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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 15202 matches for " Rafael Tamotsu Sato "
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Assessment of proteolysis and sensory characteristics of prato cheese with adjunct culture Avalia o da proteólise e das características sensoriais de queijo prato com cultura adjunta
Rafael Tamotsu Sato,Ariane Tayla Bisca Vieira,Jaqueline Camisa,Priscila Cristina Bizam Vianna
Semina : Ciências Agrárias , 2012,
Abstract: Influence of adjunct cultures on the chemical and sensory characteristics, and proteolysis of Prato cheese was investigated. Cheeses were manufactured using a commercial starter culture and Lactobacillus strains (Lactobacillus plantarum or Lactobacillus helveticus) as adjunct cultures. Control cheeses lacked the adjunct culture. The chemical composition was analyzed at day 5 after manufacture and the proteolysis at days 5, 25, 45 and 65 of ripening. The sensory acceptance was assessed at 60 days. A split-plot design was used and the complete experiment was carried out in triplicate. The results were evaluated by ANOVA and Tukey’s test test at 5% significance level. There were no significant differences in chemical composition among the cheeses. A significant increase in proteolysis occurred during ripening period for the cheeses with adjunct culture when compared to cheeses without adjunct culture. Cheese with Lactobacillus helveticus showed higher scores for flavor, texture and purchase intent compared with the others treatments. Use of adjunct Lactobacillus suggests that the proteolysis of Prato cheese should be accelerated in order to reduce ripening period. A influência de culturas adjuntas sobre as características químicas e sensoriais, e sobre a proteólise do queijo Prato foi avaliada. Os queijos foram fabricados com cultura starter comercial e cepas de Lactobacillus (Lactobacillus plantarum ou Lactobacillus helveticus) como culturas adjuntas. Os queijos controle n o foram adicionados de cultura adjunta. A composi o química foi analisada no dia 5 após a fabrica o e a proteólise nos dias 5, 25, 45 e 65 de matura o. A aceita o sensorial foi avaliada em 60 dias. Um delineamento de parcelas subdivididas foi utilizado e o experimento completo foi realizado em triplicata. Os resultados foram avaliados pela análise de variancia e teste de Tukey no nível de 5% de probabilidade. Os queijos n o apresentaram diferen as significativas em rela o à composi o química. Um aumento significativo na proteólise ocorreu durante o período de matura o para os queijos com cultura adjunta, quando comparado aos queijos sem adi o desse tipo de cultura. Os queijos com Lactobacillus helveticus apresentaram médias das notas mais altas para os atributos sabor, textura e inten o de compra em compara o aos demais tratamentos. A utiliza o de Lactobacillus como cultura adjunta indica que a proteólise do queijo prato pode ser acelerada a fim de reduzir o seu tempo de matura o.
Relationships of Various Coordination Tests  [PDF]
Haruka Kawabata, Shinichi Demura, Tamotsu Kitabayashi, Susumu Sato, Sohee Shin
Advances in Physical Education (APE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ape.2013.31003

This study aimed to examine the relationships among four coordination tests with different movement styles according to gender difference and hand dominance. The subjects performed the coordinated force exertion test, the moving beans with tweezers test and the Purdue pegboard test for three trials as well as the pursuit rotor test for seven trials with the dominant and non-dominant hands. Significant and low correlations were found between the moving beans with tweezers test and the Purdue pegboard test for both hands in females but not among the other tests. Significant correlations were found for both hands in males and females in all tests, showing a significant gender difference between correlations only in the pursuit rotor test. In conclusion,relationships among the four tests for both hands were low, and each test is highly unique. In addition, females have higher relationships between dominant and non-dominant hands, and the tendency is marked, particularly in tests that involve pursuing a moving target.

