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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 486074 matches for " R. S. Beminiwattha "
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Measurement of the Spectral Function of $^{40}$Ar through the $(e,e^\prime p)$ reaction
A. Ankowski,R. Beminiwattha,O. Benhar,D. G. Crabb,D. B. Day,F. Garibaldi,G. Garvey,D. Gaskell,C. Giusti,O. Hansen,D. W. Higinbotham,R. Holmes,C. M. Jen,X. Jiang,D. Keller,C. E. Keppel,R. Lindgren,J. M. Link,N. Liyanage,C. Mariani,A. Meucci,G. B. Mills,L. Myers,M. L. Pitt,O. A. Rondon,M. Sakuda,B. Sawatzky,P. A. Souder,G. M. Urciuoli,S. Wood,J. Zhang
Physics , 2014,
Abstract: The interpretation of the signals detected by high precision experiments aimed at measuring neutrino oscillations requires an accurate description of the neutrino-nucleus cross sections. One of the key element of the analysis is the treatment of nuclear effects, which is one of the main sources of systematics for accelerator based experiments such as the Long Baseline Neutrino Experiment (LBNE). A considerable effort is currently being made to develop theoretical models capable of providing a fully quantitative description of the neutrino-nucleus cross sections in the kinematical regime relevant to LBNE. The approach based on nuclear many-body theory and the spectral function formalism has proved very successful in explaining the available electron scattering data in a variety of kinematical conditions. The first step towards its application to the analysis of neutrino data is the derivation of the spectral functions of nuclei employed in neutrino detectors, in particular argon. We propose a measurement of the coincidence $(e,e^\prime p)$ cross section on argon. This data will provide the experimental input indispensable to construct the argon spectral function, thus paving the way for a reliable estimate of the neutrino cross sections. In addition, the analysis of the $(e,e^\prime p)$ data will help a number of theoretical developments, like the description of final-state interactions needed to isolate the initial-state contributions to the observed single-particle peaks, that is also needed for the interpretation of the signal detected in neutrino experiments.
Early Results from the Qweak Experiment
D. Androic,D. S. Armstrong,A. Asaturyan,T. Averett,J. Balewski,J. Beaufait,R. S. Beminiwattha,J. Benesch,F. Benmokhtar,J. Birchall,R. D. Carlini,G. D. Cates,J. C. Cornejo,S. Covrig,M. M. Dalton,C. A. Davis,W. Deconinck,J. Diefenbach,J. F. Dowd,J. A. Dunne,D. Dutta,W. S. Duvall,M. Elaasar,W. R. Falk,J. M. Finn,T. Forest,D. Gaskel,M. T. W. Gericke,J. Grames,V. M. Gray,K. Grimm,F. Guo,J. R. Hoskins,K. Johnston,D. Jones,M. Jones,R. Jones,M. Kargiantoulakis,P. M. King,E. Korkmaz,S. Kowalski,J. Leacock,J. Leckey,A. R. Lee,J. H. Lee,L. Lee,S. MacEwan,D. Mack,J. A. Magee,R. Mahurin,J. Mammei,J. Martin,M. J. McHugh,D. Meekins,J. Mei,R. Michaels,A. Micherdzinska,A. Mkrtchyan,H. Mkrtchyan,N. Morgan,K. E. Myers,A. Narayan,L. Z. Ndukum,V. Nelyubin,Nuruzzaman,W. T. H van Oers,A. K. Opper,S. A. Page,J. Pan,K. Paschke,S. K. Phillips,M. L. Pitt,M. Poelker,J. F. Rajotte,W. D. Ramsay,J. Roche,B. Sawatzky,T. Seva,M. H. Shabestari,R. Silwal,N. Simicevic,G. R. Smith,P. Solvignon,D. T. Spayde,A. Subedi,R. Subedi,R. Suleiman,V. Tadevosyan,W. A. Tobias,V. Tvaskis,B. Waidyawansa,P. Wang,S. P. Wells,S. A. Wood,S. Yang,R. D. Young,S. Zhamkochyan
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1051/epjconf/20146605002
Abstract: A subset of results from the recently completed Jefferson Lab Qweak experiment are reported. This experiment, sensitive to physics beyond the Standard Model, exploits the small parity-violating asymmetry in elastic ep scattering to provide the first determination of the protons weak charge Qweak(p). The experiment employed a 180 uA longitudinally polarized 1.16 GeV electron beam on a 35 cm long liquid hydrogen target. Scattered electrons corresponding to Q2 of 0.025 GeV2 were detected in eight Cerenkov detectors arrayed symmetrically around the beam axis. The goals of the experiment were to provide a measure of Qweak(p) to 4.2 percent (combined statistical and systematic error), which implies a measure of sin2(thetaw) at the level of 0.3 percent, and to help constrain the vector weak quark charges C1u and C1d. The experimental method is described, with particular focus on the challenges associated with the worlds highest power LH2 target. The new constraints on C1u and C1d provided by the subset of the experiments data analyzed to date will also be shown, together with the extracted weak charge of the neutron.
