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Privacy Accountability Model and Policy for Security Organizations  [PDF]
Yoel Raban
iBusiness (IB) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ib.2012.42020
Abstract: This paper describes a new model of privacy accountability and associates its dimensions with elements of the proposed European Commission regulation on the protection of individuals with regard to the processing and free movement of personal data. The model is applied to the security industry with special emphasis on the video surveillance and biometrics sectors. The use of the specific dimension and indicators described in the model enables security organizations to provide privacy accountability to customers such that the principles of data protection regulation and self-regulation are met.
Law and the Common Good
Ofer Raban
Socio-Legal Review , 2010,
Abstract: In this piece, Ofer Raban takes issue with the claim advanced in a recent book by Brian Tamanaha that the Rule of Law requires that all our laws advance the common good (rather than the interests of any narrow faction).That claim, says Raban, is out of date with modern pluralistic sensibilities, and with our modern understanding of law and the legislative process. But the fact that the law need not always advance the interests of society as a whole, and may therefore be used as a tool for the advancement of some at the expense of others, does not mean that the law itself is not always a common good- for the Rule of Law means, first and foremost, the rule of reason and rationality; and passing our social regulations through the prism of reason and rationality is an indisputable common good.
Essential health information available for India in the public domain on the internet
Magdalena Z Raban, Rakhi Dandona, Lalit Dandona
BMC Public Health , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-9-208
Abstract: The essential sources of health-related information for India were reviewed. An extensive search of relevant websites and the PubMed literature database was conducted to identify the sources. For each essential source the periodicity of the data collection, the information it generates, the geographical level at which information is reported, and its availability in the public domain on the internet were assessed.The available information related to non-communicable diseases and injuries was poor. This is a significant gap as India is undergoing an epidemiological transition with these diseases/conditions accounting for a major proportion of disease burden. Information on infrastructure and human resources was primarily available for the public health sector, with almost none for the private sector which provides a large proportion of the health services in India. Majority of the information was available at the state level with almost negligible at the district level, which is a limitation for the practical implementation of health programmes at the district level under the proposed decentralisation of health services in India.This broad review of the essential health information readily available in the public domain on the internet for India highlights that the significant gaps related to non-communicable diseases and injuries, private health sector and district level information need to be addressed to further develop an effective health information system in India.Health information and statistics are important for planning, monitoring and improvement of services for the health of populations [1]. These are essential for policymakers and programme planners to inform their decisions about what actions to take and what services to provide in order to improve the health of the populations they serve. Though developing countries account for the majority of the global burden of disease, the availability of health information is not adequate in many of these countrie
Availability of data for monitoring noncommunicable disease risk factors in India
Raban,Magdalena Z; Dandona,Rakhi; Dandona,Lalit;
Bulletin of the World Health Organization , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/S0042-96862012000100009
Abstract: objective: to examine the availability of data measuring noncommunicable disease (ncd) risk factor indicators from household surveys conducted in india from 2000 to 2009. methods: questionnaires and publications used in household surveys were identified through internet and pubmed searches and examined to determine which core ncd risk factor indicators recommended by the world health organization (who) for ncd monitoring were being measured. surveys with a sample size of 5000 or more were included to ensure a certain level of precision. the completeness of core indicator measurement and the geographical representativeness of the surveys were assessed. findings: twenty six surveys met the inclusion criteria. among the who-recommended core behavioural risk factor indicators, those monitoring tobacco use were measured completely in national and subnational surveys; those assessing dietary intake and physical inactivity were measured only in subnational surveys, and those assessing alcohol use were not measured at all. among who-recommended core biological risk factors, only body mass index was measured in national and subnational surveys, whereas blood pressure, fasting blood glucose and blood cholesterol were measured only in subnational surveys. due to the use of non-standard indicator definitions, measurement of core indicators in some of the national and subnational surveys was incomplete. conclusion: the availability of data on core risk factor indicators to monitor the increasing burden of ncds is inadequate in india. these indicators using standardized definitions should be included in the periodic national household health surveys to provide data at the national and disaggregated levels.