Functional performance levels of strength and power needed for independence in 80-year-old individuals  [PDF]
Mieko Shimada, Yoshiaki Nomura, Yasuo Kimura, Naoki Nakagawa, Hiroshi Nagayama, Mitsumasa Tazawa, Tamotsu Sato, Daisuke Inaba, Masami Yonemitsu, Yutaka Yoshitake
Open Journal of Epidemiology (OJEpi) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojepi.2012.23010
Abstract: Background: The ability to climb stairs (ascending and descending stair without using a handrail) and rise from a chair (rising from chairs without using an elbow rest) are among the most important measures of physical function for ADL evaluation for the independent living, and assessed by the questioners on many epidemiological studies in elderly. But little is known about the relationship between the self-reported performance level of the tasks and lower leg strength and power in very elderly people. The purpose of this study was to ascertain the relationship between the self-reported performance level of two tasks and the lower leg function in community-dwelling 80-year-old population. Methods: Out of 994 persons who were 80 years old living in Morioka City, Iwate Prefecture, Japan, 607 individuals (236 men and 371 women) underwent a physical fitness test that included measurements of leg extensor power and knee extensor strength. The ability to climb up stair and to rise from a chair was assessed by self- reported questionnaire which was ranked in three levels. The area under the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) was used to evaluate the measurements. Results: The cut-off points for the leg extensor power of subjects who could completely perform the stair-climbing and chair-rising functions were determined to be approximately 8.6 watt/kg body mass for men and 5.6 watt/kg body mass for women. In addition, the cut-off points for the knee extensor strength of subjects who could completely perform the stair-climbing and chair-rising functions were determined to be approximately 0.97 kg/kg body mass for men and 0.84 kg/kg body mass for women. Conclusions: From a practical viewpoint, the present study suggested that the cut-off points of leg extensor power and knee extensor strength can be used as targets in simple self-reported questionnaires to help in screening for mobility in 80-year-old population
Suzaku spectra of a Type II Supernova Remnant Kes 79
Tamotsu Sato,Katsuji Koyama,Shiu-Hang Lee,Tadayuki Takahashi
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: This paper reports results of a Suzaku observation of the supernova remnant (SNR) Kes 79 (G33.6+0.1). The X-ray spectrum is best fitted by a two-temperature model: a non-equilibrium ionization (NEI) plasma and a collisional ionization equilibrium (CIE) plasma. The NEI plasma is spatially confined within the inner radio shell with kT~0.8 keV, while the CIE plasma is found in more spatially extended regions associated with the outer radio shell with kT~0.2 keV and solar abundance. Therefore, the NEI plasma is attributable to the SN ejecta and the CIE plasma is forward shocked interstellar medium. In the NEI plasma, we discovered K-shell line of Al, Ar and Ca for the first time. The abundance pattern and estimated mass of the ejecta are consistent with the core-collapse supernova explosion of a ~30-40 solar mass progenitor star. An Fe line with center energy of ~6.4 keV is also found in the southeast (SE) portion of the SNR, a close peripheral region around dense molecular clouds. One possibility is that the line is associated with the ejecta. However, the centroid energy of ~6.4 keV and the spatial distribution of enhancement near the SE peripheral do not favor this scenario. Since the ~6.4 keV emitting region coincides to the molecular clouds, we propose another possibility that the Fe line is due to K-shell ionization of neutral Fe by the interaction of locally accelerated protons (LECRp) with the surrounding molecular cloud. Both these possibilities, heated ejecta or LECRp origin, are discussed based on the observational facts.
Discovery of Recombining Plasma in the Supernova Remnant 3C 391
Tamotsu Sato,Katsuji Koyama,Tadayuki Takahashi,Hirokazu Odaka,Shinya Nakashima
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1093/pasj/psu120
Abstract: Recent X-ray study of middle-aged supernova remnants (SNRs) reveals strong radiative recombination continua (RRCs) associated with overionized plasmas, of which the origin still remains uncertain. We report our discovery of an RRC in the middle-aged SNR 3C 391. If the X-ray spectrum is fitted with a two-temperature plasma model in collisional ionization equilibrium (CIE), residuals of Si XIV Ly alpha line at 2.006 keV, S XVI Ly alpha line at 2.623 keV and the edge of RRC of Si XIII at 2.666 keV are found. The X-ray spectrum is better described by a composite model consisting of a CIE plasma and a recombining plasma (RP). The abundance pattern suggests that the RP is associated to the ejecta from a core-collapse supernova with a progenitor star of 15 solar mass. There is no significant difference of the recombining plasma parameters between the southeast region and the northwest region surrounded by dense molecular clouds. We also find a hint of Fe I K alpha line at 6.4 keV (~2.4 sigma detection) from the southeast region of the SNR.
Profit-Sharing and the Endogenous Order of Moves in Oligopoly  [PDF]
Hiroyuki Takami, Tamotsu Nakamura
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2012.22023
Abstract: Whether firms move sequentially or simultaneously is one of the most important questions in the oligopoly theory. Forms of firms and/or their remuneration systems influence the decisions. This paper analyzes the effect of profit-sharing on the endogenous order of moves in a wage-setting stage of a unionized duopoly where one adopts profit-sharing while the other does not. It is shown that the two firms do not move simultaneously. In addition, if a fraction of profits going to the union is large, the Stackelberg equilibrium with the profit sharing firm moving first emerges endogenously.
