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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 223973 matches for " R. Wyatt "
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Visualising Astronomy: Comics, Kant and KAGUYA
Wyatt, R.
Communicating Astronomy with the Public Journal , 2008,
Warm dusty discs: Exploring the A star 24um debris population
R. Smith,M. C. Wyatt
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/200913481
Abstract: (Abridged) Studies of debris discs have shown that most systems are analogous to the EKB. In this study we aim to determine how many IRAS 25um excesses towards A stars are real, and investigate where the dust lies. We observe with TIMMI2, VISIR, Michelle and TReCS a sample of A and B-type main sequence stars reported as having mid-IR excess. We constrain the location of the debris through combined modelling of the emission spectrum and a modelling technique designed to constrain the radial extent of emission in mid-IR imaging. We independently confirm the presence of warm dust around 3 of the candidates: HD3003, HD80950 and eta Tel. For the binary HD3003 a stability analysis indicates the dust is either circumstellar and lying at ~4 AU with the binary orbiting at >14AU, or the dust lies in an unstable location; there is some evidence for temporal evolution of its excess emission on a ~20 year timescale. For 7 of the targets we present quantitative limits on the location of dust around the star. We demonstrate that the disc around HD71155 must have spatially distinct components at 2 and 60AU. We model the limits of current instrumentation and show that most of the known A star debris discs which could be readily resolved at 18um on 8m instruments have been resolved. Limits from unresolved imaging can help distinguish between competing models of the disc emission, but resolved imaging is key to the determination of the disc location. Modelling of the detection limits for extended emission can be useful for targeting future observational campaigns. MIRI on the JWST will be able to resolve most of the known A star debris disc population. METIS on the E-ELT will provide the opportunity to explore the hot disc population more thoroughly by detecting extended emission where calibration accuracy limits disc detection through photometry, reaching levels below 1 zodi for stars at <10pc.
A Novel Technique for Studying the Z Boson Transverse Momentum Distribution at Hadron Colliders
M. Vesterinen,T. R. Wyatt
Physics , 2008, DOI: 10.1016/j.nima.2009.01.203
Abstract: We present a novel method for studying the shape of the Z boson transverse momentum distribution, Q_T, at hadron colliders in ppbar/pp -> Z/gamma* -> l^+l^-. The Q_T is decomposed into two orthogonal components; one transverse and the other parallel to the di-lepton thrust axis. We show that the transverse component is almost insensitive to the momentum resolution of the individual leptons and is thus more precisely determined on an event-by-event basis than the Q_T. Furthermore, we demonstrate that a measurement of the distribution of this transverse component is substantially less sensitive to the dominant experimental systematics (resolution unfolding and Q_T dependence of event selection efficiencies) reported in previous measurements of the Q_T distribution.
Ligneous Cellulitis Following Spontaneous Vaginal Delivery
J. F. Wyatt,G. R. G. Monif
Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology , 1999, DOI: 10.1155/s1064744999000265
Quantum Mechanics with Trajectories: Quantum Trajectories and Adaptive Grids
Robert E. Wyatt,Eric R. Bittner
Physics , 2003,
Abstract: Although the foundations of the hydrodynamical formulation of quantum mechanics were laid over 50 years ago, it has only been within the past few years that viable computational implementations have been developed. One approach to solving the hydrodynamic equations uses quantum trajectories as the computational tool. The trajectory equations of motion are described and methods for implementation are discussed, including fitting of the fields to gaussian clusters.
