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Bilingual Dictionaries, the Lexicographer and the Translator
Rachélle Gauton
Lexikos , 2011, DOI: 10.5788/18--479
Abstract: : This article focuses on the problems, and advantages and disadvantages of the bilingual dictionary from both the lexicographer's and the translator's point of view, with specific reference to bilingual Zulu dictionaries. It is shown that there are many and varying problems the lexicographer has to deal with and take cognisance of when compiling a translation dictionary. Of these, the main problem is the basic lack of equivalence or anisomorphism which exists between languages. This non-equivalence between languages is also the root cause of the difficulties with which the translator or user of the bilingual dictionary has to contend. The problems experienced by translators therefore overlap to a great extent with those which the lexicographer experiences in compiling a bilingual dictionary. It is concluded that the user of a bilingual dictionary should not only know what to expect to find in a translation dictionary, but must also treat such a dictionary with caution and discernment. It is also shown that there are clear criteria which the lexicographer can follow in compiling a bilingual dictionary, which would then enable the user (and in particular the translator as user) to disambiguate the recorded information successfully. Keywords: BILINGUAL DICTIONARIES, LEXICOGRAPHER, TRANSLATOR, ISIZULU,PROBLEMS EXPERIENCED BY LEXICOGRAPHERS, PROBLEMS EXPERIENCED BY TRANSLATORS,NONEQUIVALENCE BETWEEN LANGUAGES, CHARACTER, SHORTCOMINGSAND ADVANTAGES OF BILINGUAL DICTIONARIES Opsomming: Tweetalige woordeboeke, die leksikograaf en die vertaler.Die fokus van hierdie artikel is op die probleme, en voor- en nadele van die tweetalige woordeboekvanuit die oogpunt van sowel die leksikograaf as die vertaler, met spesifieke verwysing na tweetaligeZuluwoordeboeke. Daar word aangetoon dat daar baie en uiteenlopende probleme is waaraandie leksikograaf moet aandag gee en waarvan hy/sy moet kennis neem by die samestelling van 'nvertalende woordeboek. Die vernaamste van hierdie probleme is die basiese gebrek aan ekwivalensieof anisomorfisme wat tussen tale bestaan. Hierdie nie-ekwivalensie tussen tale is ook diegrondoorsaak van die moeilikhede waarmee die vertaler of gebruiker van die tweetalige woordeboekmoet worstel. Die probleme ondervind deur vertalers oorvleuel dus tot 'n groot mate met diéwat die leksikograaf ondervind by die samestellling van 'n tweetalige woordeboek. Daar word totdie slotsom gekom dat die gebruiker van 'n tweetalige woordeboek nie net moet weet wat om van'n vertalende woordeboek te verwag nie, maar ook so 'n woordeboek omsigtig en oordeelkund
Supplying Syntactic Information in a Quadrilingual Explanatory Dictionary of Chemistry (English, Afrikaans, isiZulu, Sepedi): A Preliminary Investigation*
Elsabé Taljard,Rachélle Gauton
Lexikos , 2011, DOI: 10.5788/11--847
Abstract: : In response to a number of recent government publications on the promotion of science and technology training, the Suid-Afrikaanse Akademie vir Wetenskap en Kuns (South African Academy for Science and Art) initiated the compilation of a multilingual explanatory dictionary for chemistry. The need for such a dictionary is especially urgent in learning environments where learners receive tuition through a medium other than their mother tongue. This is particularly relevant for learners whose mother tongue is an African language. Taking into account the target user's fragmented knowledge of the subject field and low second language competence, the planners decided that certain syntactic information should be specified for the isiZulu and Sepedi entries; specifically the part of speech to which a lemma belongs. This poses certain problems for the lexicographer, since the issue of word categorisation is, especially in Sepedi, an unresolved one. A second problem that presents itself to the lexicographer is the lexicographic convention which is used to indicate the word class to which a specific lemma belongs. Abbreviations referring to the parts of speech are normally used for this purpose. No standardised abbreviations for the different parts of speech exist in isiZulu or Sepedi. Principles for the formation of abbreviations have also not been formulated for the official orthographies of these languages. The only solution to this problem is to study existing abbreviations in order to abstract the principles of abbreviation formation. Only then can abbreviations indicating the parts of speech be formulated for use in the dictionary. Keywords: SPECIAL