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Cancer is a leading cause of death
worldwide, and is estimated to be the cause of 13.1 million deaths in 2030.
Breast cancer is the second cancer in the global mortality ranking, considering
both sexes. Due to the burden of breast cancer worldwide, this paper aims to
present an overview of the main R&D efforts focusing on breast cancer
treatment. Patents were retrieved from the Derwent Innovations Index?,
which has a specific code for pharmaceuticals related to breast cancer. A total
of 423 patent documents filed in recent years were identified, of which 126 are
exclusively for breast cancer, 169 for breast cancer and other cancers, and 128 are inventions related to the treatment of cancer and other diseases. The patent documents were
classified into two large groups, the first of which had a predominance of
claims for antibodies, proteins and polypeptides for use in medication
production, while the second focuses on gene therapy, nucleotides and RNA. The country with
the majority of priority
patent applications was found to be the United States, followed by China and Japan.
Plants are a rich source of antibiotics, but screening all the existing plant species for biological activity using current methods can be time and resource consuming. The present study is to investigate whether powdered plant materials would perform as well as plant extracts in the screening of plants with antimicrobial activity. In the new method proposed (STAMP), we compared in vitro antimicrobial activity of powdered plant materials from 12 species against bacteria and fungi. We confirmed these results with their corresponding aqueous (wet) and hydro-alcoholic extracts and one species testing the antimicrobial activity of two isolated compounds. Compared with hydro-alcoholic extracts, screening using the powdered plant materials correctly identified the majority of the species with antimicrobial activity against Candida albicans (sensitivity 91%, specificity 86%), C. parapsilosis (sensitivity 100%, specificity 67%), and Staphylococcus aureus (sensitivity 64%, specificity 86%). For bacteria, the method performed better in a pH of 9.0. The antimicrobial activity of two compounds isolated from one species (maytenin and netzahualcoyone) confirmed the results. In conclusion, the use of powdered plant materials for screening plants with antimicrobial properties is a cheap, widely available, technically easy, time sparing, reproducible, and sensitive method and can significantly shorten the time and money spent during drug development.