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Marked Seizure Reduction after MCT Supplementation
Raed Azzam,Nabil J. Azar
Case Reports in Neurological Medicine , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/809151
Abstract: We report the case of a 43-year-old man with history of nonsurgical partial epilepsy who previously failed multiple trials of antiepileptic drugs. Medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) were added to his regular diet in the form of pure oil. Subsequently, his seizure frequency was markedly reduced from multiple daily seizures to one seizure every four days. His seizures recurred after transient discontinuation of MCT over a period of ten days. His seizure improvement was achieved at a dose of four tablespoons of MCT twice daily with no reported side effects. He developed significant diarrhea and flatulence at higher doses. We conclude that MCT oil supplementation to regular diet may provide better seizure control in some patients. MCT oil supplementation may be a more tolerable alternative to the standard ketogenic diet. 1. Introduction The ketogenic diet was proven to be effective in treating patients with drug-resistant epilepsy. However, its sustained efficacy requires strict adherence to a high fat diet that can limit patient compliance. The fat intake can be derived either from long- or medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) [1]. One major component of MCT is caprylic acid which was recently FDA approved as a food supplement for the symptomatic treatment of Alzheimer’s disease [2]. While maintaining a regular diet, MCT supplementation demonstrated increased ketosis, suggesting a possible role in the treatment of epilepsy. In this case, we report a patient with drug-resistant epilepsy who experienced marked seizure reduction after the addition of MCT oil to his regular diet. 2. Case A 43-year-old Caucasian right-handed man presented to our clinic with longstanding history of drug-resistant partial epilepsy. His first seizure occurred at the age of five years. Since then, he was treated with multiple antiepileptic drugs resulting only in short periods of seizure freedom. He reported daily seizures averaging six per day, in spite of an adequate dosage of levetiracetam, lamotrigine, and phenytoin. He described stereotypical episodes of an initial “closing-in” sensation followed by a variable degree of loss of awareness or staring as reported by his wife. His seizures rarely progressed into secondarily generalized tonic-clonic seizures. His seizure risk factors included a history of premature birth and a paternal uncle with epilepsy. His past medical history included gastroesophageal reflux disease treated with famotidine. His general and neurological examinations were normal. As part of a presurgical evaluation, a five-day inpatient video-EEG study recorded 12
Isolated Pulmonary Infective Endocarditis with Septic Pulmonary Embolism Complicating a Right Ventricular Outflow Tract Obstruction: Scarce and Devious Presentation
Abdelrahmen Abdelbar,Raed Azzam,Kok Hooi Yap,Ahmed Abousteit
Case Reports in Surgery , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/746589
Abstract: We present a case of a fifty-three-year-old male who presented with severe sepsis. He had been treated as a pneumonia patient for five months before the admission. Investigations revealed isolated pulmonary valve endocarditis and septic pulmonary embolism in addition to undiagnosed right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) obstruction. The patient underwent surgery for the relief of RVOT obstruction by substantial muscle resection of the RVOT, pulmonary artery embolectomy, pulmonary valve replacement, and reconstruction of RVOT and main pulmonary artery with two separate bovine pericardial patches. He was discharged from our hospital after 6 weeks of intravenous antibiotics. He recovered well on follow-up 16 weeks after discharge. A high-suspicion index is needed to diagnose right-side heart endocarditis. Blood cultures and transesophageal echocardiogram are the key diagnostic tools. 1. Introduction Infective endocarditis involving the right side of the heart is an uncommon condition, which often involves the tricuspid valve [1]. It is even rarer to see isolated pulmonary valve endocarditis. This has led to the absence of definite guidelines to aid the management. In this particular case, pulmonary valve endocarditis was predisposed by undiagnosed right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) obstruction. This had led to delayed diagnosis and, therefore, treatment. 2. Case Presentation A fifty-three-year-old man was referred to the cardiothoracic surgical team for consideration of surgery. Five months earlier he was diagnosed and treated by his general practitioner for what was thought to be pneumonia. He did not completely recover after a course of antibiotics. The patient’s symptoms deteriorated and were resistant to antibiotics. He was therefore admitted to a local hospital. Early during the hospital stay, ongoing sepsis led to vasculitic rash in both lower limbs. He was transferred to a tertiary hospital for further workup and treatment plan. Past history included a spontaneously healed ventricular septal defect (VSD) during childhood but no further follow-up was done. He remained septic despite being on intravenous (IV) antibiotics. Successive blood cultures were negative which were thought to be the results of response to antimicrobial treatment. Antibiotics were changed according to the microbiology team advice, but the patient deteriorated after a brief response. Transesophageal echocardiogram (TOE) confirmed the diagnosis of pulmonary valve endocarditis with RVOT obstruction. The decision was made to operate on the patient to remove the source of sepsis.
