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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 7969 matches for " Radiation protection "
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Evaluation of a Suspended Personal Radiation Protection System vs. Conventional Apron and Shields in Clinical Interventional Procedures  [PDF]
Clare Savage, Thomas M. Seale IV, Cathryn J. Shaw, Bruner P. Angela, Daniel Marichal, Chet R. Rees
Open Journal of Radiology (OJRad) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojrad.2013.33024

Purpose: This clinical study compares conventional lead aprons and ancillary shields to a functionally weightless personal overhead-supported system with expanded coverage. Materials and Methods: Primary operators performed procedures (N = 126, fluoroscopy minutes = 1209) using one of 2 methods of radiation protection and wearing dosimeters on multiple body locations. Method LAS (Lead-Apron+Shields): lead skirt, vest, thyroid shield, with 100% use of under-table shield, side shield, and mobile suspended lead-acrylic shield. Method Zgrav: ZeroGravity system (CFI Medical Solutions) with variable use of shielding. The studied early model moving with the operator had a curved lead-acrylic head shield (0.5 mm Pb) and expansive lead apron (0.5 - 1.0 mm Pb) that covered leg to distal calf and proximal arm to elbow, and a drape that permitted sterile entry and exit. Study was institutional review board approved and HIPPA-compliant. Results: Measured with a sensitive electronic dosimeter, eye exposures were 99% (P < 0.001) reduced for Zgrav with upgraded face shield vs. LAS, regardless of use or non-use of suspended shield with Zgrav. With optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dosimeters, operator exposures, standardized to minutes of fluoroscopy and Fluoroscopic Patient Dose Area Product, were reduced by 87%

Investigation of Scattered Radiation Dose at the Door of a Radiotherapy Vault When the Maze Intersects the Primary Beam  [PDF]
Sean Michael Tanny, Nicholas Niven Sperling, E. Ishmael Parsai
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2015.62019
Abstract: NCRP 151 provides very detailed examples demonstrating the necessary concerns for shielding a conventional radiotherapy vault with a maze where the useful beam is parallel to the maze. However, it provides little guidance on how to properly shield a vault with the maze-wall acting as part of a compound primary barrier. We have modeled a new radiotherapy vault with this configuration and assessed the additional photon shielding burden at the door with MCNP5. MCNP simulations demonstrated an increase in overall photon shielding burden at the door relative to calculations that only consider photon workloads presented in NCRP 151. Two additional components of scattered radiation are considered and methods for calculation are presented.
Possible danger in staff occupationally exposed to radiation
Ch Triantopoulou,B Tsapaki
To Vima tou Asklipiou , 2008,
Abstract: The successful use of radiological equipment in Radiology and the undoubtful help in clinical diagnosis and patient treatment led to the increasing use of this type of equipment. In the old days, the X‐ray systems were only found in the Radiological departments of a hospital. In recent years, these machines are used by orthopedic surgeons, angiosurgeons, gastroenterologists in the surgery room, or by interventional radiologists and cardiologists in specialized departments. They are even moving between departments (mobile X‐ray systems) for performing urgent radiographs in very ill patients. Apart radiological departments, the personnel is not trained or even informed about the ionizing radiation.The main purpose of this review paper was to : (1) analyze in detail ionizing radiation, (2) to determine the dangers during its use, (3) to note down the main radiation protection rules and 4) finally to provide practical tools for best radiation protection in such hospital departments.