The effects of an area-based intervention on the uptake of maternal and child health assessments in Australia: A community trial
Margaret Kelaher, David Dunt, Peter Feldman, Andrea Nolan, Bridie Raban
BMC Health Services Research , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6963-9-53
Abstract: The study compares access to information, parental confidence and annual 3.5 year Ages and Stages visiting rates before (2001/02) and after (2004/05) the introduction of Best Start. Access to information and parental confidence were measured in surveys of parents with 3 year old children. There were 1666 surveys in the first wave and 1838 surveys in the second wave. The analysis of visiting rates for the 3.5 year Ages and Stages visit included all eligible Victorian children. Best Start sites included 1,739 eligible children in 2001/02 and 1437 eligible children in 2004/05. The comparable figures in the rest of the state were and 45, 497 and 45, 953 respectively.There was a significant increase in attendance at the 3.5 year Ages and Stages visit in 2004/05 compared to 2001/02 in all areas. However the increase in attendance was significantly greater at Best Start sites than the rest of the state. Access to information and parental confidence improved over the course of the intervention in Best Start sites with MCH projects compared to other Best Start sites.These results suggest that community-based initiatives in disadvantaged areas may improve parents' access to child health information, improve their confidence and increase MCH service use. These outcomes suggest such programmes could potentially contribute to strategies to reduce child health inequalities.Recognition of the importance of the early years in determining health and educational attainment has led to a number of specially designed, community-based initiatives to improve developmental outcomes among socio-economically disadvantaged children. [1,2] This has been accompanied by increasing evidence that living in disadvantaged areas is associated with worse health. [3-15] This has resulted in a number of initiatives which aim to improve health outcomes through the development of community and service provider partnerships as a way of increasing co-ordination between services. These initiatives aim to ide
Trends of public health research output from India during 2001-2008
Lalit Dandona, Magdalena Z Raban, Rama K Guggilla, Aarushi Bhatnagar, Rakhi Dandona
BMC Medicine , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1741-7015-7-59
Abstract: The scope and type of the published research from India in 2007 that was included in the PubMed database was assessed and compared with a previous similar assessment for 2002. Papers were classified based on the review of abstracts and original public health research papers were assessed in detail. Impact factors for the journals were used to compute quality-adjusted research output. The websites of governmental organizations, academic and research institutions and international organizations were searched in order to identify and review reports on original public health research produced in India from 2001 to 2008. The reports were classified based on the topics covered and quality and their trends over time were assessed.The number of original health research papers from India in PubMed doubled from 4494 in 2002 to 9066 in 2007. This included a 3.1-fold increase in public health research papers, but these comprised only 5% of the total papers in 2007. Within public health, the increase was lowest for the health system and policy category. Several major causes of disease burden in India continued to be underrepresented in the quality-adjusted public health research output in 2007. The number of papers evaluating population health interventions increased from 2002 to 2007, but there were none on the leading non-communicable causes of disease burden or on road traffic injuries. The number of identified original public health research reports increased by 64.7% from 204 in 2001-2004 to 336 in 2005-2008. The proportion of reports on reproductive and child health was very high but decreased slightly from 38.7% of the total in 2001-2004 to 31.5% in 2005-2008 (P = 0.09); those on the leading chronic non-communicable conditions and injuries increased from 6.4% to 13.4% (P = 0.01) but this was still much lower than their contribution to the disease burden. Health system/policy issues were the topic in 27.4% reports but health information issues were covered in a miniscule 0
Resolving the obscuring torus in NGC 1068 with the power of infrared interferometry: Revealing the inner funnel of dust
David Raban,Walter Jaffe,Huub R?ttgering,Klaus Meisenheimer,Konrad R. W. Tristram
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2009.14439.x
Abstract: We present new interferometric data obtained with MIDI (MID infrared Interferometric instrument) for the Seyfert II galaxy NGC 1068, with an extensive coverage of sixteen uv points. These observations resolve the nuclear mid-infrared emission from NGC 1068 in unprecedented detail with a maximum resolution of 7 mas. For the first time, sufficient uv points have been obtained, allowing us to generate an image of the source using maximum entropy image reconstruction. The features of the image are similar to those obtained by modelling. We find that the mid-infrared emission can be represented by two components, each with a Gaussian brightness distribution. The first, identified as the inner funnel of the obscuring torus, is hot (800K), 1.35 parsec long, and 0.45 parsec thick in FWHM at a PA=-42 degrees (from north to east). It has an absorption profile different than standard interstellar dust and with evidence for clumpiness. The second component is 3 by 4 pc in FWHM with T=300K, and we identify it with the cooler body of the torus. The compact component is tilted by 45 degrees with respect to the radio jet and has similar size and orientation to the observed water maser distribution. We show how the dust distribution relates to other observables within a few parsecs of the core of the galaxy such as the nuclear masers, the radio jet, and the ionization cone. We compare our findings to a similar study of the Circinus galaxy and other relevant studies. Our findings shed new light on the relation between the different parsec-scale components in NGC 1068 and the obscuring torus.
Dust emission from a parsec-scale structure in the Seyfert 1 nucleus of NGC 4151
Leonard Burtscher,Walter Jaffe,David Raban,Klaus Meisenheimer,Konrad R. W. Tristram,Huub R?ttgering
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/705/1/L53
Abstract: We report mid-IR interferometric measurements with \sim 10 mas resolution, which resolve the warm (T = 285 +25 / -50 K) thermal emission at the center of NGC 4151. Using pairs of VLT 8.2 m telescopes with MIDI and by comparing the data to a Gaussian model, we determined the diameter of the dust emission region, albeit only along one position angle, to be 2.0 +/- 0.4 pc (FWHM). This is the first size and temperature estimate for the nuclear warm dust distribution in a Seyfert 1 galaxy. The parameters found are comparable to those in Seyfert 2 galaxies, thus providing direct support for the unified model. Using simple analytic temperature distributions, we find that the mid-infrared emission is probably not the smooth continuation of the hot nuclear source that is marginally resolved with K band interferometry. We also detected weak excess emission around 10.5 micron in our shorter baseline observation, possibly indicating that silicate emission is extended to the parsec scale.