First Determination of the Weak Charge of the Proton
Qweak Collaboration,D. Androic,D. S. Armstrong,A. Asaturyan,T. Averett,J. Balewski,J. Beaufait,R. S. Beminiwattha,J. Benesch,F. Benmokhtar,J. Birchall,R. D. Carlini,G. D. Cates,J. C. Cornejo,S. Covrig,M. M. Dalton,C. A. Davis,W. Deconinck,J. Diefenbach,J. F. Dowd,J. A. Dunne,D. Dutta,W. S. Duvall,M. Elaasar,W. R. Falk,J. M. Finn,T. Forest,D. Gaskell,M. T. W. Gericke,J. Grames,V. M. Gray,K. Grimm,F. Guo,J. R. Hoskins,K. Johnston,D. Jones,M. Jones,R. Jones,M. Kargiantoulakis,P. M. King,E. Korkmaz,S. Kowalski,J. Leacock,J. Leckey,A. R. Lee,J. H. Lee,L. Lee,S. MacEwan,D. Mack,J. A. Magee,R. Mahurin,J. Mammei,J. W. Martin,M. J. McHugh,D. Meekins,J. Mei,R. Michaels,A. Micherdzinska,A. Mkrtchyan,H. Mkrtchyan,N. Morgan,K. E. Myers,A. Narayan,L. Z. Ndukum,V. Nelyubin,Nuruzzaman,W. T. H van Oers,A. K. Opper,S. A. Page,J. Pan,K. D. Paschke,S. K. Phillips,M. L. Pitt,M. Poelker,J. F. Rajotte,W. D. Ramsay,J. Roche,B. Sawatzky,T. Seva,M. H. Shabestari,R. Silwal,N. Simicevic,G. R. Smith,P. Solvignon,D. T. Spayde,A. Subedi,R. Subedi,R. Suleiman,V. Tadevosyan,W. A. Tobias,V. Tvaskis,B. Waidyawansa,P. Wang,S. P. Wells,S. A. Wood,S. Yang,R. D. Young,S. Zhamkochyan
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.111.141803
Abstract: The Qweak experiment has measured the parity-violating asymmetry in polarized e-p elastic scattering at Q^2 = 0.025(GeV/c)^2, employing 145 microamps of 89% longitudinally polarized electrons on a 34.4cm long liquid hydrogen target at Jefferson Lab. The results of the experiment's commissioning run are reported here, constituting approximately 4% of the data collected in the experiment. From these initial results the measured asymmetry is Aep = -279 +- 35 (statistics) +- 31 (systematics) ppb, which is the smallest and most precise asymmetry ever measured in polarized e-p scattering. The small Q^2 of this experiment has made possible the first determination of the weak charge of the proton, QpW, by incorporating earlier parity-violating electron scattering (PVES) data at higher Q^2 to constrain hadronic corrections. The value of QpW obtained in this way is QpW(PVES) = 0.064 +- 0.012, in good agreement with the Standard Model prediction of QpW(SM) = 0.0710 +- 0.0007. When this result is further combined with the Cs atomic parity violation (APV) measurement, significant constraints on the weak charges of the up and down quarks can also be extracted. That PVES+APV analysis reveals the neutron's weak charge to be QnW(PVES+APV) = -0.975 +- 0.010.
