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A series of mobile and stationary meteorological measurements were performed in the city of Mendoza, Argentina to study the local influence of green areas on the urban canopy layer heat island effect at the micro scale, during the Austral summer of 2003-2005. These results were associated in representative local climate zones (LCZ), which helped to identify different thermal conditions within the city. The physiologically equivalent temperature index was used to determine the thermal comfort in each LCZ, showing that during daylight, trees and parks improve thermal comfort through shading and evapotranspiration; but at the same time, urban tree corridors delay night cooling by retaining warm air beneath their canopies. Also irrigation showed to positively influence on the extension and intensity of the cooling effect of rural areas and parks. The cooling influence of an urban park spreads out through the neighborhoods for 800 - 1000 m, with an average temperature decrease of 1.3°C during daytime and >4.0°C at nighttime.
No study so far has
specifically addressed the influence of individual differences in trait-anxiety
on aversive classical conditioning as indexed by the startle reflex response.
We compared the startle reflex responses between participants classified as
high (n = 25) and low (n = 26) in trait-anxiety while undergoing a single-cue
aversive classical conditioning procedure. High trait-anxiety group showed a
greater startle response to the CS relative to the ITI at the post-acquisition
compared with the pre-acquisition phase. Low trait-anxiety group did not show
such a clear pattern of conditioning, and results from this group seem to be
concealed by differences in the startle responses to the CS and the ITI during
the pre-acquisition phase. However, a post-hoc analysis in which such differences
at pre-conditioning were removed showed no conditioning effects in low trait-anxiety
participants. Taking together, these results suggest differences between high
and low trait-anxiety groups in the acquisition of the CS-US association.
However, further research should clarify the unexpected pattern of responses
shown by low trait-anxiety group.