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Multivitamin supplementation in HIV infected adults initiating antiretroviral therapy in Uganda: the protocol for a randomized double blinded placebo controlled efficacy trial
Guwatudde David,Ezeamama Amara E,Bagenda Danstan,Kyeyune Rachel
BMC Infectious Diseases , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2334-12-304
Abstract: Background Use of multivitamin supplements during the pre-HAART era has been found to reduce viral load, enhance immune response, and generally improve clinical outcomes among HIV-infected adults. However, immune reconstitution is incomplete and significant mortality and opportunistic infections occur in spite of HAART. There is insufficient research information on whether multivitamin supplementation may be beneficial as adjunct therapy for HIV-infected individuals taking HAART. We propose to evaluate the efficacy of a single recommended daily allowance (RDA) of micronutrients (including vitamins B-complex, C, and E) in slowing disease progression among HIV-infected adults receiving HAART in Uganda. Methods/Design We are using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial study design. Eligible patients are HIV-positive adults aged at least 18 years, and are randomized to receive either a placebo; or multivitamins that include a single RDA of the following vitamins: 1.4 mg B1, 1.4 mg B2, 1.9 mg B6, 2.6 mcg B12, 18 mg niacin, 70 mg C, 10 mg E, and 0.4 mg folic acid. Participants are followed for up to 18 months with evaluations at baseline, 6, 12 and 18 months. The study is primarily powered to examine the effects on immune reconstitution, weight gain, and quality of life. In addition, we will examine the effects on other secondary outcomes including the risks of development of new or recurrent disease progression event, including all-cause mortality; ARV regimen change from first- to second-line therapy; and other adverse events as indicated by incident peripheral neuropathy, severe anemia, or diarrhea. Discussions The conduct of this trial provides an opportunity to evaluate the potential benefits of this affordable adjunct therapy (multivitamin supplementation) among HIV-infected adults receiving HAART in a developing country setting. Trial registration Clinical Trial Registration-URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01228578
Clinical and Radiographic Factors Do Not Accurately Diagnose Smear-Negative Tuberculosis in HIV-infected Inpatients in Uganda: A Cross-Sectional Study
J. Lucian Davis,William Worodria,Harriet Kisembo,John Z. Metcalfe,Adithya Cattamanchi,Michael Kawooya,Rachel Kyeyune,Saskia den Boon,Krista Powell,Richard Okello,Samuel Yoo,Laurence Huang
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0009859
Abstract: Although World Health Organization guidelines recommend clinical judgment and chest radiography for diagnosing tuberculosis in HIV-infected adults with unexplained cough and negative sputum smears for acid-fast bacilli, the diagnostic performance of this approach is unknown. Therefore, we sought to assess the accuracy of symptoms, physical signs, and radiographic findings for diagnosing tuberculosis in this population in a low-income country with a high incidence of tuberculosis.
Does the Behavioral Science Curriculum in a Private College Fit the Needs of the Job Market?  [PDF]
Rachel Pasternak
Creative Education (CE) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2014.52016

The perception of knowledge as consumer goods appeared with the development of private education and reflects a marketing or consumer needs approach. The consumer-needs approach sees advantages in adapting higher education to the needs of the consumer. This article examines whether the behavioral science curriculum (scope, and content) in the private college is based on the approach of knowledge as consumer goods. In addition, what is the level of satisfaction expressed by the alumni of the course, i.e. those who completed the curriculum? The study used a multi-method approach, combining textual analysis of archived documents and an online questionnaire survey of 250 alumni. The results: the scope and contents of the curriculum were only partially affected by this approach. Nonetheless, the graduates were very satisfied with the curriculums contribution to their personal and professional skills and occupations.

