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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 485 matches for " RUBINA SOHAIL "
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The Professional Medical Journal , 2004,
Abstract: Objective: To determine the frequency of bacterial vaginosis inpatients presenting with vaginal discharge in Gynaecological outpatient department. Place and Duration ofStudy: From July 2001 to April 2002 in the Gynaecological clinic of Unit-II at Services Hospital. Subject andMethods: Five hundred patients with vaginal discharge were selected for study. They were evaluated usingclinical composite criteria, whiff test, pH metry and microscopy for clue cells on wet mount. Bacterial vaginosiswas diagnosed if any three of the four characters were present Results: The overall frequency of bacterialvaginosis was 27%, 70% had coital frequency of more than twice a week and 40.7% had history of abortions.Conclusion: Bacterial vaginosis was the commonest cause of vaginal discharge in women attending theGynaecological clinic.
Unusual Case of Idiopathic Membranous Later Developing Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma  [PDF]
Rubina Naqvi
Open Journal of Nephrology (OJNeph) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojneph.2014.43016
Abstract: A 30-year-old male presented to nephrology services as a case of nephrotic syndrome and membranous nephropathy was found on renal biopsy. He was treated for this pathology with steroid and cytotoxic drugs and remained in remission for 3 years and then presented with non Hodgkin’s lymphoma.
Teaching Bioethics to Medical Technology Students in Pakistan
Rubina Naqvi
Journal of Medical Ethics and History of Medicine , 2009,
Abstract: Incorporating ethics education in curriculum of medical technology students and highlighting the importance of teaching the subject to this particular population in this part of world are our aims. At SIUT we have a school with name of "Zain ul Abidin" school of Biomedical Technology, which is supposed to award B.S. degree in 5 sub-specialties that is hemodialysis, radiology, laboratory sciences, operation theater technology and intensive care technology. This school is affiliated by Karachi University. The students entering in school have done fellow in science (F.Sc.)with pre-medical group, thus have background knowledge of biology, physics, chemistry, languages, religion and Pakistan studies.Here for B.S. included in their curriculum are the subjects of anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, microbiology, pharmacology, pathology, Islamiat and English for all and then related sub-specialty topics to each group for example student in hemodialysis group more exposed to nephrology topics etc.I planned to add ethics with subjects, which are common to all specialties and designed curriculum.Curriculum was approved (after minor changes), from Karachi University and I started teaching ethics to these students. This paper highlights methods and tools of teaching and evaluation and results observed. This will be the first examination in bioethics from medical technologists, at university level in the history of country.This is a great achievement in country to start teaching bioethics to medical technologists. Karachi University has implemented the same curriculum to other medical technology schools affiliated with University.
The eye health programme in Dera Ghazi Khan district, Pakistan
Rubina Gillani
Community Eye Health Journal , 2005,
Abstract: In planning for eye care services in Pakistan in 1997, the following factors were taken into account: * Blindness prevalence rate of around 2% * More than 70% of the communities live in the rural districts while almost the same proportion of ophthalmic services are based in urban areas * Presence of a reasonable public health care delivery infrastructure in Pakistan * Potential in district eye units but significant gaps in equipment, physical space, appropriate clinical skills and management systems * The need for cost-effective and sustainable ways to reach the remotest communities. Strengthening cataract services was prioritised as a first step to addressing the problem. All ophthalmologists from the public sector district hospital were trained in extra capsular cataract extraction and intraocular lens (ECCE+IOL) implantation and provided with operating microscopes and instruments. It soon became apparent that, for real impact, a more comprehensive approach was required. A comprehensive district eye care programme was designed in partnership with the government in 2001. Twenty-two districts were chosen for the delivery of the programme, 19 districts have so far been included.
