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Quantum-dot cellular automaton (QCA) is an emerging, promising, future generation nanoelectronic computational architecture that encodes binary information as electronic charge configuration of a cell. It is a digital logic architecture that uses single electrons in arrays of quantum dots to perform binary operations. Fundamental unit in building of QCA circuits is a QCA cell. A QCA cell is an elementary building block which can be used to build basic gates and logic devices in QCA architectures. This paper evaluates the performance of various implementations of QCA based XOR gates and proposes various novel layouts with better performance parameters. We presented the various QCA circuit design methodology for XOR gate. These layouts show less number of crossovers and lesser cell count as compared to the conventional layouts already present in the literature. These design topologies have special functions in communication based circuit applications. They are particularly useful in phase detectors in digital circuits, arithmetic operations and error detection & correction circuits. The comparison of various circuit designs is also given. The proposed designs can be effectively used to realize more complex circuits. The simulations in the present work have been carried out using QCADesigner tool.
A color information encryption method using phase-truncated gyrator transform domain is proposed. In this technique, the color image is decomposed into R, G and B channels. The decomposed three RBG channels evade the interference of crosstalks efficiently. Each channel is separately modulated to the first random phase mask and then gyrator transformed. The transformed image is phase-truncated to get first encoded image and amplitude-truncated to produce first asymmetric phase key. The obtained image is modulated to the second random phase mask and then again gyrator transformed. The resulted image is phase-truncated to obtain second encoded image and amplitude-truncated to generate second asymmetric phase key. The proposed system includes transformation angles of GT and asymmetric phase keys as decryption keys. The proposed system can be implemented digitally or optically. The optical setup is free from optical misalignment problem. The theoretical analysis and numerical simulation results both validate the proposed technique.
In the paper , authors have suggested and analyzed a predictor-corrector Halley
method for solving nonlinear equations. In this paper, we modified this method
by using the finite difference scheme, which had a quantic
convergence. We have compared this modified Halley method with some other
iterative methods of ninth order, which shows that this new proposed method is
a robust one. Some examples are given to illustrate the efficiency and the
performance of this new method.
heterantha commonly called indigo bush is a
member of leguminoseae family found in the Himalayan region of Kashmir. A
lectin has been isolated from the seeds of Indigofera
heterantha by the purification procedure involving anion exchange chromatography
on DEAE-cellulose followed by gel filtration chromatography on Sephadex G 100.
Molecular characterization of the lectin was done by gel filtration and
SDS-PAGE. Activity of the lectin was checked by hemagglutination assay and the
sugar specificity by sugar inhibition tests. The antimicrobial activity of the
purified lectin was carried out by Agar disc diffusion using appropriate
standards. On the ion exchange column, the bound protein when eluted with 0-0.5 M NaCl gradient emerged as three peaks—peak I, peak II and peak III out of
which only peak II showed the hemagglutinating activity. The lectin further
resolved into two peaks G1 and G2 on gel filtration, with the lectin activity
residing in G1, corresponding to a molecular weight of 70 KDa. The purified
lectin named as Indigofera heterantha Lectin
(IHL) produced a single band on SDS PAGE (18 KDa), revealing the tetrameric
nature of the lectin. It agglutinated human erythrocytes (A, B, AB, and O).
Hemagglutination was inhibited by D-galactose, Dmannose and D-arabinose. The
lectin is reasonably thermostable showing full activity within a temperature
range of 30°C to 90°C. pH stability of the lectin falls in the range of 2-9.
IHL demonstrated a remarkable antibacterial activity against the pathogenic
bacteria Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Bacillus subtilis. IHL also inhibited the growth