Shear Failure Criterion and Constant Volume Ring Shear Testing Method for Clayey Soil  [PDF]
Rafig Azzam
Engineering (ENG) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/eng.2016.88051
Abstract: This paper discusses the shortcomings of the traditional Coulomb shear criterion and the direct shear-box testing method used for clayey soil and presents a modified shear criterion that considers the elasto-plastic behavior of cohesive soil. This modified approach involves direct shear testing under constant volume, a method that has been developed by the author. A modified ring shear apparatus and the theory behind the shear criterion and its implication for slope stability analysis are then discussed and the results of investigated tuffitic clayey sediments are presented. The results show that the presented new shear criterion does not consider the cohesion as material constant, but rather it depends on the void ratio. In this case, the stress state and the consolidation status and thus the elasto-plastic behavior of the clayey soil are considered.
Radiographic study of the root canal system of mandibular incisors in Palestinian population  [PDF]
Raed Mukhaimer, Maher Jarbawi
Open Journal of Stomatology (OJST) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojst.2013.38075

Aim: The aim of this study was to survey the root canal morphology of mandibular incisor teeth in a Palestinian population using radiographic approach. Materials and Methods: Five hundred and twenty two extracted mandibular incisor teeth were randomly collected from Palestinian population. The teeth were radiographed from a mesiodistal direction and examined for the presence of a second canal and for the type of canal configuration. Results: All teeth had single root. Three hundred and sixty nine teeth (70.7%) had one canal (type I Vertucci classification). The rest (29.3%) had a second canal (type II and III). Conclusion: Mandibular central and lateral teeth were mostly found to have one root and Type I canal system.

Generalized Form of Hermite Matrix Polynomials via the Hypergeometric Matrix Function  [PDF]
Raed S. Batahan
Advances in Linear Algebra & Matrix Theory (ALAMT) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/alamt.2014.42012
The object of this paper is to present a new generalization of the Hermite matrix polynomials by means of the hypergeometric matrix function. An integral representation, differential recurrence relation and some other properties of these generalized forms are established here. Moreover, some new properties of the Hermite and Chebyshev matrix polynomials are obtained. In particular, the two-variable and two-index Chebyshev matrix polynomials of two matrices are presented.
The Criminal Liability of Parent Corporations for Acts of Its Subsidiaries under Criminal Law in Jordan: A Comparative Study  [PDF]
Raed S. A. Faqir
Beijing Law Review (BLR) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/blr.2016.73022
Abstract: The present study deals with many legal aspects of criminal liability of legal entities, as well tries to explain the legislative and judicial attitude towards this sort of liability. The current research examines laws on criminal liability of parent companies for illegal acts of the subsidiary under criminal legislation in Jordan, and discerns legal norms and applicable aspects related to the doctrine of corporate criminal liability and the legal relationship of the parent company with the subsidiary. This study will first conduct a comprehensive analysis of the provisions of the Jordanian Company Law on the relationship between the parent company and the subsidiary. Issues of corporate criminal liability under the Jordanian legal and other selective comparative legal systems, several aspects of legal systems of common law and civil law about the criminal liability of parent corporations for conduct of parties outside of organization, or for offences of dissolved corporations, or for offences of predecessor’s corporations will be discussed. On the light of secrecy of studies in the direct theme of the present study and ambiguity of regulatory and legal framework in this topic, the researcher will carry out the analysis of the related legislation, including criminal laws merely with respect to the criminal liability of corporation for offences committed by its subsidiaries in order to revamp the legal framework of this issue. An attempt will take into consideration both national and international legal attitudes towards the theme of this research at national and international levels. Finally, this study is a bold step for the detection of weaknesses in the Jordanian legislation in regulating this matter, which is necessary for the interest of the national economy and to protect companies, corporation, economic units and their shareholders, and to create an attractive investment environment for investors.
