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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 170396 matches for " Rachel E. Nisbet "
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The Role of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors in Pulmonary Vascular Disease
Rachel E. Nisbet,Roy L. Sutliff,C. Michael Hart
PPAR Research , 2007, DOI: 10.1155/2007/18797
Abstract: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-activated transcription factors belonging to the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily that regulate diverse physiological processes ranging from lipogenesis to inflammation. Recent evidence has established potential roles of PPARs in both systemic and pulmonary vascular disease and function. Existing treatment strategies for pulmonary hypertension, the most common manifestation of pulmonary vascular disease, are limited by an incomplete understanding of the underlying disease pathogenesis and lack of efficacy indicating an urgent need for new approaches to treat this disorder. Derangements in pulmonary endothelial-derived mediators and endothelial dysfunction have been shown to play a pivotal role in pulmonary hypertension pathogenesis. Therefore, the following review will focus on selected mediators implicated in pulmonary vascular dysfunction and evidence that PPARs, in particular PPARγ, participate in their regulation and may provide a potential novel therapeutic target for the treatment of pulmonary hypertension.
The regulation of the air: a hypothesis
E. G. Nisbet, C. M. R. Fowler,R. E. R. Nisbet
Solid Earth (SE) & Discussions (SED) , 2012, DOI: 10.5194/se-3-87-2012
Abstract: We propose the hypothesis that natural selection, acting on the specificity or preference for CO2 over O2 of the enzyme rubisco (ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase), has controlled the CO2:O2 ratio of the atmosphere since the evolution of photosynthesis and has also sustained the Earth's greenhouse-set surface temperature. Rubisco works in partnership with the nitrogen-fixing enzyme nitrogenase to control atmospheric pressure. Together, these two enzymes control global surface temperature and indirectly the pH and oxygenation of the ocean. Thus, the co-evolution of these two enzymes may have produced clement conditions on the Earth's surface, allowing life to be sustained.
The regulation of the air: a hypothesis
E. G. Nisbet,C. M. R. Fowler,R. E. R. Nisbet
Solid Earth Discussions , 2011, DOI: 10.5194/sed-3-769-2011
Abstract: We propose the hypothesis that natural selection, acting on the specificity of rubisco (ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase) for carbon dioxide over oxygen, has controlled the CO2:O2 ratio of the atmosphere since the evolution of photosynthesis and has also sustained the Earth's greenhouse-set surface temperature. Rubisco works in partnership with the nitrogen-fixing enzyme nitrogenase to control atmospheric pressure. Together, these two enzymes control global surface temperature and indirectly the pH and oxygenation of the ocean. Thus, the co-evolution of these two enzymes may have produced clement conditions on the Earth's surface, allowing life to be sustained.
Dosimetric Performance of A-Si Electronic Portal Imaging Devices  [PDF]
Mukhtar Alshanqity, Andrew Nisbet
International Journal of Medical Physics,Clinical Engineering and Radiation Oncology (IJMPCERO) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ijmpcero.2016.52018
Abstract: The majority of EPID dosimetry literature discusses response linearity and the so-called image lag and ghosting effects despite the lack of a common definition of these quantities. However, the results of these studies are generally not consistent, and it is often difficult to compare the results from different studies. We present here a detailed study of the acquisition and readout characteristics of a-Si EPID and its dosimetric performance. EPID response was assessed over the range of 1 - 500 MU using different dose rates and integration times. In addition, a computer model was designed to simulate the EPID image formation with different dose, dose rate, and integration time combinations. All aspects of image processing and readout simulation were carried out using custom written MatLab codes. Two distinct signal profiles were observed depending on the delivered dose, dose rate and integration time combination. Total integrated signal (ST) is linear with the delivered dose. For dosimetry, image lag and ghosting effects mainly result in the residual signal (SR) that appears as delayed signal after the end of irradiation. At its maximum, SR is less than 2.5% of ST. The readout technique is such that it is impossible to measure SR accurately. SR is definable only when readout equilibrium occurs. Signal profiles provide a through and reliable description of the EPID response incorporating the dose, dose rate, integration time, and the residual signal. The definition of EPID signals based on this method shall provide an accurate universal EPID dosimetry framework.