Drones under International Law  [PDF]
Rachel Alberstadt
Open Journal of Political Science (OJPS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojps.2014.44023
Abstract: There is a notable absence of legal approaches to the discourse evaluating use of drones. Even when drones are discussed in a legal context, arguments assert that drones require a new legal regime to adapt to modern qualities and circumstances. In the alternative, this paper argues that drones compatibly fit into existing legal regimes, particularly international criminal law (ICL) and international humanitarian law (IHL) in accordance with general principles of international law. This paper argues that use of drones in armed conflict fits within existing laws governing use of force as the frameworks in use today. It demonstrates that ICL and IHL provide flexible guidelines appropriately suitable to particulars of drones, such as types and capabilities, but more importantly, they continue to provide legal governance applicable to drones as weapons. Legal uncertainty as to the use of drones is thus evaluated within the hypothetical exploration of drone usage culminating in a war crime before the International Criminal Court (ICC).
Has the Status of “Maximum Sustainable Yield” Become an International Customary Rule?  [PDF]
Rachel Alberstadt
Beijing Law Review (BLR) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/blr.2014.54025
Abstract: The concept of maximum sustainable yield has emerged as a popularly accepted concept for the benefit of the environment, yet the practical implementation of this concept and the dubious acceptance by fisherman of its lawfulness provides the CORE discussion of this article. Customary law exists as a two pillared system depending both on an element of practice in addition to the belief that the behavior in question is lawfully mandated. As such, for customary status to apply to maximum sustainable yield, this requires both pillars. This article therefore evaluates the application of the customary status to maximum sustainable yield and in doing so, demonstrates that maximum sustainable yield is itself an implementation of the greater notion of sustainable development as a whole.
Significance of Prenuptial Rituals as Ethnic Definitional Ceremonies among Immigrants  [PDF]
Rachel Sharaby
Advances in Anthropology (AA) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/aa.2017.72005
Abstract: This article adopts the paradigm that claims the non-disappearance of the ritual and ritual changes in modern and postmodern society. A wedding is an event in which a group of people speaks to itself and about itself. Images of the social structure and cultural content, of couplehood, family and personal and group identity surface through this cultural act. Weddings and their customs thus comprise a window through which the social values of a group can be observed, be it a modern or a traditional society. The anthropological study of the prenuptial rituals of immigrants from Georgia to Israel, and my experience with the ethnic pride of the celebrators, most of them young, lead me to conclude that these rituals serve as collective ethnic definitional ceremonies for them, where crossing between ethnicity, culture and identity takes place. The new ritual tradition in Israel fulfills an important role in the identity of the youths of this community and in the solidarity of the Georgian family and community. Tradition was processed anew and interpreted through the renewed ritual patterns, and became intertwined with modernity. A process of syncretism was thus created.
Agents of Patriarchy Teach Gender  [PDF]
Rachel Sharaby
Advances in Anthropology (AA) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/aa.2019.91002
Abstract: This article discusses veteran instructors who were employed by the ab-sorbing establishment as instructors for women immigrants from Yemen who settled in moshav-type cooperative settlements in Israel. The findings indicate that the instruction messages in the first stage after the Yemenite immigrants settled on the land included a blurring of gender. However, differential instruction was created when the permanent homes were constructed: male instructors taught the men the hard physical labor, and female instructors taught the women their roles within the domestic sphere. The instruction system recruited to the new moshav-type cooperative settlements thus perpetuated the gender division of labor and used an effective “tool” for transmitting the patriarchic messages of the absorbing establishment.
Evaluation of primary mental health care in North West province – a qualitative view
C van Deventer, I Couper, A Wright, J Tumbo, C Kyeyune
South African Journal of Psychiatry , 2008,
Abstract: Background. Owing to many complaints by health care workers and patients and a perceived poor standard of care, the mental health care services in North West province were assessed using quantitative and qualitative methods. The Mental Health Care Act of 2002 makes provision for the integration of services into primary health care. Previously, dedicated mental health care co-ordinators were doing the bulk of the management of this category of patients. Methodology. The qualitative part of the study consisted of free attitude interviews with professional nurses at clinics and focus group interviews with patients, caregivers and mental health care co-ordinators. Results. There was general satisfaction with the current services. Some dissatisfaction was expressed regarding issues of individualised care versus integration into the general primary care services. Concerns were expressed about resource constraints – in terms of human and physical resources, communication, training, and the role of specialised care. Conclusion. This study highlights issues around integration of mental health care services into primary care, and has provided information for managers and clinicians to utilise in the improvement of mental health care.