Performance of Family and Non-family Firms with Self-Selection: Evidence from Dubai  [PDF]
Belaid Rettab, Azzeddine Azzam
Modern Economy (ME) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/me.2011.24070
Abstract: This paper contributes to the literature on comparative performance of family and non-family businesses by accounting for self-selection and by comparing performance within and across sectors. Using an extensive data set of Dubai businesses in the four different major sectors in the Dubai economy (construction, manufacturing, services, and trading); we find that the sector matters. Family businesses outperform nonfamily businesses in trading, followed by construction as a far second. Performance of family businesses is weakest in manufacturing and services, only in trading did family businesses outperform nonfamily exporting businesses in other sectors. Reasons for that are discussed and policy implications are drawn. We also find strong evidence of self-selection bias.
Dependence of the GRB Lag-Luminosity Relation on Redshift in the Source Frame  [PDF]
Walid J. Azzam
International Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics (IJAA) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ijaa.2012.21001
Abstract: The lag-luminosity relation for gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) is an anti-correlation between the time lag, ?lag, which represents the delay between the arrival of hard and soft photons, and the isotropic peak luminosity, L. In this paper, we use a sample of 43 Swift bursts, which was taken from Ukwatta et al., to investigate whether this relation depends on redshift. Both the z-correction and the k-correction are taken into account. Our analysis consists of binning the data in redshift, z, then applying a fit of the form: for each bin, where ?lag0 is the time-lag in the burst’s source frame, and is the corresponding mean value for the entire sample. The goal is to see whether the two fitting parameters, A and B, evolve in a systematic way with z. Our results indicate that both the normalization, A, and the slope, B, seem to vary in a systematic way with redshift. We note that although good best-fits were obtained, with reasonable values for both the linear regression coefficient, r, and the reduced chi-squared, the data showed large scatter. Also, the number of GRBs in the sample studied is not large, and thus our conclusions are only tentative at this point. A flat universe with M = 0.27, ?? = 0.73, and a Hubble constant, H0 = 70 km.s-1.Mpc-1 is assumed.
Quantum Inspired Shape Representation for Content Based Image Retrieval  [PDF]
Rahmeh Jobay, Azzam Sleit
Journal of Signal and Information Processing (JSIP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jsip.2014.52008

Content Based Image Retrieval (CBIR) is a technique in which images are indexed based on their visual contents and retrieving is only based upon these indexed images contents. Among the visual contents to describe the image details is shape. Shape of object, is considered as the most important distinguishable feature which living things can easily recognize, which is also a fact while this line is being written, and large efforts are currently underway in describing image contents by their shapes. Inspired by the core foundation of quantum mechanics, a new easy shape representation for content based image retrieval is proposed by borrowing the concept of quantum superposition into the basis of distance histogram. Results show better retrieval accuracy of the proposed method when compared with distance histogram.

A Brief Review of the Amati Relation for GRBs  [PDF]
Walid J. Azzam
International Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics (IJAA) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ijaa.2016.64030
Abstract: Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are the most powerful explosions in the universe. Alt-hough the exact mechanism behind these explosions remains elusive, GRBs hold great promise as cosmological probes for two main reasons: they have been observed up to very high redshift (z > 9), and their gamma-ray emission is unencumbered by any intervening dust. Several GRB energy and luminosity indicators have been discovered. These indicators correlate an observable quantity, like the intrinsic peak energy, Ep,i, in the?\"\"spectrum of a burst to an unobservable parameter like the equivalent isotropic energy, Eiso, or the isotropic peak luminosity, Lp,iso. This paper provides a brief review of one of these energy and luminosity indicators, the Amati relation, and discusses its potential use as a cosmological probe.
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