Effect of Kinetic Parameters on I-129 Activity from Fuel to Coolant in PWRs  [PDF]
Rubina Nasir
World Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology (WJNST) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/wjnst.2017.74022
Abstract: Effect of kinetic model parameters on fission product (I-129) activity from fuel to coolant in PWRs has been studied in this work. First a computational model was developed for fission product release into primary coolant using ORIGEN-2 as subroutine. The model is based on set of differential equations of kinetic model which includes fuel-to-gap release model, gap-to-coolant leakage model, and Booths diffusion model. A Matlab based computer program FPAPC (Fission Product Activity in Primary Coolant) was developed. Variations of I-129 activity in Primary Heat Transport System were computed and computed values of i-129 were found in good agreement and deviations were within 2% - 3% of already published data values. Finally, the effects of coolant purification rate, diffusion constant and gas escape rate on I-129 activity were studied and results indicated that the coolant purification rate is the most sensitive parameter for fission product activity in primary circuit. For changes of 5% in steps from 10% to +10% in the coolant purification rate constant (Β), the activity variation after 200 days of reactor operation was 23.1% for the change.
The basic blocks of the universe matter: Boltzmann fundamental particle and energy quanta of dark matter and dark energy  [PDF]
Murad Shibli, Sohail Anwar
Natural Science (NS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2011.39099
Abstract: Recent astronomical NASA observations indicates that visible matter contributes only to about 4% of the universe total energy density, meanwhile, dark matter and dark energy contributes to 26% and 70% of the universe total energy, respectively, with an average density close to 10–26 kg/m3. This paper proposes an equation of state of dark energy and dark matter as one unified entity. This equation is derived based on the ideal gas equation, Boltzmann constant, Einstein energy-mass principle and based on the assumption that dark energy and dark matter behave as a perfect fluid. This analysis presents what could be the most fundamental particle and quanta of dark matter and dark energy. Considering NASA’s Cosmic Microwave Background Explorer (CMB) which estimated that the sky has an average temperature close to 2.7251 Kelvin, then the equivalent mass and energy of the proposed fundamental particle is determined. It is found that this candidate particle has an equivalent mass of 4.2141 × 10–40 Kg which is equivalent to 3.7674 × 10–23 J. Surprisingly, this value has the same order of Boltzmann constant KB = 1.38 ×10–23 J/K. This candidate particle could be the most fundamental and lightest particle in Nature and serves as the basic block of matter (quarks and gluons). Moreover, assuming a uniform space dark energy/dark matter density, then the critical temperature at which the dark matter has a unity entity per volume is determined as 34.983 × 1012 K. Analytically, it proposes that at this trillion temperature scale, the dark matter particles unified into a new quark-hydron particle. Finally, tentative experimental verification can be con ducted using the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC).
A Novel Generalized Nonholonomy Criteria and Physical Interpretation of Holonomic/Nonholonomic Constraints of a Free-Flying Space Robot with/without Interaction with a Flying Target Satellite  [PDF]
Murad Shibli, Sohail Anwar
Intelligent Control and Automation (ICA) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ica.2011.24032
Abstract: This paper presents a new nonholonomy criteria and reveals the physical interpretation of holonomoic and nonholonomic constraints acting on a free-flying space robot with or without interaction with a free Flying/Floating target object. The analysis in this paper interprets the physical interpretation behind such constraints, and clarifies geometric and kinematic conditions that generate such constraints. Moreover, a new criterion of finding the holonomy/nonholonomy of constraints impose on a free-flying space robot with or without interaction with a floating object is presented as well. The proposed criteria are applicable in case of zero or non-zero initial momentum conditions. Such nonholonomy criteria are proposed by utilizing the concept of orthogonal projection matrices and singular value decomposition (SVD). Using this methodology will also enable us to verify online whether the constraints are violated in case of real-time applications and to take a correction action or switch the controllers. This criterion is still yet valid even the interaction with floating object is lost. Applications of the proposed criteria can be dedicated to in-orbit servicing robotic satellite to capture malfunctioned spacecrafts and satellites, docking space of NASA and Russian shuttles with International Space Station (ISA), building in-orbit stations, space rescue missions and asteroids dust sampling. Finally, simulation results are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed criterion.
