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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 255 matches for " Radovan Vadovi? "
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Building Trust—One Gift at a Time
Maro? Servátka,Steven Tucker,Radovan Vadovi
Games , 2011, DOI: 10.3390/g2040412
Abstract: This paper reports an experiment evaluating the effect of gift giving on building trust. We have nested our explorations in the standard version of the investment game. Our gift treatment includes a dictator stage in which the trustee decides whether to give a gift to the trustor before both of them proceed to play the investment game. We observe that in such case the majority of trustees offer their endowment to trustors. Consequently, receiving a gift significantly increases the amounts sent by trustors when controlling for the differences in payoffs created by it. Trustees are, however, not better off by giving a gift as the increase in the amount sent by trustors is not large enough to offset the trustees’ loss associated with the cost of giving a gift.
Euclidean Model of Space and Time  [PDF]
Radovan Machotka
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2018.96073
Abstract: The aim of this work is to show that the currently widely accepted geometrical model of space and time based on the works of Einstein and Minkowski is not unique. The work presents an alternative geometrical model of space and time, a model which, unlike the current one, is based solely on Euclidean geometry. In the new model, the pseudo-Euclidean spacetime is replaced with a specific subset of four-dimensional Euclidean space. The work shows that four-dimensional Euclidean space allows explanation of known relativistic effects that are now explained in pseudo-Euclidean spacetime by Einstein’s Special Theory of Relativity (STR). It also shows simple geometric-kinematical nature of known relativistic phenomena and among others explains why we cannot travel backward in time. The new solution is named the Euclidean Model of Space and Time (EMST).
SWS promoting MHb-IPN-MRN circuit opposes the theta promoting circuit, active wake and REM sleep
Karin Vadovi?ová
Quantitative Biology , 2015,
Abstract: The multisynaptic axonal tracts between hippocampus and medial habenula (MHb) observed in my DTI study using probabilistic tractography made me explore their connectivity. Found tract linked hippocampus to septum, and amygdala to bed nucleus of stria terminalis (BNST). Axons from septum and BNST passed by anteromedial thalamic nucleus (AM) to MHb, and from MHb to pineal gland, linked to control of circadian cycles and sleep. Combination of known findings about septum and MHb connectivity and function led to idea that posterior septum activates MHb, leading to activation of IPN, MRN and serotonin release. This MHb-IPN-MRN circuit promotes slow wave sleep (SWS), high serotonin and low acetylcholine state. This SWS promoting circuit reciprocally suppresses the theta oscillations promoting circuit, linked to high acetylcholine in brain, and formed by supramamillary area (SUM) projections to the medial septum (MS) that activates hippocampus or other theta-coupled regions. The MHb pathway inhibits, possibly reciprocally also some stimulating input to theta-generating SUM and MS, from wake-on nucleus incertus (NI), posterior hypothalamus (PH) and laterodorsal tegmentum (LDT) neurons, and REM-on reticular nucleus pontis oralis (PnO). So the SWS- promoting circuit attenuates theta and both active wake state and REM sleep promoting regions. As the theta in wake state is linked to recording and binding information with their spatio-temporal and relational context by hippocampus, while the SWS supports replay of hippocampally stored information/memory trace and its cortical reactivation, e. g. in retrosplenial cortex linked to autobiographic memory or in prefrontal cortex that can combine any information.
Affective and cognitive prefrontal cortex projections to the lateral habenula in humans
Karin Vadovi?ová
Quantitative Biology , 2014, DOI: 10.3389/fnhum.2014.00819
Abstract: Anterior insula (AI) and dACC are known to process information about pain, loss, adversities, bad, harmful or suboptimal choices and consequences that threaten survival or well-being. Pain and loss activate also pregenual ACC (pgACC), linked to sad thoughts, hurt and regrets. The lateral habenula (LHb) is stimulated by predicted and received pain, discomfort, aversive outcome, loss. Its chronic stimulation makes us feel worse/low and gradually stops us choosing and moving for suboptimal, hurtful or punished choices, by direct and indirect (via RMTg) inhibition of DRN and VTA/SNc. Response selectivity of LHb neurons suggests their cortical input from affective and cognitive evaluative regions that make expectations about bad or suboptimal outcomes. Based on these facts I predicted direct corticohabenular projections from the dACC, pgACC and AI, as part of the adversity processing circuit that learns to avoid bad outcomes by suppressing dopamine and serotonin signal. Using DTI I found dACC, pgACC, AI, adjacent caudolateral and lateral OFC projections to LHb. I predicted no corticohabenular projections from the reward processing regions: medial OFC and vACC because both respond most strongly to good, high value stimuli and outcomes, inducing serotonin and dopamine release respectively. This lack of LHb projections was confirmed for vACC and likely for mOFC. The surprising findings were the corticohabenular projections from the cognitive prefrontal cortex regions, known for flexible reasoning, planning and combining whatever information are relevant for reaching current goals. I propose that prefrontohabenular projections provide a teaching signal for value-based choice behaviour, to learn to deselect, avoid or inhibit the potentially harmful, low valued or wrong choices, goals, strategies, predictions, models and ways of doing things, to prevent bad or suboptimal consequences.