FIELD DICTIONARY, CHEMISTRY, ISIZULU, SEPEDI, WORD CATEGORISATION, LEXICOGRAPHICAL CONVENTION, ABBREVIATIONS, MULTILINGUAL DICTIONARY Opsomming: Die insluiting van sintaktiese inligting in 'n viertalige verklarendechemiewoordeboek (Engels, Afrikaans, isiZulu, Sepedi): 'n Voorlopigeondersoek. In reaksie op 'n aantal onlangse regeringspublikasies rakende die bevordering vanwetenskap- en tegnologieopleiding, het die Suid-Afrikaanse Akademie vir Wetenskap en Kuns die inisiatief geneem om 'n viertalige verklarende chemiewoordeboek saam te stel. Die behoefte aan so'n woordeboek is veral dringend in leeromgewings waar leerders onderrig in 'n ander taal as hulmoedertaal ontvang. Dit is veral van toepassing op leerders wat 'n Afrikataal as moedertaal het.Met die teikengebruiker se gefragmenteerde kennis van die studieveld en swak tweedetaalvaardigheidin ag geneem, het die beplanners besluit dat bepaalde sintaktiese inligt
Issues in the Planning and Design of a Bilingual (English–Northern Sotho) Explanatory Dictionary for Industrial Electronics
Elsabé Taljard,Rachélle Gauton,Liam A. Gauton
Lexikos , 2011, DOI: 10.5788/17--516
Abstract: : The focus of this article is the planning and design of a bilingual, explanatory dictionary for industrial electronics with a clearly delimited and very specific target user in mind. Since the number of lemmas to be treated in the dictionary is limited to 500, special care must be taken to select those lemmas that are relevant for both the purpose of the dictionary and the needs of the target user. It is indicated that the main consideration in the planning of the envisaged dictionary is user-friendliness, as dictated by the intended target users. In this article, a novel approach to the semi-automatic selection of lemmas for inclusion in an LSP dictionary is described. The procedure that is used for the extraction of definitional information from an electronic corpus is also explained. Keywords: LSP LEXICOGRAPHY, DICTIONARY PLANNING, LEMMA SELECTION, SEMI-AUTOMATIC TERM EXTRACTION, DEFINITIONAL INFORMATION, INDUSTRIAL ELEC-TRONICS, CORPUS-BASED LEXICOGRAPHY Opsomming: Kwessies by die beplanning en ontwerp van 'n tweetalige (Engels–Noord-Sotho) verklarende woordeboek vir industri le elektronika. Die fokus van hierdie artikel is die beplanning en ontwerp van 'n tweetalige, verklarende woorde-boek vir industri le elektronika met 'n duidelik afgebakende en baie spesifieke teikengebruiker in gedagte. Aangesien die getal lemmas vir behandeling in die woordeboek tot 500 beperk is, moet besondere sorg gedra word dat daardie lemmas gekies word wat beantwoord aan die doel van die woordeboek én die behoeftes van die teikengebruiker. Daar word uitgewys dat die hoofoorweging in die beplanning van die beoogde woordeboek gebruikersvriendelikheid is, soos bepaal deur die bestemde teikengebruikers. In hierdie artikel word 'n nuwe benadering tot die semi-outomatiese keuse van lemmas vir insluiting in 'n vakwoordeboek beskryf. Die prosedure wat vir die onttrek-king van definisi le inligting uit 'n elektroniese korpus gebruik word, word ook verduidelik. Sleutelwoorde: LEKSIKOGRAFIE VIR VAKWOORDEBOEKE, WOORDEBOEKBEPLAN-NING, LEMMASELEKSIE, SEMI-OUTOMATIESE TERMONTTREKKING, DEFINISI LE INLIG-TING, INDUSTRI LE ELEKTRONIKA, KORPUS-GEBASEERDE LEKSIKOGRAFIE
Bilingual Dictionaries, the Lexicographer and the Translator
R Gauton
Lexikos , 2008,
Abstract: Abstract: This article focuses on the problems, and advantages and disadvantages of the bilingual dictionary from both the lexicographer's and the translator's point of view, with specific reference to bilingual Zulu dictionaries. It is shown that there are many and varying problems the lexicographer has to deal with and take cognisance of when compiling a translation dictionary. Of these, the main problem is the basic lack of equivalence or anisomorphism which exists between languages. This non-equivalence between languages is also the root cause of the difficulties with which the translator or user of the bilingual dictionary has to contend. The problems experienced by translators therefore overlap to a great extent with those which the lexicographer experiences in compiling a bilingual dictionary. It is concluded that the user of a bilingual dictionary should not only know what to expect to find in a translation dictionary, but must also treat such a dictionary with caution and discernment. It is also shown that there are clear criteria which the lexicographer can follow in compiling a bilingual dictionary, which would then enable the user (and in particular the translator as user) to disambiguate the recorded information successfully.