A Comparative Study of Electronic Properties of Bulk MoS2 and Its Monolayer Using DFT Technique: Application of Mechanical Strain on MoS2 Monolayer  [PDF]
Sohail Ahmad, Sugata Mukherjee
Graphene (Graphene) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/graphene.2014.34008
Abstract: Electronic structure calculation of bulk and monolayer MoS2 has been performed using plane wave pseudopotential method based on density functional theory. The indirect band gap in the bulk MoS2 was found to be 0.9 eV, whereas in the monolayer-MoS2 the band gap of 1.57 eV was found to be direct one. The calculated physical parameters of monolayer MoS2 are found to be very close to the bulk MoS2 and compare well with available experimental and other theoretical results. The calculated density of states (DOS) may help explain this change in the nature of band gap in bulk and in monolayer MoS2. A further variation in band gap has been observed in MoS2 monolayer on applying biaxial strain.
EXAFS Studies of Ruthenium Based Double Perovskite ALaMnRuO6 (A = Ca, Sr, Ba)  [PDF]
Rubina Shaheen, Javaid Bashir, Muhammad Nasir Khan
Materials Sciences and Applications (MSA) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/msa.2012.31004
Abstract: Room and liquid nitrogen temperatures Mn K-edge extended X-ray fine structure (EXAFS) studies were carried out on powder samples of ALaMnRuO6 (A = Ca, Sr, Ba) perovskites. The EXAFS analysis of Mn K-edge spectra showed MnO6 octahedra are distorted. Among the three perovskites, the polyhedral distortion is highest for SrLaMnRuO6 (Δ = 1.4 × 10–3). For CaLaMnRuO6 (Δ = 0.5 × 10–3) and BaLaMnRuO6, (Δ = 0.7 × 10–3), the smaller values of distortion parameters indicate that the MnO6 octahedra are relatively regular and undistorted in the latter two systems. In SrLaMnRuO6, MnO6 distortion appears to be of orthorhombic (Q2) type whereas for CaLaMnRuO6 and BaLaMnRuO6, the distortion is of tetragonal or Q3 type. The Mn-O distances as determined from the EXAFS measurements, increases with the increase in the size of the divalent cation. No structural changes occurred in the local environment around Mn atom when the temperature was lowered from room to liquid nitrogen temperature.
Balancing Profession, Family and Cultural Norms by Women Dentists in Pakistan  [PDF]
Rubina Mumtaz, Sheze Haroon Qazi, Sadia Sajjad
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2018.65013
Abstract: “Feminization of dentistry” in Pakistan is clearly visible in the gender distribution of an average dental class that boasts of 70% - 80% female students. Yet after graduation, many of these women choose not to pursue their careers, resulting in a void of practicing dentists in the country, despite an exponential increase in private sector dental colleges. This phenomenological designed qualitative study aimed to investigate the reasons behind this dynamic. Fourteen in-depth interviews’ and two focus groups’ discussion from a rich and diverse sample of 20 purposively selected working and non-working, younger and older women dentists from the cities of Islamabad, Rawalpindi, Lahore, Peshawar and Abbottabad obtained data to achieve saturation. All interviews were audio recorded with consent, transcribed verbatim, transcripts analyzed and coded into themes and sub-themes. Respondent validation and investigator triangulation ensured validity and credibility of findings. The core finding is that a support system is an essential pre-requisite facilitating a woman dentist to pursue her career; the primary driver for this support is “economic need”. This core factor circuitously interlinks three peripheral themes, which are 1) traditional gender roles dominate, restricting women dentists from pursuance of career, especially if they have a strong economic base; 2) becoming a dentist enhances social capital and lucrative marriage prospects, lending to the concept of “doctor brides” which becomes a prime reason for choosing this education. Practicing the profession becomes secondary, especially when the marital union is with a well-to-do family; 3) life stage priorities with respect to motherhood is a barrier to full time career pursuance and if economic needs are met, most prioritize motherhood over profession. In conclusion, the average graduating dentist is female, from an expensive private sector dental college, affordable by the socio-economically privileged class; she often marries into an equivalent or higher SES class based on her “doctor” title. Since “economic need” is a dominant determinant of pursuance of career, a majority of women dentists opt for the luxury of choosing not to work. Recommendations include revision of policies for admission into dental colleges and retentive protocols on renewal of license to practice.
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