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Prevalence, risk factors and awareness of diabetic retinopathy among admitted diabetic patients at a tertiary level hospital in Kathmandu
Raba Thapa,Deepak Man Joshi,Aparna Rizyal,Nhukesh Maharjan,Rajesh Dhoj Joshi
Nepalese Journal of Ophthalmology , 2014, DOI: 10.3126/nepjoph.v6i1.10760
Abstract: Introduction: Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is one of the commonest causes of visual impairment and blindness in Nepal. Objectives: The study aims to explore the prevalence, risk factors and awareness of DR among admitted diabetic patients. Materials and methods: A non-interventional case series study was conducted among the inpatient diabetic cases referred for ophthalmic consultation. The patients’ detailed demographics, awareness on DR, concurrent systemic problems, and glycemic control status were recorded. DR was graded using the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study Criteria. Main outcome measures: The prevalence, risk factors and awareness of diabetic retinopathy among the study participants was analyzed. Results: A total of 277 diabetic patients were enrolled in the study. The mean age was 62.25 ± 13.26 years. Only one-third (34.6 %) of the cases were admitted for sugar control and newly diagnosed cases comprised of 19.49 %. Nearly half of the cases (46.6 %) were not aware of diabetic retinopathy and dilated fundus evaluation was done for the first time in 44.4 %. DR was found in 38.26 % of the cases and was diagnosed in 13 % of the new cases. Almost four-fifths (78 %) of the diabetics had had the disease for a duration of 16 to 20 years. Clinically significant macular edema was found in 5.78 % and proliferative DR in 2.52 %. DR was significantly associated with the duration of diabetes (P value = 0.001) and concurrent hypertension (P value = 0.004). Conclusion: The prevalence of DR was 38 % among the admitted diabetic cases and the DR was significantly associated with the duration of diabetes and systemic hypertension. Almost half of the cases had been unaware of DR before referral. This emphasizes the importance of the collaboration of the physician and the ophthalmologist for an early DR detection. ? DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/nepjoph.v6i1.10760 ? Nepal J Ophthalmol 2014; 6 (2): 24-30
The Influence of Think-Pair-Share (TPS) on Improving Students’ Oral Communication Skills in EFL Classrooms  [PDF]
Ahmed Amin Awad Raba
Creative Education (CE) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2017.81002
This research aimed to investigate the influence of think-pair-share (TPS) on improving students’ oral communication skills in EFL classrooms. For this purpose, the researcher interviewed the EFL teachers who taught “English for Workplace” at the ELC An-Najah National University and observed students’ classroom interaction. After the analysis of the collected data of the study, it was obviously noticed that think-pair-share strategy plays a positive role in improving students’ oral communicative skills, creating a cooperative learning environment and enhancing students’ motivation to learn better. Furthermore, students enrolled in the faculties of applied sciences responded better than students enrolled the faculties of human sciences; similar responses were shown from students of higher academic level. In the light of these findings, the researcher recommended increasing the number of activities related to think-pair—in the English textbooks and in the teaching pedagogies for the sake of improving students’ oral communication skills.
Przedwczesne oddzielenie o yska – czy istnieje alternatywa leczenia w II trymestrze ci y?
Grzegorz Raba
Przegl?d Menopauzalny , 2010,
Abstract: Objective: To present an original therapeutic method for placental abruption in the second trimester of gestationusing hysterotomy with evacuation of a deciduous-placental haematoma. Material: Two pregnant women with placental abruption requiring delivery (24th and 23rd week of gestation,respectively). Method: Incision of the uterus with evacuation of a deciduous-placental haematoma. Results: Intrauterine continuation of pregnancy until maturity of the foetuses. Conclusion: Hysterotomy with evacuation of a deciduous-placental haematoma made it possible to continuepregnancy and avoid the necessity of immediate delivery by caesarean section.
An Emerging Model of E-Learning in Palestine: The Case of An-Najah National University  [PDF]
Saida Jaser Affouneh, Ahmed Amin Awad Raba
Creative Education (CE) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2017.82016
An-Najah National University (ANU), a Palestinian non-governmental public university located in Nablus in the northern part of Palestine, serves 17,807 students with 1020 professors in 11 faculties, and has been striving to integrate technology in its systems to keep up with the global flux of change in all aspects of life. For 10 years An-Najah has pursued the integration of e-learning in residential, blended and fully online delivery. Following a brief summary of the history of An-Najah National University, change management strategies are featured, highlighting specific successful techniques. The case study concludes a description of the change management model that emerged in addition to indicators of a great impact on students’ satisfaction and staff members’ participation ratios.
