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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 341 matches for " Rafooneh Mokhtarshahi Sani "
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An Inquiry into Cultural Continuity and Change in Housing: An Iranian Perspective  [PDF]
Rafooneh Mokhtarshahi Sani, Payam Mahasti
Sociology Mind (SM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/sm.2013.33031

The arrival of modernization has had an adverse effect on current Iranian housing architecture; as such, that it is now finds itself in a difficult predicament. Therefore, various national architectural conferences, in addition to individual investigations, have been focused on the renewal of Iranian housing architecture over recent decades. Whilst these examples have not culminated or resulted in defining a clear Iranian trend and style in housing with recognizable characteristics, it would be useful to explore some of the more successful examples in order to obtain an overview of what has been done in Iran in this respect during recent years. Accordingly, the study has focused on identifying the architectural characteristics of Iranian houses, which have been modified and used in the present designs. In this study, through a comparative typological analysis of the different traditional Iranian housing types, their main characteristics have been categorized. The categorization later applied for the analysis of the contemporary houses designs. The results of this investigation have shown that, in contemporary samples, although the idea of Iranian traditional houses has remained; the concept of traditional houses has been altered and changed.

Symbolic Meaning of Transparency in Contemporary Architecture: An Evaluation of Recent Public Buildings in Famagusta  [PDF]
Gelareh Sadeghi, Rafooneh Mokhtarshahi Sani, Yuan Wang
Current Urban Studies (CUS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/cus.2015.34030
Abstract: The history of transparency in architecture demonstrates a long relationship between glass and architecture. Transparent glass architecture has become one of the significant characteristics of 20th century. It has been one of the materials, which were used extensively in construction; and caused a significant change in the built environment, specifically in the 21st century. Nowadays, glass can be seen as one of the basic materials used in contemporary buildings. The usage of glass in architecture, specifically in public buildings, has increased during the recent few decades, and this trend is still continuing. In addition, Modern architecture has grown rapidly around the world and it has been investigated from various aspects. However, relationship between architectural meaning and modern architecture has been one of the less investigated issues. Therefore, despite the many benefits of transparent architecture, looking for meaning is one of the important factors that need to be investigated. Since search for meaning has been one of the challenging issues for contemporary architecture, the purpose of this study is to find the link between transparent architecture and symbolic meaning in contemporary architecture to recognize how it is possible to bring these two together. To achieve this aim, the research method in this study consists of combination of quantitative and qualitative research methods, besides; literature review has been analyzed based on “content analysis method”. Under this scope, three famous transparent buildings in London have been selected as sample study. To compare and verify symbolic meaning of transparent buildings, in sample study, paper focused on recent transparent buildings in Famagusta. Accordingly, an interesting and arguable finding is that symbolism is interpreted differently by everyone and therefore it is a matter of view point. Although in general transparent architecture is symbol of modernity, but according to user’s viewpoints there is different symbolic meaning for each transparent building. This finding is a proof to this important issue that people need to have meaningful built environment, so they even assign meaning for buildings.
