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Electronic inhomogeneities in graphene: the role of the substrate interaction and chemical doping
A. Castellanos-Gomez,Arramel,M. Wojtaszek,R.H.M. Smit
Boletin del Grupo Espa?ol del Carbon , 2012,
Abstract: We probe the local inhomogeneities of the electronicproperties of graphene at the nanoscale usingscanning probe microscopy techniques. First, wefocus on the study of the electronic inhomogeneitiescaused by the graphene-substrate interaction ingraphene samples exfoliated on silicon oxide. Wefind that charged impurities, present in the graphenesubstrateinterface, perturb the carrier densitysignificantly and alter the electronic properties ofgraphene. This finding helps to understand theobserved device-to-device variation typically observedin graphene-based electronic devices. Second, weprobe the effect of chemical modification in theelectronic properties of graphene, grown by chemicalvapour deposition on nickel. We find that both thechemisorption of hydrogen and the physisorption ofporphyrin molecules strongly depress theconductance at low bias indicating the opening of abandgap in graphene, paving the way towards thechemical engineering of the electronic properties ofgraphene.
Efeito da inclus?o de farelo de arroz integral em ra??es para leit?es de 21 a 42 dias de idade
Gomes,T.R.; Carvalho,L.E. de; Freitas,E.R.; Nepomuceno,R.C.; Ellery,E.A.C.; Rufino,R.H.M.;
Archivos de Zootecnia , 2012, DOI: 10.4321/S0004-05922012000100014
Abstract: sixty castrated male and female piglets (commercial lineage), weaned at 21 days of age and average live weight of 5.4 ± 1.44 kg, were used aiming to evaluate the effect on productive performance, diarrhea, and economic viability of adding different levels of rice bran (rb) in rations for pigs. the experimental design was completely randomized with five treatments (0.0, 5.0, 10.0, 15,0 and 20.0% of rb) and 6 replicates per treatment, where the experimental unit (plot) consisted of two animals. results showed that daily mean feed intake (dmfi), daily mean weight gain (dmwg) and feed conversion (fc), as well as the occurrence of diarrhea, did not differ significantly (p>0.05) for the different levels of rb inclusion in the ration. the economic analysis showed no significant difference among treatments. it is concluded that adding rice bran up to 20% in pig ratios for the period from 21 to 42 days of age is technically viable.
Non pharmacological treatments in fibromyalgia
R. Cassisi,M. Cazzola,G. Arioli,R.H. Gracely
Reumatismo , 2011, DOI: 10.4081/reumatismo.2008.1s.59
Abstract: To fully answer the complex question of what modes of non pharmacological treatments are useful for fibromyalgia (FM) one should ask different layers of questions, and as with peeling layers of onions, be prepared to shed some tears. The first painful question, or layer of the onion, is related to understanding patients’ complaints. Patients who experience recurrent as well as persistent physical symptoms without any objective evidence are too often classified as “psychosomatic disorders” or worse as “non disease” (see Sarzi this issue)...
Comparative Performance of Different Wheat Varieties under Salinity and Waterlogging II: Ionic Relations
Nawaz,R.H. Qureshi,M. Aslam,J. Akhtar
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 1998,
Abstract: A pot study was conducted to find out the wheat variety which can restrict the uptake of Na+ and CT- and prefer K+ under the dual stress of salinity and hypoxia. Matrix culture techniques were used to simulate the field conditions. Five wheat varieties were grown and salts (150 mol m-3 NaCl+ 15 mol m-3 CaCl2) were added to saline and saline-hypoxic treatments. Plants were harvested after a stress of four week and leaf sap was extracted from the youngest fully expanded leaf for Na+, K+ and Cl- determination. An increase in Na+ and Cl- concentration was observed in saline and saline-hypoxic treatments, while K+ concentration increased in saline and decreased in saline-hypoxic. Among the varieties, Blue silver and Chinese Spring showed a better control over ionic uptake compared with others.
Influence of Parity and Month of Peak Calving Season on Postpartum Estrous Activity and Fertility of Nili-Ravi Buffaloes
Usmani R.H,M.A. Mirza
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2000,
Abstract: Data recorded in respect of postpartum estrous activity and fertility of hard of Nili-Ravi buffaloes maintained at the Livestock Research Station of the National Agriculture Research Center, Islamabad, were analyzed to examine the effects of parity and month of calving. During the study period of two years (1998 to 1999) a total of 103 buffaloes calved at the research station. Mean value for the overall interval to first postpartum observed estrus (PPIE), first service conception rate (RSCR) services per conception and postpartum interval to conception (PPIC) were 84.4 ± 8.6 days, 53.4%, 1.7 ± 0.12 and 104.7 ± 15.3 days, respectively. The PPIE and PPIC were shorter for buffaloes in lactation number 7 or more than for those in lactation number 1 to 6. Buffaloes calving during the months of September had shortest PPIE and PPIC (43.7 ± 8.4 and 51.8 ± 9.6 days, respectively), and lowest number of SPC (1.2 ± 0.1). Highest FSCR 82% was observed for buffaloes for calving during the months of August. Buffaloes calving during the months of March had the longest PPIC (211.7 ± 15.6 days) and highest number of SPC (2.8 ± 0.3). Lowest FSCR (0%) was observed for buffaloes calving during the months of February to April. In conclusion, the buffaloes which calved towards the end of peak calving season (August to December) were most efficient in terms of postpartum reproduction and fertility.
