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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 543488 matches for " R.M. Kirberger "
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Nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism in a white lion cub (Panthera leo), with concomitant radiographic double cortical line : clinical communication
V. Herz,R.M. Kirberger
Journal of the South African Veterinary Association , 2012, DOI: 10.4102/jsava.v75i1.450
Abstract: A captive-bred white lion cub was presented with hindquarter pain, lameness and reluctance to move. Radiographs revealed generalised osteoapenia, multiple fractures, a severely collapsed pelvic girdle, bilateral lateral bowing of the scapulae and mild kyphosis of the caudal vertebrae.Adouble cortical line, a distinct sign of osteopaenia, was repeatedly seen on the pelvic limbs, most strikingly along both femurs. Based on radiographic findings and a history of an exclusive meat diet since weaning, a diagnosis of nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism was made. The diet was changed to a commercial kitten food and the cub was given cage rest for 6 weeks. Signs of pain abated and the cub became more active.A guarded prognosis was given for full recovery, as changes to the pelvis were considered potentially irreversible.
Incidence of canine elbow dysplasia in South Africa
R.M. Kirberger,N. Stander
Journal of the South African Veterinary Association , 2012, DOI: 10.4102/jsava.v78i2.290
Abstract: In South Africa, 1919 canine elbow dysplasia grading evaluations were performed from 1999-2006. Of these 1827 were evaluated by the senior author and form the basis of this article. Each report recorded the breed, age, sex, side affected and elbow dysplasia grading. The relationship between breed, age, sex, side affected, origin of radiographs and elbow dysplasia incidence was then analysed. Statistical evaluations were performed including means and standard deviations. The Rottweiler had the highest incidence of elbow dysplasia at 55 % followed by the Bullmastiff, Chow chow, Boerboel and Golden retriever, all of which had elbow dysplasia incidences of >38 %. Males were significantly more affected than females. The incidence of elbow dysplasia in the various breeds was compared with those of the Orthopaedic Foundation for Animals in the United States and was found to be much higher in South Africa.
Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy in a dog : case report
A.J. M?hr,R.M. Kirberger
Journal of the South African Veterinary Association , 2012, DOI: 10.4102/jsava.v71i2.695
Abstract: An 8-month-old Labrador retriever bitch was evaluated for sudden-onset, progressive abdominal distension. Physical examination revealed an exaggerated inspiratory effort, severe ascites, bilateral jugular vein distension, and hypokinetic femoral arterial pulses. Thoracic auscultation detected tachycardia with muffled heart sounds, without audible cardiac murmurs. Thoracic radiographs identified severe right ventricular enlargement and pleural effusion. The electrocardiogram was consistent with incomplete right bundle branch block or right ventricular enlargement. Echocardiography demonstrated severe right ventricular and atrial dilation, secondary tricuspid regurgitation, and thinning and hypocontractility of the right ventricular myocardium. Left heart chamber sizes were slightly decreased, with normal left ventricular contractility. Adiagnosis of arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy was reached, based on the characteristic clinical, electrocardiographic, radiographic and echocardiographic findings, and the exclusion of other causes of isolated right ventricular failure. Treatment effected good control of clinical signs, until acutely decompensated congestive right heart failure led to euthanasia after 4 months. Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy is a well-described clinical entity in humans, and has previously been documented in 3 male dogs. The condition is characterised by progressive fibro-adipose replacement of right ventricular myocardium, while the left ventricle usually remains unaffected. It should be considered a differential diagnosis in any young dog presented with isolated right heart failure, syncope, or unexplained ventricular tachyarrhythmias. This article reports the 1st case of arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy in a female dog, and highlights its echocardiographic features.
Elbow dysplasia in the dog : pathophysiology, diagnosis and control : review article
R.M. Kirberger,S.L. Fourie
Journal of the South African Veterinary Association , 2012, DOI: 10.4102/jsava.v69i2.814
Abstract: Elbow dysplasia is a non-specific term denoting abnormal development of the elbow. Elbow dysplasia encompasses the clinical and radiographic manifestation of ununited anconeal process, fragmented medial coronoid process, osteochondritis dissecans, erosive cartilage lesions and elbow incongruity. The net result is elbow arthrosis, which may be clinically inapparent or result in marked lameness. These conditions may be diagnosed by means of routine or special radiographic views and other imaging modalities, or the precise cause of the arthrosis or lameness may remain undetermined. Breeds most commonly affected are the rottweiler, Bernese mountain dog, Labrador and golden retriever and the German shepherd dog. Certain breeds are more susceptible to a particular form of elbow dysplasia and more than 1 component may occur simultaneously. The various conditions are thought to result from osteochondrosis of the articular or physeal cartilage that results in disparate growth of the radius and ulna. Heritability has been proven for this polygenic condition and screening programmes to select suitable breeding stock have been initiated in several countries and have decreased the incidence of elbow dysplasia.
An investigation into the usefulness of a rostrocaudal nasal radiographic view in the dog
R.M. Kirberger,S.L. Fourie
Journal of the South African Veterinary Association , 2012, DOI: 10.4102/jsava.v73i4.582
Abstract: A rostrocaudal (RCd) nasal view was developed in large breed mesaticephalic dogs using a complete, subsequently sectioned, skull and cadaver specimens to optimise the radiographic technique and evaluate normal anatomic features. Gelatin was placed in one nasal passage of the cadaver specimens to mimic the effects of nasal pathology. The latter specimens and 18 clinical cases with suspected nasal disease were evaluated to determine the usefulness of the RCd view compared to standard nasal views. An optimal RCd view was obtained with the dog in dorsal recumbency and the head symmetrically positioned with the hard palate perpendicular to the table using a table top technique with 8 : 1 grid, collimating to the nasal region and centring the primary beam on the philtrum. The dorsolateral aspects of the maxillary bone, the nasal bones, septal sulcus of the vomer, mucosa lined nasal septum and conchae could be seen. A centrodorsal more radiolucent area representing the ethmoid bone region was also visible. Gelatin soft tissue opacification of the nasal passage could be seen more clearly in RCd nasal view than in occlusal dorsoventral view. In clinical cases the RCd view was useful to build up a 3-dimensional image of nasal passage pathology as well as to detect nasal septum and osseous nasal border pathology not visible in other views. This view is particularly useful in cases where cross-sectional imaging modalities are not available or where the nasal investigation is limited by cost considerations.