Assessment of Potential for Domestication of Termitomyces microcarpus: An Indigenous Edible and Medicinal Mushroom from the Lake Victoria Basin
D. Olila,G. Kyeyune,J.D. Kabasa,L. Kisovi,P.K.T. Munishi
Agricultural Journal , 2013,
Abstract: Most of the mushrooms, which are used as food by communities bordering Lake Victoria wetland areas, have neither been documented nor studied. These indigenous mushrooms are used solely as products of the wild. While the cultivation of mushrooms for food is a lucrative economic activity even in some developed countries, in East Africa, this has not yet been fully exploited. In the studies reported here, local people around the Lake Victoria basin participated in ranking mushroom species according to their nutritional, medicinal and toxicological significance. Termitomyces microcarpus was the highest ranked edible mushroom in the region. The T. microcarpus mushroom caps at umbrella stage were excised and inverted over dry sterile filter paper in a sterile petri-dish and incubated. The caps were then removed leaving pink `spore prints`. Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) medium was prepared by dissolving 39g of the powder in 1L of distilled water and autoclaved at 121 C for 20 min. On cooling the media was poured in petri-dishes and left to solidify. Using a flame sterilized inoculation wire loop, spores were transferred from the `spore print` and S-streaked on the fresh PDA medium. The inoculated plates were incubated at ambient temperature (25 C) in the dark for 10 days. Three discrete pure colonies were separately subcultured onto fresh PDA medium and incubated under the previous conditions for 60 days. These constituted the three monospore cultures; S1 S2 and S3 which were used as starter cultures for further studies. The growth of the monospore starter cultures was monitored and a record taken of their colony diameter once a week during the 60 day incubation period. Using the liquid culture technique, the grain mother spawn for monospore starter culture S3 had fully colonized compared to that for monospore starter cultures S1 and S2 which attained full colonization at 75 and 90 days, respectively. However, there were differences in the intensity of colonization with grain mother spawn of monospore starter culture S3 giving a much more intense mycelial growth as compared to grain mother spawn of monospore starter culture S1, which gave a moderate mycelial growth. Mycelial colonization for grain mother spawn of monospore starter culture S2 was a bit scanty. The grain mother spawn prepared using the agar culture plug technique were very slow. After four months mycelial colonization was at most 25% of the total volume of millet substrate of grain mother spawn for monospore starter culture S1, but not more than 10% for the grain mother spawn of monospore starter cultures S2 and S3. Further studies are needed to initiate fruiting body formation which has not been possible under the present test conditions. This will require a better understanding of the relationship between the fungus and the termite and the ecological relationships therein.
Higher Education—Educating for Higher Order Skills  [PDF]
Rachel Or-Bach
Creative Education (CE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2013.47A2004

Preparing college students for a knowledge-based economy is a challenge that requires curriculum design that puts more emphasis on learning skills than on content to be taught. Cognitive skills should be practiced in a context of some content, but the choice of content, the choice of the learning environment, and the choice of the assessment procedures can enhance the development of such skills. In this paper we present these choices for a course that was specially designed to provide a motivating and engaging context that requires the use of higher order cognitive skills. The title of the course is “Design of computer-based games and interactive stories” and it is provided to students with no prior exposure to computer programming. At the end of the course students are required to submit an interactive artifact (a game or a story) implemented in Scratch, which is a visual programming environment. In this qualitative study we present the results from a thematic analysis of students’ post-course reflection reports.

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