Issues in the planning and design of a bilingual (English–northern Sotho) explanatory dictionary for industrial electronics
E Taljard, R Gauton, L Gauton
Lexikos , 2007,
Abstract: The focus of this article is the planning and design of a bilingual, explanatory dic-tionary for industrial electronics with a clearly delimited and very specific target user in mind. Since the number of lemmas to be treated in the dictionary is limited to 500, special care must be taken to select those lemmas that are relevant for both the purpose of the dictionary and the needs of the target user. It is indicated that the main consideration in the planning of the envisaged dic-tionary is user-friendliness, as dictated by the intended target users. In this article, a novel ap-proach to the semi-automatic selection of lemmas for inclusion in an LSP dictionary is described. The procedure that is used for the extraction of definitional information from an electronic corpus is also explained.
Supplying syntactic information in a quadrilingual explanatory dictionary of chemistry (English, Afrikaans, Isizulu, Sepedi): a preliminary investigation
E Taljard, R Gauton
Lexikos , 2001,
Abstract: In response to a number of recent government publications on the promotion of science and technology training, the Suid-Afrikaanse Akademie vir Wetenskap en Kuns (South African Academy for Science and Art) initiated the compilation of a multilingual explanatory dictionary for chemistry. The need for such a dictionary is especially urgent in learning environments where learners receive tuition through a medium other than their mother tongue. This is particularly relevant for learners whose mother tongue is an African language. Taking into account the target user's fragmented knowledge of the subject field and low second language competence, the planners decided that certain syntactic information should be specified for the isiZulu and Sepedi entries; specifically the part of speech to which a lemma belongs. This poses certain problems for the lexicographer, since the issue of word categorisation is, especially in Sepedi, an unresolved one. A second problem that presents itself to the lexicographer is the lexicographic convention which is used to indicate the word class to which a specific lemma belongs. Abbreviations referring to the parts of speech are normally used for this purpose. No standardised abbreviations for the different parts of speech exist in isiZulu or Sepedi. Principles for the formation of abbreviations have also not been formulated for the official orthographies of these languages. The only solution to this problem is to study existing abbreviations in order to abstract the principles of abbreviation formation. Only then can abbreviations indicating the parts of speech be formulated for use in the dictionary.
Asymptotic Formula for Oscillatory Solutions of Some Singular Nonlinear Differential Equation
Irena Rach nková,Luká Rach nek
Abstract and Applied Analysis , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/981401
Abstract: Singular differential equation (())=()() is investigated. Here is Lipschitz continuous on ℝ and has at least two zeros 0 and >0 . The function is continuous on [0,∞) and has a positive continuous derivative on (0,∞) and (0)=0. An asymptotic formula for oscillatory solutions is derived.
Strictly Increasing Solutions of Nonautonomous Difference Equations Arising in Hydrodynamics
Rach?nek Luká?,Rach?nková Irena
Advances in Difference Equations , 2010,
Abstract: The paper provides conditions sufficient for the existence of strictly increasing solutions of the second-order nonautonomous difference equation , , where is a parameter and is Lipschitz continuous and has three real zeros . In particular we prove that for each sufficiently small there exists a solution such that is increasing, and . The problem is motivated by some models arising in hydrodynamics.
Existence of Oscillatory Solutions of Singular Nonlinear Differential Equations
Irena Rach nková,Luká Rach nek,Jan Tome ek
Abstract and Applied Analysis , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/408525
Abstract: Asymptotic properties of solutions of the singular differential equation (()())=()(()) are described. Here, f is Lipschitz continuous on ℝ and has at least two zeros 0 and >0. The function p is continuous on [0, ∞) and has a positive continuous derivative on (0, ∞) and (0)=0. Further conditions for f and p under which the equation has oscillatory solutions converging to 0 are given.
Nonmonotone impulse effects in second-order periodic boundary value problems
Irena Rach nková,Milan Tvrdy
Abstract and Applied Analysis , 2004, DOI: 10.1155/s1085337504306299
Abstract: We deal with the nonlinear impulsive periodic boundary valueproblem u″=f(t,u,u′), u(ti
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