Reward and adversity processing circuits, their competition and interactions with dopamine and serotonin signaling
Karin Vadovi?ová,Roberto Gasparotti
Quantitative Biology , 2013, DOI: 10.14293/S2199-1006.1.SOR-LIFE.AEKZPZ.v1
Abstract: We propose that dACC, AI and caudolateral OFC(clOFC) project to lateral habenula (LHb) and D2 loop of ventral striatum (VS), forming a functional adversity processing circuit, directed towards inhibitory avoidance and self-control. This circuit learns what is bad or harmful to us and predicts risks, to stop us from going/moving for bad or suboptimal choices that decrease our well-being and survival chances. Proposed dACC role is to generate a WARNING signal when things are going (or might end) bad or wrong to prevent negative consequences: pain, harm, loss or failure. The AI signals about bad low aversive qualities, which make us sick or cause discomfort. These cortical inputs activate directly and indirectly (via D2 loop of VS) the LHb, which inhibits dopamine and serotonin release (and is reciprocally inhibited by VTA, DRN) to avoid choosing and doing things leading to harm or loss, but also to make us feel worse, down when overstimulated. We propose that dopamine attenuates the output of the adversity processing circuit, thus decreasing inhibitory avoidance and self-control, while serotonin attenuates dACC, AI, clOFC, D1 loop of VS, LHb, amygdala and pain pathway. Thus, by reciprocal inhibition, by causing dopamine and serotonin suppression - and by being suppressed by them, the adversity processing circuit competes with reward processing circuit for control of choice behaviour and affective states. We propose stimulating effect of dopamine and calming inhibitory effect of serotonin on the active avoidance circuit involving amygdala, linked to threat processing, anger, fear, self-defense and violences. We describe causes and roles of dopamine and serotonin signaling, and mental dysfunctions. We add new idea on vACC role in signaling that we are doing well and in inducing serotonin, when we gain/reach safety, comfort, valuable resources, social/biological rewards, affection or goals.
Experimental murine schistosomiasis mansoni: estabilishment of the chronic phase of the disease
Borojevic, Radovan;
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz , 1992, DOI: 10.1590/S0074-02761992000800026
Abstract: after the acute hyperergic phase of schistosomal infection, the chronic phase of the disease corresponds to the estabilishment of a relative equilibrium between the host and the parasite. this involves: (1) a shift from the predominance of the th2 response observed in the acute phase, to the predominance of the th1 response in the chronic phase of the disease, with modification of lymphokine and immunoglobulin secretions patterns. (2) redistribution of hosts responses to parasite, with predominance of systemic controls in the acute phase, and a shift towards local tissue responses in the chronic phase. this redistribution relieves the hyperergic responses involving the whole body of the host, and delimits cellular and molecular reactions to parasites to only those tissues that are directly involved by the adult parasites and their eggs. mobilization of eosinophil granulocytes in schistosomal periovular granulomas is one of examples of this redistribution.
Light Charged and CP-odd Higgses in MSSM-like Models
Dermisek, Radovan
High Energy Physics - Phenomenology , 2008, DOI: 10.1063/1.3051917
Abstract: We study the Higgs sector of supersymmetric models containing two Higgs doublets with a light MSSM-like CP odd Higgs, $m_A \lesssim 10$ GeV, and $\tan \beta \lesssim 2.5$. In this scenario all Higgses resulting from two Higgs doublets: light and heavy CP even Higgses, $h$ and $H$, the CP odd Higgs, $A$, and the charged Higgs, $H^\pm$, could have been produced at LEP or the Tevatron, but would have escaped detection because they decay in modes that have not been searched for or the experiments are not sensitive to. Especially $H \to ZA$ and $H^\pm \to W^{\pm \star} A$ with $A \to c \bar c, \tau^+ \tau^-$ present an opportunity to discover some of the Higgses at LEP, the Tevatron and also at B factories. In addition, the $2.8 \sigma$ excess of the branching ratio $W \to \tau \nu$ with respect to the other leptons measured at LEP correlates well with the existence of the charged Higgs with properties typical for this scenario. Dominant $\tau$- and $c$-rich decay products of all Higgses require modified strategies for their discovery at the LHC.
Light Charged Higgs and Lepton Universality in W boson Decays
Dermisek, Radovan
High Energy Physics - Phenomenology , 2008,
Abstract: We study the effect of a light charged Higgs appearing in supersymmetric models containing two Higgs doublets on the measurement of leptonic branching ratios of the W boson at LEP. We show that the $2.8 \sigma$ excess of the branching ratio $W \to \tau \nu$ with respect to the other leptons correlates well with the existence of charged Higgs with mass close to the mass of the W boson which dominantly decays into $W^\star$ and a light CP odd Higgs boson $A$ with mass below $2m_b$, so that it decays into $\tau^+ \tau^-$ and $c \bar c$. There are no searches for the charged Higgs in this channel and thus it could be discovered in LEP data or at the Tevatron where it would be frequently produced in top quark decays.
Digital Repositories and Possibilities of Their Integration into Higher Education
Radovan Vrana
International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning (iJET) , 2010, DOI: 10.3991/ijet.v5s2.1212
Abstract: Due to abundance of information available on the Internet, society seeks new types of digital information resources which would facilitate better delivery of information for different purposes. One such information resource type is digital institutional repository. Successful use of digital institutional repositories depends mostly on quality of content they offer, and on unrestricted access to that content. On the other side of the information chain, users i.e. students should be taught how to critically approach and evaluate content they find in digital institutional repositories in order to enrich their learning experience and make it more successful. To find out more about similarities and differences between top 10 largest open access digital information repositories, a comparison of their most important functions was carried out. The results of the comparison give us valuable indicators about possibilities of their use in learning process based on their properties and presence of the most important functions modern information resources should have. Generally speaking, as digital repositories gain more public attention, it can be expected that they will be used even more in future for various purposes, including education.
Razvoj omre ja SIGNAL in tr na vrednost dolo anja polo aja : The development of the SIGNAL network and market value of positioning
Dalibor Radovan
Geodetski Vestnik , 2007,
Abstract: The Slovenian permanent GPS stations network named SIGNAL is presented. The discussion about the users, user-access statistics and operation cost items is included. Positive and negative sides of various future financing and tariff systems are analysed. The articleconcludes with the discussion on the factual usability of such positioning system in the light of Galileo and GLONASS development.
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