Measurement of Parity-Violating Asymmetry in Electron-Deuteron Inelastic Scattering
D. Wang,K. Pan,R. Subedi,Z. Ahmed,K. Allada,K. A. Aniol,D. S. Armstrong,J. Arrington,V. Bellini,R. Beminiwattha,J. Benesch,F. Benmokhtar,W. Bertozzi,A. Camsonne,M. Canan,G. D. Cates,J. -P. Chen,E. Chudakov,E. Cisbani,M. M. Dalton,C. W. de Jager,R. De Leo,W. Deconinck,X. Deng,A. Deur,C. Dutta,L. El Fassi,J. Erler,D. Flay,G. B. Franklin,M. Friend,S. Frullani,F. Garibaldi,S. Gilad,A. Giusa,A. Glamazdin,S. Golge,K. Grimm,K. Hafidi,J. -O. Hansen,D. W. Higinbotham,R. Holmes,T. Holmstrom,R. J. Holt,J. Huang,C. E. Hyde,C. M. Jen,D. Jones,Hoyoung Kang,P. M. King,S. Kowalski,K. S. Kumar,J. H. Lee,J. J. LeRose,N. Liyanage,E. Long,D. McNulty,D. J. Margaziotis,F. Meddi,D. G. Meekins,L. Mercado,Z. -E. Meziani,R. Michaels,M. Mihovilovic,N. Muangma,K. E. Mesick,S. Nanda,A. Narayan,V. Nelyubin,A. Nuruzzaman,Y. Oh,D. Parno,K. D. Paschke,S. K. Phillips,X. Qian,Y. Qiang,B. Quinn,A. Rakhman,P. E. Reimer,K. Rider,S. Riordan,J. Roche,J. Rubin,G. Russo,K. Saenboonruang,A. Saha,B. Sawatzky,A. Shahinyan,R. Silwal,S. ?irca,P. A. Souder,R. Suleiman,V. Sulkosky,C. M. Sutera,W. A. Tobias,G. M. Urciuoli,B. Waidyawansa,B. Wojtsekhowski,L. Ye,B. Zhao,X. Zheng
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevC.91.045506
Abstract: The parity-violating asymmetries between a longitudinally-polarized electron beam and an unpolarized deuterium target have been measured recently. The measurement covered two kinematic points in the deep inelastic scattering region and five in the nucleon resonance region. We provide here details of the experimental setup, data analysis, and results on all asymmetry measurements including parity-violating electron asymmetries and those of inclusive pion production and beam-normal asymmetries. The parity-violating deep-inelastic asymmetries were used to extract the electron-quark weak effective couplings, and the resonance asymmetries provided the first evidence for quark-hadron duality in electroweak observables. These electron asymmetries and their interpretation were published earlier, but are presented here in more detail.
