Abstract:
[retracted]objective: to assess the incidence, severity pattern, causality, predictability and preventability of adverse drug reactions (adrs) and to identify risk factors for adverse drug reactions in highly active antiretroviral therapy. methods: enrolled patients were intensively monitored for adrs to highly active antiretroviral therapy. predictability was assessed based on history of previous exposure to the drug or literature incidence of adrs. preventability was assessed using schumock and thornton criteria and severity was assessed using modified hartwig and siegel scale. multivariate logistic regressions were used to identify the risk factors for adrs. results: monitoring of 130 retropositive patients by active pharmacovigilance identified 74 adrs from 57 patients. anemia and hepatotoxicity were the most commonly observed adrs. the organ system commonly affected by adr was red blood cell (21.4%).the adrs were moderate in 77% of cases. type a reactions (77%) were more common. a total of 10.8% adrs were definitely preventable. the incidence rate of adrs (65.9%) was highest with zidovudine + lamivudine + nevirapine combination. a total of 84% interruptions to highly active antiretroviral therapy were due to toxicity. cd4 less than 200 cells/μl, female gender and tuberculosis were observed as risk factors for adrs. conclusion: incidence of adrs in intensively monitored patients was found to be 43.8%. anemia in hiv patients is an influential risk factor for occurrence of adrs. with the increasing access to antiretroviral in india, clinicians must focus on early detection and prevention of adrs to highly active antiretroviral therapy.

Abstract:
This paper deals with the combined effect of thermal diffusion and heat absorption on the MHD free convection heat and mass transfer flow of a viscous incompressible fluid past a continuously moving infinite plate. Closed form of solution for the velocity, temperature and concentration field are obtained and discussed graphically for various values of the physical parameters present. In addition, expressions for the skin friction is also derived and finally discussed with the help of table and graphs. Keywords: Free convection, Heat and Mass transfer, Heat Sink, Thermal radiation, Magnetic Field.

Abstract:
We study a two-dimensional free convection effects on the steady incompressible laminar MHD heat and mass transfer characteristics of a linearly started porous vertical plate, the velocity of the fluid far away from the plate surface is assumed zero for a quiescent state fluid. The variations of surface temperature and concentration are linear. All the fluid properties are assumed to be constant except for the density variations in the buoyancy force term of the linear momentum equation. The magnetic Reynolds number is assumed to be small, so that the induced magnetic field is neglected. No electrical field is assumed to exist and both viscous and magnetic dissipations are neglected. The Hall effects, the viscous dissipation and the joule heating terms are also neglected. The governing equations are solved numerically by using shooting method. Dimensionless velocity, temperature and concentration profiles are displayed graphically for different values of suction parameter (fw), magnetic parameter ( ), permeability parameter (K), local temperature Grashof number (Gr), local concentration Grashof number (Gc), Prandtl number ( ) and Schmidt number (Sc). The values of skin-friction, Nusselt number and Sherwood number for different physical parameters are also presented through tables. Keywords: Porous medium, MHD, Heat transfer and Mass transfer, Vertical plate.

Abstract:
With increasing use of digital control it is natural to view control inputs and outputs as stochastic processes assuming values over finite alphabets rather than in a Euclidean space. As control over networks becomes increasingly common, data compression by reducing the size of the input and output alphabets without losing the fidelity of representation becomes relevant. This requires us to define a notion of distance between two stochastic processes assuming values in distinct sets, possibly of different cardinalities. If the two processes are i.i.d., then the problem becomes one of defining a metric between two probability distributions over distinct finite sets of possibly different cardinalities. This is the problem addressed in the present paper. A metric is defined in terms of a joint distribution on the product of the two sets, which has the two given distributions as its marginals, and has minimum entropy. Computing the metric exactly turns out to be NP-hard. Therefore an efficient greedy algorithm is presented for finding an upper bound on the distance. This problem also turns out to be NP-hard, so again a greedy algorithm is constructed for finding a suboptimal reduced order approximation. Taken together, all the results presented here permit the approximation of an i.i.d. process over a set of large cardinality by another i.i.d. process over a set of smaller cardinality. In future work, attempts will be made to extend this work to Markov processes over finite sets.