A Conceptual Understanding for Teaching the History of Islamic Architecture: An Iranian (Persian) Perspective
Rafooneh Mokhtarshahi Sani
Archnet-IJAR : International Journal of Architectural Research , 2009,
The Significance of User Participation in Architectural Design: The Case of Nicosia Social Housing Complex
Rafooneh Mokhtarshahi Sani,Bahar Ulucay,Pinar Ulucay
Archnet-IJAR : International Journal of Architectural Research , 2011,
Feeding studies of radiation sterilization ready to eat foods on sprague dawley rats: In vivo  [PDF]
Zubaidah Irawati, Yulvian Sani
Natural Science (NS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2012.42017
Abstract: Development of gamma irradiated high moisture traditional dishes derived from locally traditional récipe aimed for specific target groups as ready to eat foods for ensuring the safety, quality, and security purposes have been conducted. The formation of free radicals in the traditional foods induced by ionizing radiation is a part of toxicological studies on irradiated traditional foods was to provide local scientific data base on safe- ty issues.The different foods such as steamed gold fish, spicy curry beef and soy sauces beef were individually vacuum packed in a laminate pouch of PET 12 μm/LDPE 2 μm/AL-Foil 7 μm/LDPE 2 μm/LLDPE 50 μm (PET/Al-Foil/ LLDPE), then kept at frozen state. The frozen samples were maintained in cryogenic condition along the irradiation process by placing the samples in styrofoam boxes filled with dry ice then irradiated with gamma rays at the dose of 45 kGy. The irradiated samples were kept and stored at normal temperature prior to test. Both irradiated conventional rat’s feed at normal temperature with the dose of 4 kGy and unirradiated one as control were also made. Irradiated and unirradiated samples were sent to animal laboratory, and fed into individual female Sprague Dawley rat as member of a group. The parameters observed were body weight changed of rats, toxicological test to observe the effect free radicals formation in rat’s blood by using malon-dialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) methods, respectively, and anatomy pathology diagnosis. Different types of the foods sterilized by ionizing radiation fed ad libitum to the individual Sprague Dawley rat demonstrated that such foods did not give any adverse effect on the reduction of body weight, the toxicological impact, nor anatomy-pathology examinations of the rats.
Impact of Somatic Symptoms on Identification of Depression among General Outpatients by Family Physicians in North-Western Nigeria  [PDF]
Auwal Sani Salihu
Open Journal of Psychiatry (OJPsych) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojpsych.2015.53031
Abstract: In many places in the world, General Practitioners are only able to identify depression in a small fraction of depressed patients presenting to general outpatient department. The effect of somatic symptoms on its recognition was investigated. The study determines the identification rate of depression by general practitioners among outpatients with somatic symptoms and those without somatic symptoms. This descriptive cross sectional study was conducted in Family Medicine Department, Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano, Nigeria. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) was used to screen selected participants. Forms were used by GPs to itemize medical and psychiatric symptoms elicited as well as medical and psychiatric diagnoses made. Schedule for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry (SCAN) version 2.1, was used to confirm the diagnosis of depression. Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) was used for severity using items 11-14 of Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. Those with somatic symptoms score of 1-3 were rated as having low and those with 4-10 were rated as having high. Of the 410 outpatients recruited, 402 participated in the study. Two hundred and thirteen were screened depressed (HADS). Two hundred were confirmed depressed using SCAN (49.8%). The GPs identified 31.3% of those participants diagnosed depressed without somatic symptoms compared to 15.2% of those who were diagnosed depressed with somatic symptoms. However, no significant association was found between GPs ability to identify depression in the presence or absence of somatic symptoms (p = 0.09). This study found no association between GPs ability to identify depression and presence or absence of somatic symptoms (χ2 = 2.75, p = 0.09). However, this study found that the higher the level of somatic symptoms the more unlikely it’s for GPs to identify depression. To reduce the burden of depression by early detection and treatment, continuing medical education of GPs should include skills in identification of depression.
An Inventory Model for Deteriorating Items with Generalised Exponential Decreasing Demand, Constant Holding Cost and Time-Varying Deterioration Rate  [PDF]
Isiyaku Aliyu, Babangida Sani
American Journal of Operations Research (AJOR) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ajor.2018.81001
Abstract: In this present paper, an inventory model with a generalised exponential decreasing demand is considered. A numerical example is used to illustrate the application of the model. Sensitivity analysis of the optimal solution with respect to various parameters is carried out to see the effect of parameter changes on the solution.