Measurement of the Parity-Violating Asymmetry in Electron-Deuteron Scattering in the Nucleon Resonance Region
D. Wang,K. Pan,R. Subedi,X. Deng,Z. Ahmed,K. Allada,K. A. Aniol,D. S. Armstrong,J. Arrington,V. Bellini,R. Beminiwattha,J. Benesch,F. Benmokhtar,A. Camsonne,M. Canan,G. D. Cates,J. -P. Chen,E. Chudakov,E. Cisbani,M. M. Dalton,C. W. de Jager,R. De Leo,W. Deconinck,A. Deur,C. Dutta,L. El Fassi,D. Flay,G. B. Franklin,M. Friend,S. Frullani,F. Garibaldi,A. Giusa,A. Glamazdin,S. Golge,K. Grimm,K. Hafidi,O. Hansen,D. W. Higinbotham,R. Holmes,T. Holmstrom,R. J. Holt,J. Huang,C. E. Hyde,C. M. Jen,D. Jones,H. Kang,P. King,S. Kowalski,K. S. Kumar,J. H. Lee,J. J. LeRose,N. Liyanage,E. Long,D. McNulty,D. J. Margaziotis,F. Meddi,D. G. Meekins,L. Mercado,Z. -E. Meziani,R. Michaels,M. Mihovilovic,N. Muangma,K. E. Myers,S. Nanda,A. Narayan,V. Nelyubin,Nuruzzaman,Y. Oh,D. Parno,K. D. Paschke,S. K. Phillips,X. Qian,Y. Qiang,B. Quinn,A. Rakhman,P. E. Reimer,K. Rider,S. Riordan,J. Roche,J. Rubin,G. Russo,K. Saenboonruang,A. Saha,B. Sawatzky,A. Shahinyan,R. Silwal,S. Sirca,P. A. Souder,R. Suleiman,V. Sulkosky,C. M. Sutera,W. A. Tobias,G. M. Urciuoli,B. Waidyawansa,B. Wojtsekhowski,L. Ye,B. Zhao,X. Zheng
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.111.082501
Abstract: We report on parity-violating asymmetries in the nucleon resonance region measured using $5 - 6$ GeV longitudinally polarized electrons scattering off an unpolarized deuterium target. These results are the first parity-violating asymmetry data in the resonance region beyond the $\Delta(1232)$, and provide a verification of quark-hadron duality in the nucleon electroweak $\gamma Z$ interference structure functions at the (10-15)% level. The results are of particular interest to models relevant for calculating the $\gamma Z$ box-diagram corrections to elastic parity-violating electron scattering measurements.
New Precision Limit on the Strange Vector Form Factors of the Proton
HAPPEX collaboration,Z. Ahmed,K. Allada,K. A. Aniol,D. S. Armstrong,J. Arrington,P. Baturin,V. Bellini,J. Benesch,R. Beminiwattha,F. Benmokhtar,M. Canan,A. Camsonne,G. D. Cates,J. -P. Chen,E. Chudakov,E. Cisbani,M. M. Dalton,C. W. de Jager,R. De Leo,W. Deconinck,P. Decowski,X. Deng,A. Deur,C. Dutta,G. B. Franklin,M. Friend,S. Frullani,F. Garibaldi,A. Giusa,A. Glamazdin,S. Golge,K. Grimm,O. Hansen,D. W. Higinbotham,R. Holmes,T. Holmstrom,J. Huang,M. Huang,C. E. Hyde,C. M. Jen,G. Jin,D. Jones,H. Kang,P. King,S. Kowalski,K. S. Kumar,J. H. Lee,J. J. LeRose,N. Liyanage,E. Long,D. McNulty,D. Margaziotis,F. Meddi,D. G. Meekins,L. Mercado,Z. -E. Meziani,R. Michaels,C. Munoz-Camacho,M. Mihovilovic,N. Muangma,K. E. Myers,S. Nanda,A. Narayan,V. Nelyubin,Nuruzzaman,Y. Oh,K. Pan,D. Parno,K. D. Paschke,S. K. Phillips,X. Qian,Y. Qiang,B. Quinn,A. Rakhman,P. E. Reimer,K. Rider,S. Riordan,J. Roche,J. Rubin,G. Russo,K. Saenboonruang,A. Saha,B. Sawatzky,R. Silwal,S. Sirca,P. A. Souder,M. Sperduto,R. Subedi,R. Suleiman,V. Sulkosky,C. M. Sutera,W. A. Tobias,G. M. Urciuoli,B. Waidyawansa,D. Wang,J. Wexler,R. Wilson,B. Wojtsekhowski,X. Zhan,X. Yan,H. Yao,L. Ye,B. Zhao,X. Zheng
Statistics , 2011, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.108.102001
Abstract: The parity-violating cross-section asymmetry in the elastic scattering of polarized electrons from unpolarized protons has been measured at a four-momentum transfer squared Q2 = 0.624 GeV and beam energy E =3.48 GeV to be A_PV = -23.80 +/- 0.78 (stat) +/- 0.36 (syst) parts per million. This result is consistent with zero contribution of strange quarks to the combination of electric and magnetic form factors G_E^s + 0.517 G_M^s = 0.003 +/- 0.010 (stat) +/- 0.004 (syst) +/- 0.009 (ff), where the third error is due to the limits of precision on the electromagnetic form factors and radiative corrections. With this measurement, the world data on strange contributions to nucleon form factors are seen to be consistent with zero and not more than a few percent of the proton form factors.
