate considering the statistical noise due to scattered and random events. NECR performance was observed using 10 cm diameter phantom filled with 1 L water and 240 MBq of 18F. All data were acquired in 2D acquisition mode but without septa. Randoms were estimated by introducing delay into the coincidence circuit which was an extra 100 ns time delay. Multiples were recorded simultaneously with the prompt and delayed events. The true plus scattered coincidence events were calculated as the difference between prompt and random plus multiple events. After recording all the data, the noise equivalent count rate (NECR) was calculated and graphically presented. It is observed that NEC value is significantly lower than other similar scanners. Comparing the individual components of the count rate, a much higher randoms rate is observed for the camera because of the absence of any side shielding, so that out of field activity contributes significantly to the randoms rate and hence reduces the NECR value.
Modeling and Forecasting of Carbon Dioxide Emissions in Bangladesh Using Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) Models  [PDF]
Abdur Rahman, Md Mahmudul Hasan
Open Journal of Statistics (OJS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojs.2017.74038
Abstract:
In the present paper, different Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) models were developed to model the carbon dioxide emission by using time series data of forty-four years from 1972-2015. The performance of these developed models was assessed with the help of different selection measure criteria and the model having minimum value of these criteria considered as the best forecasting model. Based on findings, it has been observed that out of different ARIMA models, ARIMA (0, 2, 1) is the best fitted model in predicting the emission of carbon dioxide in Bangladesh. Using this best fitted model, the forecasted value of carbon dioxide emission in Bangladesh, for the year 2016, 2017 and 2018 as obtained from ARIMA (0, 2, 1) was obtained as 83.94657 Metric Tons, 89.90464 Metric Tons and 96.28557 Metric Tons respectively.
Available Approaches of Remediation and Stabilisation of Metal Contamination in Soil: A Review  [PDF]
Tania Rahman, Md. Ferdous Seraj
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2018.910148
Abstract: Anthropogenic activities, such as mining of natural resources, manufac-turing industries, modern agricultural practices and energy production have resulted in the release of heavy metals with resultant harmful im-pacts in some natural environments. Toxic heavy metals are harmful to living organisms even at low concentrations. Therefore, heavy metal contaminated sites should be remediated as heavy metals do not decompose into less harmful substances and are retained in the soil. Conventional methods are used for remediation of heavy metal contaminated soils such as heavy metal extraction, immobilization and removal of soils to landfill produce large quantities of toxic products including insoluble hydroxides and are rarely cost effective. The advent of bioremediation technologies like biosparging, bioventing and bioaugmentation has provided an alternative to conventional methods for remediating heavy metal contaminated soils. A subset of bacteria found in the rhizosphere has been found to increase the tolerance of plants to heavy metals in soil. These bacteria commonly known as plant growth promoting rhizobacteria or Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) are showing promise as a bioremediation technique for the stabilisation and remediation of heavy metal contami-nated sites. PGPR can improve plant growth via a variety of mechanism including fixing atmospheric N to improve N status and making plants more tolerant of heavy metals. Scattered literature is harnessed to review the principles, advantages and disadvantages of the available technologies for remediating heavy metal contaminated soils and is presented.
Design of a Multiband Patch Antenna for 5G Communication Systems  [PDF]
Atik Mahabub, Md. Mostafizur Rahman, Md. Al-Amin, Md. Sayedur Rahman, Md. Masud Rana
Open Journal of Antennas and Propagation (OJAPr) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojapr.2018.61001
Abstract:
Currently, communication system requires multiband small antennas for 5G mobile applications. Driven this motivation, this paper proposes a multiband patch antenna for Wi-Fi, WiMAX and 5G applications. The proposed antenna can effectively operate at 2.4 GHz as Wi-Fi, 7.8 GHz as WiMAX and 33.5 GHz as 5G communication purposes. The proposed antenna arrays have given directional radiation patterns, very small voltage standing wave ratio, high gain (VSWR) and directivity for each aforementioned systems operating frequency. This antenna is made for multiband purpose which can be effective for not only Wi-Fi and WiMAX but also 5G applications.
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