Effect of a CNS-Sensitive Anticholinesterase Methane Sulfonyl Fluoride on Hippocampal Acetylcholine Release in Freely Moving Rats
Tamotsu Imanishi,Muhammad Mubarak Hossain,Tadahiko Suzuki,Ping Xu,Itaru Sato,Haruo Kobayashi
Advances in Pharmacological Sciences , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/708178
Abstract: Anticholinesterases (antiChEs) are used to treat Alzheimer’s disease. The comparative effects of two antiChEs, methanesulfonyl fluoride (MSF) and donepezil, on the extracellular levels of ACh in the hippocampus were investigated by in vivo microdialysis in freely moving rats. MSF at 1 and 2?mg/kg produced a dose-dependent increase in ACh efflux from 10?min to at least 3?hrs after injection. At 2?mg/kg, the increase was still present at 24?hr. Donepezil at 1?mg/kg showed a similar but smaller effect, and, paradoxically, 2?mg/kg showed no consistent effect. MSF at 1 and 2?mg/kg decreased acetylcholinesterase activity in the hippocampus to 54.8 and 20.1% of control, respectively. These results suggest that MSF is a suitable candidate for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease. 1. Introduction Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a slowly progressive neurodegenerative illness characterized by the presence of senile plaques containing β-amyloid protein (Aβ) in brain tissue, tau-neurofibrillary tangles in neurons and, the loss of different transmitter-containing axons, especially cholinergic nerves [1, 2]. Unfortunately, therapeutic strategies targeting amyloid plaques with plaque-removing vaccines or gamma-secretase modulators have been disappointing [3, 4]. It is generally accepted that progressive neurodegeneration of the cholinergic system underlies, at least in part, the cognitive deterioration of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) [5–7]. This hypothesis is supported by findings of encouraging symptomatic improvements in clinical trials by the use of AChE inhibitors [8, 9], theoretically by enhancing central cholinergic function by permitting acetylcholine (ACh) to remain in the synaptic cleft longer. Interestingly, some AChE inhibitors have also been reported to be effective also in diminishing amyloid plaques [10, 11]. Methanesulfonyl fluoride (MSF), a long-acting and highly specific inhibitor of brain AChE [12, 13], has been proposed as a safe and effective palliative treatment for senile dementia of the Alzheimer type [14] as well as a method to attenuate stroke-induced deficits in a simple learning and memory task [13]. Therefore, the main aim of this study was to compare MSF-induced increases in extracellular ACh in the hippocampus, one of the target regions for the treatment of AD, with the effects of donepezil, a reference drug widely used for symptomatic treatment of AD. For this purpose, the present study was carried out by measuring extracellular ACh in the hippocampus by in vivo microdialysis in freely moving rats following administration of MSF and donepezil. 2.
Novel Sex Cells and Evidence for Sex Pheromones in Diatoms
Shinya Sato, Gordon Beakes, Masahiko Idei, Tamotsu Nagumo, David G. Mann
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0026923
Abstract: Background Diatoms belong to the stramenopiles, one of the largest groups of eukaryotes, which are primarily characterized by a presence of an anterior flagellum with tubular mastigonemes and usually a second, smooth flagellum. Based on cell wall morphology, diatoms have historically been divided into centrics and pennates, of which only the former have flagella and only on the sperm. Molecular phylogenies show the pennates to have evolved from among the centrics. However, the timing of flagellum loss – whether before the evolution of the pennate lineage or after – is unknown, because sexual reproduction has been so little studied in the ‘araphid’ basal pennate lineages, to which Pseudostaurosira belongs. Methods/Principal Finding Sexual reproduction of an araphid pennate, Pseudostaurosira trainorii, was studied with light microscopy (including time lapse observations and immunofluorescence staining observed under confocal scanning laser microscopy) and SEM. We show that the species produces motile male gametes. Motility is mostly associated with the extrusion and retrieval of microtubule-based ‘threads’, which are structures hitherto unknown in stramenopiles, their number varying from one to three per cell. We also report experimental evidence for sex pheromones that reciprocally stimulate sexualization of compatible clones and orientate motility of the male gametes after an initial ‘random walk’. Conclusions/Significance The threads superficially resemble flagella, in that both are produced by male gametes and contain microtubules. However, one striking difference is that threads cannot beat or undulate and have no motility of their own, and they do not bear mastigonemes. Threads are sticky and catch and draw objects, including eggs. The motility conferred by the threads is probably crucial for sexual reproduction of P. trainorii, because this diatom is non-motile in its vegetative stage but obligately outbreeding. Our pheromone experiments are the first studies in which gametogenesis has been induced in diatoms by cell-free exudates, opening new possibilities for molecular ‘dissection’ of sexualization.