Psychological Issues for Patients Undergoing Stem Cell Therapy and Regenerative Medicine  [PDF]
Natasha Braunsteiner, E. Russell Vickers, Rachel Shparberg
Open Journal of Regenerative Medicine (OJRM) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojrm.2018.71001
Abstract: Stem cell therapy is a relatively new treatment modality in the field of regenerative medicine. The therapy is gaining increased awareness and acceptance by the public. There are multiple factors that contribute to a stem cell procedure for regenerative medicine in order for it to be successful. One of these factors is a patient’s mental health and psychological state. The role and significance of a counsellor/psychologist will be examined as a crucial part of the regenerative medicine team. Pre-existing issues of depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), addiction, low self-esteem and high levels of stress could adversely affect outcomes. For example, fears and phobias are counter-productive for planned regenerative therapy. The counsellor must also assess and determine that the patient is mentally and psychologically healthy. In addition, advice is necessary for the patient to have realistic expectations in order for them to be eligible for treatment. Some patients are not suitable for stem cells and other regenerative procedures until psychological treatment is successful, particularly in body image dysmorphia. A comprehensive psychological assessment is needed and answers must be provided for patients by the counsellor during all phases of the treatment.
Viruses Infecting Reptiles
Rachel E. Marschang
Viruses , 2011, DOI: 10.3390/v3112087
Abstract: A large number of viruses have been described in many different reptiles. These viruses include arboviruses that primarily infect mammals or birds as well as viruses that are specific for reptiles. Interest in arboviruses infecting reptiles has mainly focused on the role reptiles may play in the epidemiology of these viruses, especially over winter. Interest in reptile specific viruses has concentrated on both their importance for reptile medicine as well as virus taxonomy and evolution. The impact of many viral infections on reptile health is not known. Koch’s postulates have only been fulfilled for a limited number of reptilian viruses. As diagnostic testing becomes more sensitive, multiple infections with various viruses and other infectious agents are also being detected. In most cases the interactions between these different agents are not known. This review provides an update on viruses described in reptiles, the animal species in which they have been detected, and what is known about their taxonomic positions.
Informed consent for research in Borderline Personality Disorder
Rachel E Dew
BMC Medical Ethics , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6939-8-4
Abstract: Despite apparently intact cognition and comprehension of risks, a borderline subject may deliberately choose self-harm in order to fulfill abnormal psychological needs, or due to suicidality. Alternatively, such a subject may refuse enrollment due to transference or the desire to harm him or herself. Such phenomena could be precipitated or prevented by the interpersonal dynamics of the informed consent encounter.Caution should be exercised in obtaining informed consent for research from subjects with Borderline Personality Disorder. A literature review and recommendations for future research are discussed.Decision-making capacity in psychiatric patients has been the topic of past research [1]. However, psychiatric disorders considered in such research are most often the psychotic and cognitive disorders [2]. This makes sense, as informed consent is traditionally thought to hinge upon comprehension [3]. However, such a viewpoint presupposes a subject that, understanding relative risks and benefits of a proposed action, will usually act in a way that maximizes benefit and minimizes harm to the self. Any deviation from this self-preserving pattern of behavior in the potential research subject is usually thought to result from altruism or such obviously coercive circumstances as financial reward, lack of other access to care, the perception that health care will be withdrawn without participation, etc.However, what about people that persistently and intentionally harm themselves? A large subpopulation of psychiatric patients suffer pathology which centers around a lifelong tendency to make what appear to others to be bad decisions. They may persistently seek out victim roles and manipulate others to harm them. They may make repeated suicide attempts, or compulsively cut themselves. Can it be considered ethical to draw blood from someone who consented because she has a psychological need to see herself bleed? Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a prevalent, chronic,
Video analysis for insight and coding: Examples from tutorials in introductory physics
Rachel E. Scherr
Physical Review Special Topics. Physics Education Research , 2009,
Abstract: The increasing ease of video recording offers new opportunities to create richly detailed records of classroom activities. These recordings, in turn, call for research methodologies that balance generalizability with interpretive validity. This paper shares methodology for two practices of video analysis: (1) gaining insight into specific brief classroom episodes and (2) developing and applying a systematic observational protocol for a relatively large corpus of video data. These two aspects of analytic practice are illustrated in the context of a particular research interest but are intended to serve as general suggestions.
Gesture analysis for physics education researchers
Rachel E. Scherr
Physical Review Special Topics. Physics Education Research , 2008,
Abstract: Systematic observations of student gestures can not only fill in gaps in students’ verbal expressions, but can also offer valuable information about student ideas, including their source, their novelty to the speaker, and their construction in real time. This paper provides a review of the research in gesture analysis that is most relevant to physics education researchers and illustrates gesture analysis for the purpose of better understanding student thinking about physics.
Imaging Evaluation of Dogs and Cats with Dysphagia
Rachel E. Pollard
ISRN Veterinary Science , 2012, DOI: 10.5402/2012/238505
Abstract:
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