Abstract:
The objectives of this "perspective" paper are to review some recent advances in sparse feature selection for regression and classification, as well as compressed sensing, and to discuss how these might be used to develop tools to advance personalized cancer therapy. As an illustration of the possibilities, a new algorithm for sparse regression is presented, and is applied to predict the time to tumor recurrence in ovarian cancer. A new algorithm for sparse feature selection in classification problems is presented, and its validation in endometrial cancer is briefly discussed. Some open problems are also presented.

Abstract:
Large deviation theory is a branch of probability theory that is devoted to a study of the "rate" at which empirical estimates of various quantities converge to their true values. The object of study in this paper is the rate at which estimates of the doublet frequencies of a Markov chain over a finite alphabet converge to their true values. In case the Markov process is actually an i.i.d.\ process, the rate function turns out to be the relative entropy (or Kullback-Leibler divergence) between the true and the estimated probability vectors. This result is a special case of a very general result known as Sanov's theorem and dates back to 1957. Moreover, since the introduction of the "method of types" by Csisz\'{a}r and his co-workers during the 1980s, the proof of this version of Sanov's theorem has been "elementary," using some combinatorial arguments. However, when the i.i.d.\ process is replaced by a Markov process, the available proofs are far more complex. The main objective of this paper is therefore to present a first-principles derivation of the LDP for finite state Markov chains, using only simple combinatorial arguments (e.g.\ the method of types), thus gathering in one place various arguments and estimates that are scattered over the literature.

Abstract:
This paper presents a new approach via composite cost function to solve the unit commitment problem. The unit com-mitment problem involves determining the start-up and shut-down schedules for generating units to meet the fore-casted demand at the minimum cost. The commitment schedule must satisfy the other constraints such as the generating limits, spinning reserve, minimum up and down time, ramp level and individual units. The proposed algorithm gives the committed units and economic load dispatch for each specific hour of operation. Numerical simulations were carried out using three cases: four-generator, seven-generator, and ten-generator thermal unit power systems over a 24 h period. The produced schedule was compared with several other methods, such as Dynamic programming, Branch and bound, Ant colony system, and traditional Tabu search. The result demonstrated the accuracy of the proposed method.

Abstract:
Materials with large non-linear optical properties are good candidates for applications in the fields of telecommunications, solar energy conversion, laser treatment and so on. In the present study, a crystal of Ammonium Dihydrogen Orthophosphate doped with Acridine Orange, possessing excellent nonlinear optical properties were grown by the slow solvent evaporation technique at 25°C using a constant temperature bath. Ammonium dihydrogen orthophosphate doped with Acridine Orange were synthesized in a large quantity via solution growth method using aqueous mixtures of Ammonium Dihydrogen Orthophosphate and Acridine Orange. The morphological characteristics were studied by field emission scanning electron microscopy which revealed that the synthesized product possesses needle shaped microstructures. The mechanical properties are studied by Vicker’s micro hardness test.

Abstract:
Most common site of schwannoma in larynx is aryepiglottic fold and false cords. Epiglottis involvement is rare. The ultimate diagnosis is based on the histologic demonstration of characteristic spindle cells with typical nuclear palisading and positive immunohistochemistry for S-100 protein, but negative for a-smooth muscle actin, CD34, and vimentin. Effective treatment is complete excision.

Abstract:
Objective: To assess the number of levels of obstruction on a level 3 home sleep study in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. Study Design: This is a prospective study. Setting: Tertiary referral centre. Subjects and Methods: All the patients with the complaints of snoring, excessive daytime sleepiness, were evaluated for OSA. Complete history was taken and a thorough clinical examination was done followed by fibreoptic nasopharyngoscopy to determine the sites of obstructions. Patients were categorised into group A and group B based on the number of levels of obstruction. A level 3 home sleep study also was done for these patients. We tried to correlate the polysomnographic variables between the two groups. Results: There was a significant difference between the two groups in a number of PSG parameters. Patients in A group had lower number of apnoeas, obstructive apnoeas, hypopneas, AHI index, flow limitation and BMI as compared to patients in group B and the difference was statistically significant. We have devised a score using 3 parameters AHI, Flow limitation with snoring and BMI, the Deenadayal’s (DDS) scoring system. The minimum scoring would be 3 and maximum score would be 6. Based on scoring the probable number of obstructions can be identified. Conclusion: Sleep study report can yield a lot of information regarding the number of levels of obstruction. A critical analysis is required while doing the same. Till date there have been no reports in literature identifying number of levels of obstruction on PSG.