Evaluation of dentists’ awareness about personnel and patients national protection in Yazd dental office  [PDF]
Maryam Zangoie Booshehri, Fatemeh Ezoddini-Ardakani, Hooshang Nozari
Health (Health) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/health.2012.48078
Abstract: Background: Dental radiology had helpful assistant in the diagnosis and treatment of oral diseases. Dentists in their practice have to access benefits of dental oral radiographs against its hazards. They must aware from new radiation protection techniques and radiation dosage which daily receive. Present study was performed for radiation protection awareness in dentists of Yazd city and their knowledge about recent lowering radiation techniques. Materials & Methods: Present cross sectional study was performed on 102 medical dentists of Yazd city. Our study samples were participated in one Continues Medical Educations (CME) session. Knowledge assessment of study medical dentists was gathered with questionnaire which was given to study participants during CME session. Results: Eighty nine percent of dentists had poor and 11% had moderate awareness about radiation protection techniques. There was no significant difference between mean of knowledge scores among study participants according their age groups, job experiences and genders. Conclusion: The knowledge of dentists about radiation protection techniques was very poor and they should implement recent and appropriate radiation protection techniques and guidelines.
Evaluation of Effective Dose Using the k-Factor of Optimal Scan Range for CT Examination  [PDF]
Masanao Kobayashi, Yasuki Asada, Kosuke Matsubara, Tomonobu Haba, Yuta Matsunaga, Ai Kawaguchi, Kazuhiro Katada, Hiroshi Toyama, Kichiro Koshida, Ryoichi Kato, Shouichi Suzuki
Open Journal of Radiology (OJRad) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojrad.2015.53021
Abstract: The American College of Radiology opened the computed tomography (CT) dose index registry (DIR) for general participation by all facilities in 2011. For each CT examination, data on volume CT dose index (CTDIvol), dose-length product (DLP), and, for body examinations, size-specific dose estimate (SSDE) were collected. However, effective dose is not estimated in DIR. The primary objective of this study was to estimate k-factor profile in detail at various scan positions with modified the ImPACT CT patient dosimetry. A tool that easily estimates the k-factor of suitable scan areas is essential for practical dose estimation in the DIR. We evaluated k-factor (effective dose/ DLP) profiles between a medical international radiation dose-five (MIRD-5) phantom positions using aImPACT software. As a result of this study, practicality of the k-factor profile method in clinical use was clarified. We speculate that a flexible k-factor improves the appropriateness of the E in hospital settings.
An Investigation of Radiation Protection Status in Radiology Centers of Kurdistan in 2014-2015  [PDF]
Leila Ebrahimzadeh, Akbar Eslami, Farzam Bidarpoor, Seyyed Jamal Aldin Ebrahimi
Health (Health) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/health.2017.95060
Using personal protective equipment (PPE) properly and following available rules and regulations in the field of ionizing radiation protection can significantly decrease these harms. If these equipment and facilities are not available in diagnostic radiation centers or are not used properly, radiographers’ and people’s health will be jeopardized. To date, no study has examined the protective condition against radiation in diagnostic radiation centers of Kurdistan province. The present study, therefore, was an attempt to address this gap. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2014-2015 among 35 diagnostic radiation centers of Kurdistan. Data were collected through a checklist (which was developed based on the available radiation protection laws), a survey for patients and their caregivers, and insite observation and dosimetry. The radiation health expert of the province proceeded to each of the radiology centers personally. Upon arrival to each center, he informed health physics officials of the centers about the study and collected data through observation, interview, and the checklist. On the other hand, in order to examine radiation leakage in different modes of imaging session, dosimetry was conducted by the use of an environmental dosimeter (Fluke 451 manufactured in the United States). The collected data were analyzed through Excel. It was found that in 67.3% of the cases, there was personal protective equipment for patients and their caregivers (robes, thyroid strap, gonadal shield, glasses, and lead gloves). Furthermore, this equipment and other physical holders were used for patients and their caregivers in 75.7% of the cases. This rate was 87.6% for pregnant women. In addition, we found that around 94% of the personnel went through medical examinations every six or twelve months, a rate that was much higher than that found in Nohi’s study. When it comes to improving the indices of protection against radiation in radiation centers, it seems that adding the proposed items in this study to the present data collection form (form 110 used for urban areas) or designing a new form will change the attitude toward the concept of protection. This will highlight the importance of this topic and will result in decision makers’ more serious attempts to promote the protection condition.