Gametogenesis and Auxospore Development in Actinocyclus (Bacillariophyta)
Masahiko Idei, Keigo Osada, Shinya Sato, Kensuke Toyoda, Tamotsu Nagumo, David G. Mann
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0041890
Abstract: cGametogenesis and auxospore development have been studied in detail in surprisingly few centric diatoms. We studied the development of sperm, eggs and auxospores in Actinocyclus sp., a radially symmetrical freshwater diatom collected from Japan, using LM and electron microscopy of living cultures and thin sections. Actinocyclus represents a deep branch of the ‘radial centric’ diatoms and should therefore contribute useful insights into the evolution of sexual reproduction in diatoms. Spermatogenesis was examined by LM and SEM and involved the formation of two spermatogonia (sperm mother-cells) in each spermatogonangium through an equal mitotic division. The spermatogonia produced a reduced ‘lid’ valve, resembling a large flat scale with irregular radial thickenings. Sperm formation was merogenous, producing four sperm per spermatogonium, which were released by dehiscence of the ‘lid’ valve. The sperm were spindle-shaped with numerous surface globules and, as usual for diatoms, the single anterior flagellum bore mastigonemes. One egg cell was produced per oogonium. Immature eggs produced a thin layer of circular silica scales before fertilization, while the eggs were still contained within the oogonium. Sperm were attracted in large numbers to each egg and were apparently able to contact the egg surface via a gap formed between the long hypotheca and shorter epitheca of the oogonium and a small underlying hole in the scale-case. Auxospores expanded isodiametrically and many new scales were added to its envelope during expansion. Finally, new slightly-domed initial valves were produced at right angles to the oogonium axis, after a strong contraction of the cell away from the auxospore wall. At different stages, Golgi bodies were associated with chloroplasts or mitochondria, contrasting with the constancy of Golgi–ER–mitochondrion (G-ER-M) units in some other centric diatoms, which has been suggested to have phylogenetic significance. Electron-dense bodies in the vacuole of Actinocyclus are probably acidocalcisomes containing polyphosphate.
A20 (TNFAIP3) Deletion in Epstein-Barr Virus-Associated Lymphoproliferative Disorders/Lymphomas
Midori Ando, Yasuharu Sato, Katsuyoshi Takata, Junko Nomoto, Shigeo Nakamura, Koichi Ohshima, Tamotsu Takeuchi, Yorihisa Orita, Yukio Kobayashi, Tadashi Yoshino
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0056741
Abstract: A negative regulator of the nuclear factor (NF)-κB pathway, A20 (TNFAIP3), is inactivated in several types of lymphomas; particularly in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), classical Hodgkin's lymphoma, and extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue. These findings suggest that the NF-κB activation is related to A20 inactivation. Recently, A20 inactivation has also been observed in Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-related lymphomas; however, this occurrence has not been well investigated. Moreover, NF-κB is a key molecule in activated B-cell-like (ABC)-type DLBCL; EBV-associated DLBCL is of the ABC type. Therefore, we focused on A20 deletions in EBV-associated lymphoproliferative disorders/lymphomas. Using fluorescent in situ hybridization analysis, A20 deletions were identified in 4 of 13 samples from patients with pyothorax-associated lymphoma (PAL) (31%), 3 of 20 samples from nasal-type NK/T cell lymphomas (NKTLs) (15%), 1 of 8 samples of EBV-positive DLBCL of the elderly (DLBCL-e) (13%), but not in any of the 11 samples from individuals with methotrexate-related lymphoproliferative disorder (MTX-LPD) (0%). Among the samples with A20 deletions, EBV latent membrane protein 1 (LMP-1) expression was detected in all 4 of the PAL samples with A20 deletions and in the DLBCL-e sample with an A20 deletion, but not in any of the 3 NKTL samples. This finding indicated that A20 deletions were not directly related to the EBV latency pattern of lymphomas, although such deletions might be related to the diagnostic category. Immunohistologically, the A20 protein was absent in 2 (15%) of the13 PAL samples, 1 (9%) of 11 MTX-LPD samples, and in none of the 20 NKTL (0%) or 8 DLBCL-e samples. In conclusion, A20 deletion and/or dysfunctional expression are frequently associated with PALs, and A20 abnormalities may be related to the pathogenesis of PAL.
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