Fitness Impact and Stability of a Transgene Conferring Resistance to Dengue-2 Virus following Introgression into a Genetically Diverse Aedes aegypti Strain
Alexander W. E. Franz,Irma Sanchez-Vargas,Robyn R. Raban,William C. Black IV,Anthony A. James,Ken E. Olson
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0002833
Abstract: In 2006, we reported a mariner (Mos1)-transformed Aedes aegypti line, Carb77, which was highly resistant to dengue-2 virus (DENV2). Carb77 mosquitoes expressed a DENV2-specific inverted-repeat (IR) RNA in midgut epithelial cells after ingesting an infectious bloodmeal. The IR-RNA formed double-stranded DENV2-derived RNA, initiating an intracellular antiviral RNA interference (RNAi) response. However, Carb77 mosquitoes stopped expressing the IR-RNA after 17 generations in culture and lost their DENV2-refractory phenotype. In the current study, we generated new transgenic lines having the identical transgene as Carb77. One of these lines, Carb109M, has been genetically stable and refractory to DENV2 for >33 generations. Southern blot analysis identified two transgene integration sites in Carb109M. Northern blot analysis detected abundant, transient expression of the IR-RNA 24 h after a bloodmeal. Carb109M mosquitoes were refractory to different DENV2 genotypes but not to other DENV serotypes. To further test fitness and stability, we introgressed the Carb109M transgene into a genetically diverse laboratory strain (GDLS) by backcrossing for five generations and selecting individuals expressing the transgene's EGFP marker in each generation. Comparison of transgene stability in replicate backcross 5 (BC5) lines versus BC1 control lines demonstrated that backcrossing dramatically increased transgene stability. We subjected six BC5 lines to five generations of selection based on EGFP marker expression to increase the frequency of the transgene prior to final family selection. Comparison of the observed transgene frequencies in the six replicate lines relative to expectations from Fisher's selection model demonstrated lingering fitness costs associated with either the transgene or linked deleterious genes. Although minimal fitness loss (relative to GDLS) was manifest in the final family selection stage, we were able to select homozygotes for the transgene in one family, Carb109M/GDLS.BC5.HZ. This family has been genetically stable and DENV2 refractory for multiple generations. Carb109M/GDLS.BC5.HZ represents an important line for testing proof-of-principle vector population replacement.
Brain MRI CO2 Stress Testing: A Pilot Study in Patients with Concussion
W. Alan C. Mutch, Michael J. Ellis, M. Ruth Graham, Vincent Wourms, Roshan Raban, Joseph A. Fisher, David Mikulis, Jeffrey Leiter, Lawrence Ryner
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0102181
Abstract: Background There is a real need for quantifiable neuro-imaging biomarkers in concussion. Here we outline a brain BOLD-MRI CO2 stress test to assess the condition. Methods This study was approved by the REB at the University of Manitoba. A group of volunteers without prior concussion were compared to post-concussion syndrome (PCS) patients – both symptomatic and recovered asymptomatic. Five 3-minute periods of BOLD imaging at 3.0 T were studied – baseline 1 (BL1– at basal CO2 tension), hypocapnia (CO2 decreased ~5 mmHg), BL2, hypercapnia (CO2 increased ~10 mmHg) and BL3. Data were processed using statistical parametric mapping (SPM) for 1st level analysis to compare each subject’s response to the CO2 stress at the p = 0.001 level. A 2nd level analysis compared each PCS patient’s response to the mean response of the control subjects at the p = 0.05 level. Results We report on 5 control subjects, 8 symptomatic and 4 asymptomatic PCS patients. Both increased and decreased response to CO2 was seen in all PCS patients in the 2nd level analysis. The responses were quantified as reactive voxel counts: whole brain voxel counts (2.0±1.6%, p = 0.012 for symptomatic patients for CO2 response < controls and 3.0±5.1%, p = 0.139 for CO2 response > controls: 0.49±0.31%, p = 0.053 for asymptomatic patients for CO2 response < controls and 4.4±6.8%, p = 0.281 for CO2 response > controls). Conclusions Quantifiable alterations in regional cerebrovascular responsiveness are present in concussion patients during provocative CO2 challenge and BOLD MRI and not in healthy controls. Future longitudinal studies must aim to clarify the relationship between CO2 responsiveness and individual patient symptoms and outcomes.
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