Vanadium Alloyed PVD CrAlN Coatings for Friction Reduction in Metal Forming Applications
K. Bobzin,N. Bagcivan,M. Ewering,R.H. Brugnara
Tribology in Industry , 2012,
Abstract: Hard coatings deposited on forming tools are used to improve the forming process and to increase tool life. The decrease of tool wear and reduction of friction are the main motivations for the development of self-lubricating coatings for forming applications at elevated temperatures. In the present study (Cr,Al,V)N (Physical Vapour Deposition) coatings with 5, 11 and 20 at % vanadium were deposited via a combination of HPPMS (High Power Pulse Magnetron Sputtering) technology and direct current (DC) Magnetron Sputter Ion Plating (MSIP) PVD. The hardness and Young’s Modulus of the coatings were investigated by nanoidentation. Furthermore, high temperature Pin-on-Disk (PoD) tribometer measurements against Ck15 (AISI 1015) were realized at different temperatures and compared with a (Cr,Al)N reference hard coating. The samples were analyzed by means of SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy) and XRD (X-Ray Diffraction) measurements after Pin-on-Disk (PoD) tests. Moreover TEM (Transmission Electron Microscopy) analyses were carried out after 4 h annealing at 800 °C in ambient air to investigate the diffusion of vanadium to the coating surface. The tribological results at 800 °C show no improvement of the friction coefficient for the pure (Cr,Al)N coating and for the layer with 5 at % V. A time-dependent decrease of the friction coefficient was achieved for the coatings with 11 at % V (μ=0.4) and 20 at % V (μ=0.4) at 800 °C.
Large capacity cnergy from Geo- Plutonic formation for power plants with zero CO2 emissions
R.H. Koz?owski,B.M. Zakiewicz
Journal of Achievements in Materials and Manufacturing Engineering , 2010,
Abstract: Purpose: The publication presented is a realistic, one of the practicable idea for a substitute to system power plants, consisting in the construction of combined heat and power plants using renewable resources of geo-plutonic energy.Design/methodology/approach: There are various methods of obtaining geothermal energy and various uses for it. The proposed GEO-PLUTONIC ENERGY represents an endless, renewable source of energy coming from nuclear reaction in the Earth’s nucleus, where the temperature reaches 6,000 Centigrade. Mass production of electricity from the Earth’s heat, possible in Iceland due to the volcanic nature of these resources and the shallow depth at which they occur, was difficult in other countries due to the high cost of drilling to greater depths. This barrier has been overcome by us through using a special horizontal drilling technique.Findings: In order to extract and collect the accumulated energy from the area of a large thermal field, a modified shaft/drilling system (called a Super Daisy System) equipped with a 3D grate of directional bore-holes called Jet-Stingers fitted with multi-functional heat exchangers is used. The emission-free concept of Geo-Plutonic Energy with the temperature of only over 250oC, from which we can obtain about 30 MPa of pressure on the turbine. With increased the depth the temperature and heat transmissibility will be raised significantly, which can resulted the yield even to 7-10 MWe (of electricity) from one deep heat exchanger.Research limitations/implications: From the rock mass we can collect renewable resources of ,,dry” ascending energy from the paleo heat flow coming from the great atomic furnace – the magma.Originality/value: We are experienced in using the appropriate hydro-thermodynamic theory and its applications which allows us to almost precisely forecast and control the quantity of heat not exceeding 20% of the 100% regeneration capability in the same time range.