Solubility Enhancement of Domperidone Fast Disintegrating Tablet Using Hydroxypropyl-β-Cyclodextrin by Inclusion Complexation Technique  [PDF]
Prakash Thapa, Ritu Thapa, Uttam Budhathoki, Panna Thapa
Pharmacology & Pharmacy (PP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/pp.2014.53031

Domperidone Maleate (DOM), an antiemetic drug, has been used in treatment of adults and children. It has low aqueous solubility and hence low bioavailability. In present study, an attempt has been made to enhance the solubility of DOM by inclusion complexation with Hydroxypropyl-β-Cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) using kneading technique and formulation of fast disintegrating tablets by using Sodium Starch Glycolate as superdisintegrant. Solubility analysis of DOM in different concentrations of HP-β-CD was carried out. Design of experiment (DOE) is done by using MINITAB 15.1 software to find out the variable for dissolution and disintegration time. HP-β-CD and SSG were identified as the variable for disintegration time and dissolution. For optimization of the concentration of HP-β-CD and SSG, two factors at two levels design through central composite design (CCD)

Toward Secure Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks an Overview and Comparative Study  [PDF]
Yousef Al-Raba’nah, Mohammed Al-Refai
Journal of Computer and Communications (JCC) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jcc.2016.416002
Abstract: Significant increasing in the number of vehicle accidents around the world and the resulting losses in both aspects human and material necessitate us to find efficient, innovative solutions to this passive phenomenon. Vehicular Ad hoc NETwork (VANET) is an emerging technology that attracts many research interests in the field of wireless communications due to its benefits in providing more road safety and enhancing traffic management. Security is one of the most critical issues that face VANETs. VANETs are vulnerable to different types of attacks as long as they are still a fertile area for attackers to compromise the network with their malicious attacks. However, to build robustness networks, a vital issue that needs to be taken into consideration is to make the networks resistant to security attacks. This paper presents an introduction to VANETs and its structure and provides an overview of fundamental security challenges and requirements in VANETs. It also discusses and investigates major security attacks and its effects on the security requirements. Afterwards, it studies, compares and finally classifies a variety of possible countermeasures that have been proposed to cope with these attacks.
On Secure Digital Image Watermarking Techniques  [PDF]
Manjit Thapa, Sandeep Kumar Sood
Journal of Information Security (JIS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jis.2011.24017
Abstract: Digital watermarking is used to hide the information inside a signal, which can not be easily extracted by the third party. Its widely used application is copyright protection of digital information. It is different from the encryption in the sense that it allows the user to access, view and interpret the signal but protect the ownership of the content. One of the current research areas is to protect digital watermark inside the information so that ownership of the information cannot be claimed by third party. With a lot of information available on various search engines, to protect the ownership of information is a crucial area of research. In latest years, several digital watermarking techniques are presented based on discrete cosine transform (DCT), discrete wavelets transform (DWT) and discrete fourier transforms (DFT). In this paper, we propose an algorithm for digital image watermarking technique based on singular value decomposition; both of the L and U components are explored for watermarking algorithm. This technique refers to the watermark embedding algorithm and watermark extracting algorithm. The experimental results prove that the quality of the watermarked image is excellent and there is strong resistant against many geometrical attacks.
Antimicrobial resistance: a global threat
Thapa B
International Journal of Infection and Microbiology , 2012, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ijim.v1i2.7405
Abstract: Since the discovery of penicillin by Sr. Alexender Fleming in 1928, it had been instrumental in treating critically ill patients and increasing life expectancy. However the emergence of penicillin resistance in 1940s has threatened all the gains offered by it. Newer pharmaceutical companies emerged and newer antimicrobial agents were discovered and commercialized for the treatment of infections but most of them are already ineffective to treat infections due to growing antimicrobial resistance. This emergence of multi-drug (MDR), pan-drug (PDR) and extensively-drug resistant (XDR) pathogens is a global problem, the seriousness of which is evident by the fact that WHO adopted the World Health Day theme 2011 as “Combating antimicrobial resistance”. The growing resistance has posed serious effects for the health care systems in addition to the economic burden to the patients and families. Almost one third of world’s population is infected with tuberculosis and it’s a public health problem. Emergence of TB among HIV infected has worsened the scenario of both the diseases. Malaria is another disease of the poor complicating the situation. In addition to these infectious diseases of public health importance numerous bacterial, viral, protozoal and fungal agents are infecting patients in the hospitals and the community. Usually the first line antimicrobial agents cure the patients, but the treatment has to be switched to second line when they emerge as drug resistant. This second line drugs (reserve drugs) are more expensive and more toxic and are also becoming ineffective. The methicillin resistant and vancomycin resistant Staphylocccus aureus, MDR and PDR Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Citrobacter spp., Stenotrophomonas malotphila etc., metallo-betalactamase producing E. coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae, antiretroviral resistant HIV-1, MDR and XDR strains of M. tuberculosis have already emerged in the globe.1,2,3,4 Growing antimicrobial resistance has numerous effects like, prolonged hospital stay, treatment failure, spread of resistant pathogens to other patients, secondary complications and economic, social and mental problems to the patients as well as for their families. The achieved success in controlling TB will be ruined by increasing MDR and XDR strain and is a threat to the TB control programmes. Similarly, emergence of Artesunate resistance in malaria parasite will pose challenge in malaria control.5The emergence of resistance is due to inappropriate and indiscriminate use of over the counter antimicrobial agents, irrational use, ina
Study on the prevalence of Cryptosporidium in calves and HIV infected humans in the periphery of river basins of Kathmandu valley
Thapa B
International Journal of Infection and Microbiology , 2013, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ijim.v2i2.8326
Abstract: The article Paudyal S, Karna SR, Khatiwada S, Joshi LR, Tiwari A, Shrestha SP. Study on the prevalence of Cryptosporidium in calves and HIV infected humans in the periphery of river basins of Kathmandu valley. Int J Infect Microbiol 2013;2(1);7-11 published in Int J Infect Microbiol 2013;2(1) should be read as follows; Table 2, Row 7 column 5, 18 instead of 17 and Row 8 column 5, 32 instead of 33 (letters written in bold). In the section citing this article the “Int J Infect Microbial 2013;1(2):7-11 should read as “Int J Infect Microbiol 2013;2(1):7-11”.
Multiple lentigenes with deafness in a 5-year-old boy
Thapa Rajoo
Indian Journal of Dermatology , 2006,
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