Analysis of Rural Households Food Security in Western Ethiopia  [PDF]
Seid Sani, Biruk Kemaw
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2019.103019
Abstract: This study analyzed rural households’ food security and its determinants in western Ethiopia. The study used a primary data collected from 276 randomly selected households using interview schedule. In addition, focus group discussion (FGD) and key informants interview were also used to obtain a qualitative primary data. As to the method of data analysis, the study employed descriptive statistics (such as mean, frequency, range and percentage) and binary logit model (BLM). The finding of the study revealed that, in the study area, 59.06% of the sampled households were food insecure and 40.94% of them were food secure. Besides, the study indicated that 86.87% of the households were vulnerable to different shocks, risks, and seasonality’s and 41.67% of the households faced shortage of food. Moreover, the finding indicated that only 31.88% of the households were food self-sufficient from own production. Low productivity, climate related problems and inadequacy of cultivable land were identified as the top three main causes of food shortage and/or food self-insufficiency from own production. The estimated BLM pointed out that sex, age, access to irrigation, off-farm and non-farm income, input cost, access to credit and distance to market were significant in determining household’s food security status. Therefore, policies and actions directed towards improving households’ food security and reducing their vulnerability should focus on the aforementioned factors.
Fournier's Gangrene: Experience with Management of 46 Cases in a Tertiary Institution  [PDF]
Sani Ali Aji, Sani Usman Alhassan, Musa Muhammad Ujudud
Open Journal of Urology (OJU) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/oju.2012.23019
Abstract: Background: Fournier's gangrene is a rapidly spreading necrotizing gangrene affecting the perineum, Perianal and genital regions but remarkably sparing the testicles, bladder and rectum due to their separate blood supply which is directly from the aorta. The aim of this study is to share our experience with the management of 46 cases. Patients and method: We retrospectively analysed the medical records of 46 patients admitted with Fournier's gangrene between April 2005 and December 2011 in the urology unit of Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital. Data extracted from these include age, sex, hospital stay, premorbid diseases, mobility, mortality, laboratory investigations and treatments carried out. Results: Fourty six patients were admitted and managed for Fournier's gangrene during the study period. All the patients were male and mean age was 50 years (range 20 - 80 years). Five patients died (10.90%) mortality, 41 (89.10%) patients survived. The shortest hospital stay was 13 days and longest was 120 days. 45.7% of the patients had urethral stricture with watering can perineum as predisposing factor, 16 (34.80%) had diabetes mellitus, 7 (15.2%) had perineal injuries as the predisposing factors while 5 (10.90%) patients had uraemia and one patient (2.20%) each had bladder tumour and scrotal abscess as their predisposing factors, in 3 patients (6.50%) it was idiopathic. Only 34 (73.90%) patients had wound swab microscopy culture and sensitivity on admission. The culture grew Klebsiella spp. in 9 (26.50%), Staph aureus and E. coli in 5 (10.90%) of cases each, while Gram positive rod and Gram negative Cocci with 4 (11.80%) and 6 (17.60%) respectively. Conclusion: Fournier's gangrene which is a rapidly progressive, fulminant polymicrobial synergistic infection of the perineum and genitals, is now changing pattern. Extensive surgical debridement and broad spectrum intravenous antibiotics remain the mainstay of treatment.
Comparative Isotherms Studies on Adsorptive Removal of Congo Red from Wastewater by Watermelon Rinds and Neem-Tree Leaves  [PDF]
M. B. Ibrahim, S. Sani
Open Journal of Physical Chemistry (OJPC) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojpc.2014.44017
Abstract: Equilibrium adsorption studies for detoxification of Congo Red (CR) dye from single component model wastewater by powdered watermelon rinds and neem leaves adsorbents were carried out with the view to test the applicability of the adsorption process to Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin, Dubinin-Radushkevich and Harkins-Jura isotherm models. The values of correlation coefficient, R2 (0.9359 - 0.9998), showed that all the experimental data fitted the linear plots of the tested isotherm models. Dubinin-Radushkevich’s monolayer maximum adsorption capacity qD (20.72 - 26.06 mg/g) is better than Langmuir’s qm (18.62 - 24.75 mg/g) for both adsorbents with the capacities higher for adsorption on watermelon rind than on neem leaves. Values of Langmuir separation factor (RL) suggest unfavourable adsorption processes (i.e. chemisorption) of the dye on both the adsorbents, while Freundlich constant (nF) indicates unfavourable process only for CR adsorption onto neem leaves. The Dubinin-Radushkevich’s mean free energy of adsorption, E
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