Preparation of the diagnostic kit for measuring of free Thyroxin (FT4) in human blood by RIA method
M Moharamzadeh,M.H. Babaei,R.H Hosseini,F.H. Talebi
Iranian Journal of Nuclear Medicine , 2010,
Abstract: Introduction: The main hormone of thyroid gland is T4. Only 0.3 % of T4 is free and the rest has been binded mostly to Thyroxine Binding Globulin (TBG), then Throxine Binding Pre Albumin (TBPA)& Throxine Binding Albumin(TBA). While 99.7% of T4 is bound to protein, it is the free fraction (FT4) which is considered to be biologically active. The normal range of FT4 is about 10 - 24 pico mole per liter. FT4 levels in serum or plasma have been recognized as an important indicator of thyroid status.T4 secretion from the thyroid gland is regulated by a sensitive feedback system which involves the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland. Methods: Radio Immunoassay is one of the sensitive & specific methods for measuring the hormones. It is one example of saturation analysis, a particular type of immunoassay (an analytical technique which utilizes antibody). An analyte in a saturation analysis is called a ligand and the specific reagent in such assay is called a binder. T4 is labelled with I-125 by chloramines-T method .After purification by coloumn Chromatography (Sephadex G-25) and dilution, we adjust the activity of labelled T4 (or tracer) for a 50% binding with T4-Ab. The tracer competes with the unlabeled T4 in binding to the limit amount of T4-Ab which have already been coated in polystyrene tubes. After the incubation period, the Ag -Ab complex which has been formed in solid phase (polystyrene tubes) could easily be measured in Gamma counter. By plotting the standard curve, we can estimate the concentration of free T4 in unknown samples. Results & conclusion: After running the assay we obtained a good standard curve. All the controls were within the range and the sensitivity (Minimum detectable dose) of the kit was 3.5 pmole/L , also the amount of coefficient variation (%CV) was less than 10% . All these results show that the local kit could be accepted as a cost effective & reliable kit for measuring of the FT4 in human serum. Although the incubation period during the assay is a little longer than it's equivalents which imported from the abroad, but however if we have a better Ab with higher affinity this period could be potentially decreased
Guanylin peptides: cyclic GMP signaling mechanisms
Forte, L.R.;Freeman, R.H.;Krause, W.J.;London, R.M.;
Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research , 1999, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-879X1999001100002
Abstract: guanylate cyclases (gc) serve in two different signaling pathways involving cytosolic and membrane enzymes. membrane gcs are receptors for guanylin and atriopeptin peptides, two families of cgmp-regulating peptides. three subclasses of guanylin peptides contain one intramolecular disulfide (lymphoguanylin), two disulfides (guanylin and uroguanylin) and three disulfides (e. coli stable toxin, st). the peptides activate membrane receptor-gcs and regulate intestinal cl- and hco3- secretion via cgmp in target enterocytes. uroguanylin and st also elicit diuretic and natriuretic responses in the kidney. gc-c is an intestinal receptor-gc for guanylin and uroguanylin, but gc-c may not be involved in renal cgmp pathways. a novel receptor-gc expressed in the opossum kidney (ok-gc) has been identified by molecular cloning. ok-gc cdnas encode receptor-gcs in renal tubules that are activated by guanylins. lymphoguanylin is highly expressed in the kidney and heart where it may influence cgmp pathways. guanylin and uroguanylin are highly expressed in intestinal mucosa to regulate intestinal salt and water transport via paracrine actions on gc-c. uroguanylin and guanylin are also secreted from intestinal mucosa into plasma where uroguanylin serves as an intestinal natriuretic hormone to influence body na+ homeostasis by endocrine mechanisms. thus, guanylin peptides control salt and water transport in the kidney and intestine mediated by cgmp via membrane receptors with intrinsic guanylate cyclase activity.
Guanylin peptides: cyclic GMP signaling mechanisms
Forte L.R.,Freeman R.H.,Krause W.J.,London R.M.
Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research , 1999,
Abstract: Guanylate cyclases (GC) serve in two different signaling pathways involving cytosolic and membrane enzymes. Membrane GCs are receptors for guanylin and atriopeptin peptides, two families of cGMP-regulating peptides. Three subclasses of guanylin peptides contain one intramolecular disulfide (lymphoguanylin), two disulfides (guanylin and uroguanylin) and three disulfides (E. coli stable toxin, ST). The peptides activate membrane receptor-GCs and regulate intestinal Cl- and HCO3- secretion via cGMP in target enterocytes. Uroguanylin and ST also elicit diuretic and natriuretic responses in the kidney. GC-C is an intestinal receptor-GC for guanylin and uroguanylin, but GC-C may not be involved in renal cGMP pathways. A novel receptor-GC expressed in the opossum kidney (OK-GC) has been identified by molecular cloning. OK-GC cDNAs encode receptor-GCs in renal tubules that are activated by guanylins. Lymphoguanylin is highly expressed in the kidney and heart where it may influence cGMP pathways. Guanylin and uroguanylin are highly expressed in intestinal mucosa to regulate intestinal salt and water transport via paracrine actions on GC-C. Uroguanylin and guanylin are also secreted from intestinal mucosa into plasma where uroguanylin serves as an intestinal natriuretic hormone to influence body Na+ homeostasis by endocrine mechanisms. Thus, guanylin peptides control salt and water transport in the kidney and intestine mediated by cGMP via membrane receptors with intrinsic guanylate cyclase activity.
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