Abstract:
We describe a muon track reconstruction algorithm for the reactor anti-neutrino experiment Double Chooz. The Double Chooz detector consists of two optically isolated volumes of liquid scintillator viewed by PMTs, and an Outer Veto above these made of crossed scintillator strips. Muons are reconstructed by their Outer Veto hit positions along with timing information from the other two detector volumes. All muons are fit under the hypothesis that they are through-going and ultrarelativistic. If the energy depositions suggest that the muon may have stopped, the reconstruction fits also for this hypothesis and chooses between the two via the relative goodness-of-fit. In the ideal case of a through-going muon intersecting the center of the detector, the resolution is ~40 mm in each transverse dimension. High quality muon reconstruction is an important tool for reducing the impact of the cosmogenic isotope background in Double Chooz.

Abstract:
Using the Double Chooz detector, designed to measure the neutrino mixing angle $\theta_{13}$, the products of $\mu^-$ capture on $^{12}$C, $^{13}$C, $^{14}$N and $^{16}$O have been measured. Over a period of 489.5 days, $2.3\times10^6$ stopping cosmic $\mu^-$ have been collected, of which $1.8\times10^5$ captured on carbon, nitrogen, or oxygen nuclei in the inner detector scintillator or acrylic vessels. The resulting isotopes were tagged using prompt neutron emission (when applicable), the subsequent beta decays, and, in some cases, $\beta$-delayed neutrons. The most precise measurement of the rate of $^{12}\mathrm C(\mu^-,\nu)^{12}\mathrm B$ to date is reported: $6.57^{+0.11}_{-0.21}\times10^{3}\,\mathrm s^{-1}$, or $(17.35^{+0.35}_{-0.59})\%$ of nuclear captures. By tagging excited states emitting gammas, the ground state transition rate to $^{12}$B has been determined to be $5.68^{+0.14}_{-0.23}\times10^3\,\mathrm s^{-1}$. The heretofore unobserved reactions $^{12}\mathrm C(\mu^-,\nu\alpha)^{8}\mathrm{Li}$, $^{13}\mathrm C(\mu^-,\nu\mathrm n\alpha)^{8}\mathrm{Li}$, and $^{13}\mathrm C(\mu^-,\nu\mathrm n)^{12}\mathrm B$ are measured. Further, a population of $\beta$n decays following stopping muons is identified with $5.5\sigma$ significance. Statistics limit our ability to identify these decays definitively. Assuming negligible production of $^{8}$He, the reaction $^{13}\mathrm C(\mu^-,\nu\alpha)^{9}\mathrm{Li}$ is found to be present at the $2.7\sigma$ level. Limits are set on a variety of other processes.

Abstract:
The Double Chooz experiment presents improved measurements of the neutrino mixing angle $\theta_{13}$ using the data collected in 467.90 live days from a detector positioned at an average distance of 1050 m from two reactor cores at the Chooz nuclear power plant. Several novel techniques have been developed to achieve significant reductions of the backgrounds and systematic uncertainties with respect to previous publications, whereas the efficiency of the $\bar\nu_{e}$ signal has increased. The value of $\theta_{13}$ is measured to be $\sin^{2}2\theta_{13} = 0.090 ^{+0.032}_{-0.029}$ from a fit to the observed energy spectrum. Deviations from the reactor $\bar\nu_{e}$ prediction observed above a prompt signal energy of 4 MeV and possible explanations are also reported. A consistent value of $\theta_{13}$ is obtained from a fit to the observed rate as a function of the reactor power independently of the spectrum shape and background estimation, demonstrating the robustness of the $\theta_{13}$ measurement despite the observed distortion.

Abstract:
The Double Chooz collaboration presents a measurement of the neutrino mixing angle $\theta_{13}$ using reactor $\overline{\nu}_{e}$ observed via the inverse beta decay reaction in which the neutron is captured on hydrogen. This measurement is based on 462.72 live days data, approximately twice as much data as in the previous such analysis, collected with a detector positioned at an average distance of 1050m from two reactor cores. Several novel techniques have been developed to achieve significant reductions of the backgrounds and systematic uncertainties. Accidental coincidences, the dominant background in this analysis, are suppressed by more than an order of magnitude with respect to our previous publication by a multi-variate analysis. These improvements demonstrate the capability of precise measurement of reactor $\overline{\nu}_{e}$ without gadolinium loading. Spectral distortions from the $\overline{\nu}_{e}$ reactor flux predictions previously reported with the neutron capture on gadolinium events are confirmed in the independent data sample presented here. A value of $\sin^{2}2\theta_{13} = 0.095^{+0.038}_{-0.039}$(stat+syst) is obtained from a fit to the observed event rate as a function of the reactor power, a method insensitive to the energy spectrum shape. A simultaneous fit of the hydrogen capture events and of the gadolinium capture events yields a measurement of $\sin^{2}2\theta_{13} = 0.088\pm0.033$(stat+syst).