Collisional Processes in Extrasolar Planetsimal Disks - Dust Clumps in Fomalhaut's Debris Disk
M. C. Wyatt,W. R. F. Dent
Physics , 2002, DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-8711.2002.05533.x
Abstract: This paper presents a model for the outcome of collisions between planetesimals in a debris disk and assesses the impact of collisional processes on the structure and size distribution of the disk. The model is presented by its application to Fomalhaut's collisionally replenished dust disk; a recent 450 micron image of this disk shows a clump embedded within it with a flux ~5 per cent of the total. The following conclusions are drawn: (i) SED modelling is consistent with Fomalhaut's disk having a collisional cascade size distribution extending from bodies 0.2 m in diameter down to 7 micron-sized dust. (ii) Collisional lifetime arguments imply that the cascade starts with planetesimals 1.5-4 km in diameter. Any larger bodies must be predominantly primordial. (iii) Constraints on the timescale for the ignition of the cascade are consistent with these primordial planetesimals having a distribution that extends up to 1000km, resulting in a disk mass of 5-10 times the minimum mass solar nebula. (iv) The debris disk is expected to be intrinsically clumpy, since planetesimal collisions result in dust clumps. The intrinsic clumpiness of Fomalhaut's disk is below current detection limits, but could be detectable by future observatories such as the ALMA, and could provide the only way of determining the primordial planetesimal population. (v) The observed clump could have originated in a collision between two runaway planetesimals, both larger than 1400 km diameter. It is unlikely that we should witness such an event unless both the formation of these runaways and the ignition of the collisional cascade occurred within the last ~10 Myr. (vi) Another explanation for Fomalhaut's clump is that ~5 per cent of the planetesimals in the ring are trapped in 1:2 resonance with a planet orbiting at 80 AU.
Expression of Constitutively Active CDK1 Stabilizes APC-Cdh1 Substrates and Potentiates Premature Spindle Assembly and Checkpoint Function in G1 Cells
Yan Ma, Xi Yuan, William R. Wyatt, Joseph R. Pomerening
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0033835
Abstract: Mitotic progression in eukaryotic cells depends upon the activation of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1), followed by its inactivation through the anaphase-promoting complex (APC)/cyclosome-mediated degradation of M-phase cyclins. Previous work revealed that expression of a constitutively active CDK1 (CDK1AF) in HeLa cells permitted their division, but yielded G1 daughter cells that underwent premature S-phase and early mitotic events. While CDK1AF was found to impede the sustained activity of APC-Cdh1, it was unknown if this defect improperly stabilized mitotic substrates and contributed to the occurrence of these premature M phases. Here, we show that CDK1AF expression in HeLa cells improperly stabilized APC-Cdh1 substrates in G1-phase daughter cells, including mitotic kinases and the APC adaptor, Cdc20. Division of CDK1AF-expressing cells produced G1 daughters with an accelerated S-phase onset, interrupted by the formation of premature bipolar spindles capable of spindle assembly checkpoint function. Further characterization of these phenotypes induced by CDK1AF expression revealed that this early spindle formation depended upon premature CDK1 and Aurora B activities, and their inhibition induced rapid spindle disassembly. Following its normal M-phase degradation, we found that the absence of Wee1 in these prematurely cycling daughter cells permitted the endogenous CDK1 to contribute to these premature mitotic events, since expression of a non-degradable Wee1 reduced the number of cells that exhibited premature cyclin B1oscillations. Lastly, we discovered that Cdh1-ablated cells could not be forced into a premature M phase, despite cyclin B1 overexpression and proteasome inhibition. Together, these results demonstrate that expression of constitutively active CDK1AF hampers the destruction of critical APC-Cdh1 targets, and that this type of condition could prevent newly divided cells from properly maintaining a prolonged interphase state. We propose that this more subtle type of defect in activity of the APC-driven negative-feedback loop may have implications for triggering genome instability and tumorigenesis.