The Q_weak Experimental Apparatus
Qweak Collaboration,T. Allison,M. Anderson,D. Androic,D. S. Armstrong,A. Asaturyan,T. D. Averett,R. Averill,J. Balewski,J. Beaufait,R. S. Beminiwattha,J. Benesch,F. Benmokhtar,J. Bessuille,J. Birchall,E. Bonnell,J. Bowman,P. Brindza,D. B. Brown,R. D. Carlini,G. D. Cates,B. Cavness,G. Clark,J. C. Cornejo,S. Covrig Dusa,M. M. Dalton,C. A. Davis,D. C. Dean,W. Deconinck,J. Diefenbach,K. Dow,J. F. Dowd,J. A. Dunne,D. Dutta,W. S. Duvall,J. R. Echols,M. Elaasar,W. R. Falk,K. D. Finelli,J. M. Finn,D. Gaskell,M. T. W. Gericke,J. Grames,V. M. Gray,K. Grimm,F. Guo,J. Hansknecht,D. J. Harrison,E. Henderson,J. R. Hoskins,E. Ihloff,K. Johnston,D. Jones,M. Jones,R. Jones,M. Kargiantoulakis,J. Kelsey,N. Khan,P. M. King,E. Korkmaz,S. Kowalski,A. Kubera,J. Leacock,J. P. Leckey,A. R. Lee,J. H. Lee,L. Lee,Y. Liang,S. MacEwan,D. Mack,J. A. Magee,R. Mahurin,J. Mammei,J. W. Martin,A. McCreary,M. H. McDonald,M. J. McHugh,P. Medeiros,D. Meekins,J. Mei,R. Michaels,A. Micherdzinska,A. Mkrtchyan,H. Mkrtchyan,N. Morgan,J. Musson,K. E. Mesick,A. Narayan,L. Z. Ndukum,V. Nelyubin,Nuruzzaman,W. T. H. van Oers,A. K. Opper,S. A. Page,J. Pan,K. D. Paschke,S. K. Phillips,M. L. Pitt,M. Poelker,J. F. Rajotte,W. D. Ramsay,W. R. Roberts,J. Roche,P. W. Rose,B. Sawatzky,T. Seva,M. H. Shabestari,R. Silwal,N. Simicevic,G. R. Smith,S. Sobczynski,P. Solvignon,D. T. Spayde,B. Stokes,D. W. Storey,A. Subedi,R. Subedi,R. Suleiman,V. Tadevosyan,W. A. Tobias,V. Tvaskis,E. Urban,B. Waidyawansa,P. Wang,S. P. Wells,S. A. Wood
Physics , 2014,
Abstract: The Jefferson Lab Q_weak experiment determined the weak charge of the proton by measuring the parity-violating elastic scattering asymmetry of longitudinally polarized electrons from an unpolarized liquid hydrogen target at small momentum transfer. A custom apparatus was designed for this experiment to meet the technical challenges presented by the smallest and most precise ${\vec{e}}$p asymmetry ever measured. Technical milestones were achieved at Jefferson Lab in target power, beam current, beam helicity reversal rate, polarimetry, detected rates, and control of helicity-correlated beam properties. The experiment employed 180 microA of 89% longitudinally polarized electrons whose helicity was reversed 960 times per second. The electrons were accelerated to 1.16 GeV and directed to a beamline with extensive instrumentation to measure helicity-correlated beam properties that can induce false asymmetries. Moller and Compton polarimetry were used to measure the electron beam polarization to better than 1%. The electron beam was incident on a 34.4 cm liquid hydrogen target. After passing through a triple collimator system, scattered electrons between 5.8 degrees and 11.6 degrees were bent in the toroidal magnetic field of a resistive copper-coil magnet. The electrons inside this acceptance were focused onto eight fused silica Cerenkov detectors arrayed symmetrically around the beam axis. A total scattered electron rate of about 7 GHz was incident on the detector array. The detectors were read out in integrating mode by custom-built low-noise pre-amplifiers and 18-bit sampling ADC modules. The momentum transfer Q^2 = 0.025 GeV^2 was determined using dedicated low-current (~100 pA) measurements with a set of drift chambers before (and a set of drift chambers and trigger scintillation counters after) the toroidal magnet.