Abstract:
The oscillation results published by the Double Chooz collaboration in 2011 and 2012 rely on background models substantiated by reactor-on data. In this analysis, we present a background-model-independent measurement of the mixing angle $\theta_{13}$ by including 7.53 days of reactor-off data. A global fit of the observed neutrino rates for different reactor power conditions is performed, yielding a measurement of both $\theta_{13}$ and the total background rate. The results on the mixing angle are improved significantly by including the reactor-off data in the fit, as it provides a direct measurement of the total background rate. This reactor rate modulation analysis considers antineutrino candidates with neutron captures on both Gd and H, whose combination yields $\sin^2(2\theta_{13})=$ 0.102 $\pm$ 0.028(stat.) $\pm$ 0.033(syst.). The results presented in this study are fully consistent with the ones already published by Double Chooz, achieving a competitive precision. They provide, for the first time, a determination of $\theta_{13}$ that does not depend on a background model.

Abstract:
The Double Chooz experiment measures the neutrino mixing angle $\theta_{13}$ by detecting reactor $\bar{\nu}_e$ via inverse beta decay. The positron-neutron space and time coincidence allows for a sizable background rejection, nonetheless liquid scintillator detectors would profit from a positron/electron discrimination, if feasible in large detector, to suppress the remaining background. Standard particle identification, based on particle dependent time profile of photon emission in liquid scintillator, can not be used given the identical mass of the two particles. However, the positron annihilation is sometimes delayed by the ortho-positronium (o-Ps) metastable state formation, which induces a pulse shape distortion that could be used for positron identification. In this paper we report on the first observation of positronium formation in a large liquid scintillator detector based on pulse shape analysis of single events. The o-Ps formation fraction and its lifetime were measured, finding the values of 44$\%$ $\pm$ 12$\%$ (sys.) $\pm$ 5$\%$ (stat.) and $3.68$ns $\pm$ 0.17ns (sys.) $\pm$ 0.15ns (stat.) respectively, in agreement with the results obtained with a dedicated positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy setup.

Abstract:
Several wireless sensor network applications ought to decide the intrinsic variance between energy efficient communication and the requirement to attain preferred quality of service (QoS) such as packet delivery ratio, delay and to reduce the power consumption of wireless sensor nodes. In order to address this challenge, we propose the Power Aware Routing Protocol (PARP), which attains application-specified communication delays at low energy cost by dynamically adapting transmission power and routing decisions. Extensive simulation results prove that the proposed PARP attains better QoS and reduced power consumption.

Abstract:
Mobile phones and other electronic devices are emitting radiations that will provide harmful effects to the human health. In order to measure the radiation, an innovative low cost measurement system is proposed in this paper. The ideology is to simplify the circuit’s value by converting a voltage detecting circuit to a field detecting circuit by finding an optimum resistance on trial and error basis. The requirement for a trial and error technique is to not allow too high or too low resistance which can be either short or open, resulting provides more damage to the circuit.

Abstract:
This work proposes a novel
nature-inspired algorithm called Ant Lion Optimizer (ALO). The ALO algorithm
mimics the search mechanism of antlions in nature. A time domain based
objective function is established to tune the parameters of the PI controller
based LFC, which is solved by the proposed ALO algorithm to reach the most
convenient solutions. A three-area interconnected power system is investigated
as a test system under various loading conditions to confirm the effectiveness
of the suggested algorithm. Simulation results are given to show the enhanced
performance of the developed ALO algorithm based controllers in comparison with
Genetic Algorithm (GA), Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), Bat Algorithm (BAT)
and conventional PI controller. These results represent that the proposed BAT
algorithm tuned PI controller offers better performance over other soft computing
algorithms in conditions of settling times and several performance indices.

Abstract:
For the transportation problem, Sharma and Sharma [1] have given a very computationally efficient heuristic (runs in O(c*n^{2}) time) to give very good dual solution to transportation problem. Sharma and Prasad [2] have given an efficient heuristic (complexity O(n^{3}) procedure to give a very good primal solution (that is generally non-basic feasible solution) to transportation problem by using the very good dual solution given by Sharma and Sharma [2]. In this paper we use the solution given by Sharma and Prasad [2] to get a very good Basic Feasible Solution to transportation problem, so that network simplex (worst case complexity (O(n^{3}*(log(n))) can be used to reach the optimal solution to transportation problem. In the second part of this paper, we give a simple heuristic procedure to get a very good BFS to linear programming problem from the solution given by Karmarkar [3] (that generally produces a very good non-basic feasible solution in polynomial time (O(n^{5.5})). We give a procedure to obtain a good BFS for LP by starting from the solution given by Karmarkar [3]. We note that this procedure (given here) is significantly different from the procedure given in [4].