Rainfall and runoff water quality of the Pang and Lambourn, tributaries of the River Thames, south-eastern England
C. Neal,R. Skeffington,M. Neal,R. Wyatt
Hydrology and Earth System Sciences (HESS) & Discussions (HESSD) , 2004,
Abstract: The water quality of rainfall and runoff is described for two catchments of two tributaries of the River Thames, the Pang and Lambourn. Rainfall chemistry is variable and concentrations of most determinands decrease with increasing volume of catch probably due to 'wash out' processes. Two rainfall sites have been monitored, one for each catchment. The rainfall site on the Lambourn shows higher chemical concentrations than the one for the Pang which probably reflects higher amounts of local inputs from agricultural activity. Rainfall quality data at a long-term rainfall site on the Pang (UK National Air Quality Archive) shows chemistries similar to that for the Lambourn site, but with some clear differences. Rainfall chemistries show considerable variation on an event-to-event basis. Average water quality concentrations and flow-weighted concentrations as well as fluxes vary across the sites, typically by about 30%. Stream chemistry is much less variable due to the main source of water coming from aquifer sources of high storage. The relationship between rainfall and runoff chemistry at the catchment outlet is described in terms of the relative proportions of atmospheric and within-catchment sources. Remarkably, in view of the quantity of agricultural and sewage inputs to the streams, the catchments appear to be retaining both P and N. Keywords: water quality, nitrate, ammonium, phosphorus, ammonia, nitrogen dioxide, pH, alkalinity, nutrients, trace metals, rainfall, river, Pang, Lambourn, LOCAR
Genome-Wide Analysis of Antiviral Signature Genes in Porcine Macrophages at Different Activation Statuses
Yongming Sang, Wyatt Brichalli, Raymond R. R. Rowland, Frank Blecha
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0087613
Abstract: Macrophages (MФs) can be polarized to various activation statuses, including classical (M1), alternative (M2), and antiviral states. To study the antiviral activation status of porcine MФs during porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection, we used RNA Sequencing (RNA-Seq) for transcriptomic analysis of differentially expressed genes (DEGs). Sequencing assessment and quality evaluation showed that our RNA-Seq data met the criteria for genome-wide transcriptomic analysis. Comparisons of any two activation statuses revealed more than 20,000 DEGs that were normalized to filter out 153–5,303 significant DEGs [false discovery rate (FDR) ≤0.001, fold change ≥2] in each comparison. The highest 5,303 significant DEGs were found between lipopolysaccharide- (LPS) and interferon (IFN)γ-stimulated M1 cells, whereas only 153 significant DEGs were detected between interleukin (IL)-10-polarized M2 cells and control mock-activated cells. To identify signature genes for antiviral regulation pertaining to each activation status, we identified a set of DEGs that showed significant up-regulation in only one activation state. In addition, pathway analyses defined the top 20–50 significantly regulated pathways at each activation status, and we further analyzed DEGs pertinent to pathways mediated by AMP kinase (AMPK) and epigenetic mechanisms. For the first time in porcine macrophages, our transcriptomic analyses not only compared family-wide differential expression of most known immune genes at different activation statuses, but also revealed transcription evidence of multiple gene families. These findings show that using RNA-Seq transcriptomic analyses in virus-infected and status-synchronized macrophages effectively profiled signature genes and gene response pathways for antiviral regulation, which may provide a framework for optimizing antiviral immunity and immune homeostasis.
Engineering the vaccinia virus L1 protein for increased neutralizing antibody response after DNA immunization
Kaori Shinoda, Linda S Wyatt, Kari R Irvine, Bernard Moss
Virology Journal , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1743-422x-6-28
Abstract: The L1 gene was codon modified for optimal expression in mammalian cells and potential N-glycosylation sites removed. Addition of a signal sequence to the N-terminus of L1 increased cell surface expression as shown by confocal microscopy and flow cytometry of transfected cells. Removal of the transmembrane domain led to secretion of L1 into the medium. Induction of binding and neutralizing antibodies in mice was enhanced by gene gun delivery of L1 containing the signal sequence with or without the transmembrane domain. Each L1 construct partially protected mice against weight loss caused by intranasal administration of vaccinia virus.Modifications of the vaccinia virus L1 gene including codon optimization and addition of a signal sequence with or without deletion of the transmembrane domain can enhance the neutralizing antibody response of a DNA vaccine.Since the eradication of smallpox and the cessation of vaccination three decades ago, large segments of the population have become susceptible to infection with variola virus [1]. This vulnerability coupled with fears of variola virus dissemination for nefarious purposes have led to a resurgence of interest in smallpox vaccination [2,3]. The current smallpox vaccine consists of infectious vaccinia virus (VACV), which is closely related to variola virus, and provides complete and long lasting immunity [4]. Nevertheless, the live vaccine can produce serious side effects particularly in individuals with an immunodeficiency or eczema [5]. Consequently, alternative vaccination strategies including administration of attenuated strains of VACV, recombinant proteins and DNA are being evaluated [6].Orthopoxviruses, including VACV and variola virus, have two major infectious forms known as the mature virion (MV) and the enveloped virion (EV) [7]. The precursor MV membrane is formed at the initial stage of morphogenesis within specialized areas of the cytoplasm, whereas the EV membrane is derived from modified Golgi or endosoma
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