Measurement of the Neutron Radius of 208Pb Through Parity-Violation in Electron Scattering
S. Abrahamyan,Z. Ahmed,H. Albataineh,K. Aniol,D. S. Armstrong,W. Armstrong,T. Averett,B. Babineau,A. Barbieri,V. Bellini,R. Beminiwattha,J. Benesch,F. Benmokhtar,T. Bielarski,W. Boeglin,A. Camsonne,M. Canan,P. Carter,G. D. Cates,C. Chen,J. -P. Chen,O. Hen,F. Cusanno,M. M. Dalton,R. De Leo,K. de Jager,W. Deconinck,P. Decowski,X. Deng,A. Deur,D. Dutta,A. Etile,D. Flay,G. B. Franklin,M. Friend,S. Frullani,E. Fuchey,F. Garibaldi,E. Gasser,R. Gilman,A. Giusa,A. Glamazdin,J. Gomez,J. Grames,C. Gu,O. Hansen,J. Hansknecht,D. W. Higinbotham,R. S. Holmes,T. Holmstrom,C. J. Horowitz,J. Hoskins,J. Huang,C. E. Hyde,F. Itard,C. -M. Jen,E. Jensen,G. Jin,S. Johnston,A. Kelleher,K. Kliakhandler,P. M. King,S. Kowalski,K. S. Kumar,J. Leacock,J. Leckey IV,J. H. Lee,J. J. LeRose,R. Lindgren,N. Liyanage,N. Lubinsky,J. Mammei,F. Mammoliti,D. J. Margaziotis,P. Markowitz,A. McCreary,D. McNulty,L. Mercado,Z. -E. Meziani,R. W. Michaels,M. Mihovilovic,N. Muangma,C. Mu?oz-Camacho,S. Nanda,V. Nelyubin,N. Nuruzzaman,Y. Oh,A. Palmer,D. Parno,K. D. Paschke,S. K. Phillips,B. Poelker,R. Pomatsalyuk,M. Posik,A. J. R. Puckett,B. Quinn,A. Rakhman,P. E. Reimer,S. Riordan,P. Rogan,G. Ron,G. Russo,K. Saenboonruang,A. Saha,B. Sawatzky,A. Shahinyan,R. Silwal,S. Sirca,K. Slifer,P. Solvignon,P. A. Souder,M. L. Sperduto,R. Subedi,R. Suleiman,V. Sulkosky,C. M. Sutera,W. A. Tobias,W. Troth,G. M. Urciuoli,B. Waidyawansa,D. Wang,J. Wexler,R. Wilson,B. Wojtsekhowski,X. Yan,H. Yao,Y. Ye,Z. Ye,V. Yim,L. Zana,X. Zhan,J. Zhang
Statistics , 2012, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.108.112502
Abstract: We report the first measurement of the parity-violating asymmetry A_PV in the elastic scattering of polarized electrons from 208Pb. A_PV is sensitive to the radius of the neutron distribution (Rn). The result A_PV = 0.656 \pm 0.060 (stat) \pm 0.014 (syst) ppm corresponds to a difference between the radii of the neutron and proton distributions Rn - Rp = 0.33 +0.16 -0.18 fm and provides the first electroweak observation of the neutron skin which is expected in a heavy, neutron-rich nucleus.