Radiation Shielding Analysis and Design of tof PET-CT Facility at Institute of Nuclear Medical Physics under Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission, Bangladesh  [PDF]
M. F. Uddin, R. Khatun, S. Akter, H. M. Jamil, A. N. Monika, M. A. Rahaman, R. P. Das, R. A. Sharmin, M. M. Rahman, M. M. Ahasan
International Journal of Medical Physics,Clinical Engineering and Radiation Oncology (IJMPCERO) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/ijmpcero.2019.81001
Abstract: High resolution (4 mm) tof PET-CT (positron emission tomography-computed tomography) from Philips of model Ingenuity TF is newly installed at Institute of Nuclear Medical Physics (INMP). 128 slice CT component incorporated with PET provides comparatively lower dose than the 511 keV annihilation photons associated with positron decay from PET scan. So, for designing shielding in our PET-CT facility, only 511 keV annihilation photons energy has been considered. The main objective of this paper is to show what measures have been taken to protect patients, occupational workers as well as environment from PET-CT radiation hazard through a cost effective design that satisfy the national regulatory demand. In this paper, AAPM (American Associations of Physicists in Medicine) Task group 108 analysis for PET and PET-CT shielding requirements is followed for our PET-CT facility shielding design. From theoretical calculation as shielding requirement, 1.1 cm Pb thickness or, 13 cm concrete thicknesses are found. Practically, all walls and ceiling are of 30.48 cm (1 foot) thick made of concrete with density 2.35 gcm-3 for more safety. As x-ray from CT is not taken into account for shielding analysis, Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission (BAEC) conducted an extensive radiation survey at controlled, supervised and public area for CT. The report that is found meets the national regulatory requirements.
La regulación de la protección radiológica y la función de las autoridades de salud
Arias,César F.;
Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública , 2006, DOI: 10.1590/S1020-49892006000800015
Abstract: this article summarizes the development of protection against ionizing radiation and explains current thinking in the field. it also looks at the decisive role that regulatory agencies for radiological protection must play and the important contributions that can be made by health authorities. the latter should take an active part in at least three aspects: the formal education of health personnel regarding radiological protection; the medical care of individuals who are accidentally overexposed, and the radiological protection of patients undergoing radiological procedures. to this end, health professionals must possess sufficient knowledge about radiological protection, promote the use of proper equipment, and apply the necessary quality assurance procedures. through their effective intervention, national health authorities can greatly contribute to reducing unnecessary doses of radiation during medical procedures involving radiation sources and decrease the chances that radiological accidents will take place.
Mondaca A,Roberto;
Revista chilena de radiología , 2006, DOI: 10.4067/S0717-93082006000100008
Abstract: many reports have been publicated in the past few years orientate to reduce the irradiation dose in children. it was compared with survivors of the atomic bomb in japan. the ones who received low doses, in order to the 10 to 50 msv, levels that left inside of diagnostic radiology spectrum, and in asociation in a small but significant increase in the tumors incidence. the major radiosensibility of children, obligate us to take, the necessary measure to rationalize the use of ionization radiation in pediatric, in special the ct, wich is the method that gives the higher doses. this measures can be abridge to: 1. - select properly the cases that are going to be benefit whit the method trough the pediatrician. 2.- reduce the exposition factors. 3.- direct the exam only to the specific study area. 4.- except special cases, perform only single phase studies. 5. protection for superficial organs. 6. deliver information for parents and general public
IRPA initiative on radiation protection culture
Natalia Golnik, Piotr Tulik
Polish Journal of Medical Physics And Engineering , 2011, DOI: 10.2478/v10013-011-0001-8
Abstract: The concept of radiation protection culture, proposed by French Society for Radiation Protection (SFRP) and then launched by International Radiation Protection Association (IRPA) is presented. The paper is focused on the role of radiation culture in preventing unjustified fear associated with the use of radiation. Principles of RP culture and optimization of radiation protection, as well as the problems how RP culture can be learned and how to engage the stakeholders are considered.
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