Diagnosis of suspected hypovitaminosis A using magnetic resonance imaging in African lions (Panthera leo)
M.P. Hartley,R.M. Kirberger,M. Haagenson,L. Sweers
Journal of the South African Veterinary Association , 2012, DOI: 10.4102/jsava.v76i3.414
Abstract: Vitamin A deficiency is described in captive lions. Ante mortem diagnosis can either be made by serum analysis or liver biopsy, both of which may be problematic. This study utilised magnetic resonance imaging to identify vitamin A deficiency in lions with relatively mild clinical signs, which could otherwise be attributed to numerous other neurological conditions. Magnetic resonance imaging is a non-invasive, reliable diagnostic tool to demonstrate pathology typically associated with this condition. To accommodate varying lion ages and sizes, a number of cranium and brain measurements were compared with that of the maximum diameter of the occular vitreous humor. Occular ratios of the tentorium cerebelli osseum and occipital bone were most reliable in diagnosing the thickened osseous structures characteristic of hypovitaminosis A. The ratio of maximum : minimum dorsoventral diameter of the C1 spinal cord was also of value.
Vacuum phenomenon in equine carpal, metacarpophalangeal and metatarsophalangeal joints
R.D. Gottschalk,R.M. Kirberger,S.L. Fourie
Journal of the South African Veterinary Association , 2012, DOI: 10.4102/jsava.v70i1.742
Abstract: In order to establish the incidence of vacuum phenomenon in horses' carpal, metacarpophalangeal and metatarsophalangeal joints, stress-flexed radiographs were madeof normal joints, joints withknownpathology and in anaesthetised horses with joints under traction. Focal intra-articular radiolucencies were identified in normal stress-flexed carpal, metacarpophalangeal and metatarsophalangeal joints. These radiolucencies can be confused with those associated with pathological conditions.
Radiographic anatomy of the thoraco-abdominal cavity of the ostrich (Struthio camelus)
W.M. Wagner,R.M. Kirberger,H.B. Groenewald
Journal of the South African Veterinary Association , 2012, DOI: 10.4102/jsava.v72i4.653
Abstract: This study provides a reference for the radiographic anatomy of the thoraco-abdominal cavity of female ostriches as a representative of ratites. One ostrich cadaver, 2 adult and 2 growing ostriches were used. Right lateral radiographs produced by a 6-frame technique and 2 dorsoventral radiographs produced by an adapted 3-frame technique were selected and schematic illustrations of these were labelled to illustrate normal radiographic anatomy. Differences from other avian species and unique features of the ostrich are briefly discussed.
Right atrial myxosarcoma in a dog : case report
O.M. Briggs,R.M. Kirberger,N.B. Goldberg
Journal of the South African Veterinary Association , 2012, DOI: 10.4102/jsava.v68i4.897
Abstract: A case of right atrial myxosarcoma is described in a Staffordshire bull terrier with a history of weight loss, exercise intolerance and collapse. The diagnosis of an intracavitary cardiac tumour was made on echocardiography. The dog was euthanased. Secondary spread to the lungs and lymph nodes was present. Myxoma is one of the rare intracavitary cardiac tumours and this case is believed to be the 1st report of its more malignant form in the dog.
Comparison of effects of uncomplicated canine babesiosis and canine normovolaemic anaemia on abdominal splanchnic Doppler characteristics - a preliminary investigation
L.M. Koma,R.M. Kirberger,A.L. Leisewitz,L.S. Jacobson
Journal of the South African Veterinary Association , 2012, DOI: 10.4102/jsava.v76i3.415
Abstract: A preliminary study was conducted to compare uncomplicated canine babesiosis (CB) and experimentally induced normovolaemic anaemia (EA) using Doppler ultrasonography of abdominal splanchnic vessels. Fourteen dogs with uncomplicated CB were investigated together with 11 healthy Beagles during severe EA, moderate EA and the physiological state as a control group. Canine babesiosis was compared with severe EA, moderate EA and the physiological state using Doppler variables of the abdominal aorta, cranial mesenteric artery (CMA), coeliac, left renal and interlobar, and hilar splenic arteries, and the main portal vein. Patterns of haemodynamic changes during CB and EA were broadly similar and were characterised by elevations in velocities and reductions in resistance indices in all vessels except the renal arteries when compared with the physiological state. Aortic and CMA peak systolic velocities and CMA end diastolic and time-averaged mean velocities in CB were significantly lower (P < 0.023) than those in severe EA. Patterns of renal haemodynamic changes during CB and EA were similar. However, the renal patterns differed from those of aortic and gastrointestinal arteries, having elevations in vascular resistance indices, a reduction in end diastolic velocity and unchanged time-averaged mean velocity. The left renal artery resistive index in CB was significantly higher (P < 0.025) than those in EA and the physiological state. Renal interlobar artery resistive and pulsatility indices in CB were significantly higher (P < 0.016) than those of moderate EA and the physiological state. The similar haemodynamic patterns in CB and EA are attributable to anaemia, while significant differencesmayadditionally be attributed to pathophysiological factors peculiar to CB.
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