New Measurements of the Transverse Beam Asymmetry for Elastic Electron Scattering from Selected Nuclei
The HAPPEX,PREX Collaborations,:,S. Abrahamyan,A. Acha,A. Afanasev,Z. Ahmed,H. Albataineh,K. Aniol,D. S. Armstrong,W. Armstrong,J. Arrington,T. Averett,B. Babineau,S. L. Bailey,J. Barber,A. Barbieri,A. Beck,V. Bellini,R. Beminiwattha,H. Benaoum,J. Benesch,F. Benmokhtar,P. Bertin,T. Bielarski,W. Boeglin,P. Bosted,F. Butaru,E. Burtin,J. Cahoon,A. Camsonne,M. Canan,P. Carter,C. C. Chang,G. D. Cates,Y. C. Chao,C. Chen,J. P. Chen,Seonho Choi,E. Chudakov,E. Cisbani,B. Craver,F. Cusanno,M. M. Dalton,R. De Leo,K. de Jager,W. Deconinck,P. Decowski,D. Deepa,X. Deng,A. Deur,D. Dutta,A. Etile,C. Ferdi,R. J. Feuerbach,J. M. Finn,D. Flay,G. B. Franklin,M. Friend,S. Frullani,E. Fuchey,S. A. Fuchs,K. Fuoti,F. Garibaldi,E. Gasser,R. Gilman,A. Giusa,A. Glamazdin,L. E. Glesener,J. Gomez,M. Gorchtein,J. Grames,K. Grimm,C. Gu,O. Hansen,J. Hansknecht,O. Hen,D. W. Higinbotham,R. S. Holmes,T. Holmstrom,C. J. Horowitz,J. Hoskins,J. Huang,T. B. Humensky,C. E. Hyde,H. Ibrahim,F. Itard,C. M. Jen,E. Jensen,X. Jiang,G. Jin,S. Johnston,J. Katich,L. J. Kaufman,A. Kelleher,K. Kliakhandler,P. M. King,A. Kolarkar,S. Kowalski,E. Kuchina,K. S. Kumar,L. Lagamba,D. Lambert,P. LaViolette,J. Leacock,J. Leckey IV,J. H. Lee,J. J. LeRose,D. Lhuillier,R. Lindgren,N. Liyanage,N. Lubinsky,J. Mammei,F. Mammoliti,D. J. Margaziotis,P. Markowitz,M. Mazouz,K. McCormick,A. McCreary,D. McNulty,D. G. Meekins,L. Mercado,Z. E. Meziani,R. W. Michaels,M. Mihovilovic,B. Moffit,P. Monaghan,N. Muangma,C. Munoz-Camacho,S. Nanda
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.109.192501
Abstract: We have measured the beam-normal single-spin asymmetry $A_n$ in the elastic scattering of 1-3 GeV transversely polarized electrons from $^1$H and for the first time from $^4$He, $^{12}$C, and $^{208}$Pb. For $^1$H, $^4$He and $^{12}$C, the measurements are in agreement with calculations that relate $A_n$ to the imaginary part of the two-photon exchange amplitude including inelastic intermediate states. Surprisingly, the $^{208}$Pb result is significantly smaller than the corresponding prediction using the same formalism. These results suggest that a systematic set of new $A_n$ measurements might emerge as a new and sensitive probe of the structure of heavy nuclei.
Economic Dispatch with Multiple Fuel Options Using CCF  [PDF]
R. Anandhakumar, S. Subramanian
Energy and Power Engineering (EPE) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/epe.2011.32015
Abstract: This paper presents an efficient analytical approach using Composite Cost Function (CCF) for solving the Economic Dispatch problem with Multiple Fuel Options (EDMFO). The solution methodology comprises two stages. Firstly, the CCF of the plant is developed and the most economical fuel of each set can be easily identified for any load demand. In the next stage, for the selected fuels, CCF is evaluated and the optimal scheduling is obtained. The Proposed Method (PM) has been tested on the standard ten-generation set system; each set consists of two or three fuel options. The total fuel cost obtained by the PM is compared with earlier reports in order to validate its effectiveness. The comparison clears that this approach is a promising alterna-tive for solving EDMFO problems in practical power system.
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