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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 225205 matches for " R. Ramirez-Necoechea "
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Social and Sexual Behavior of Two Newly Formed Pairs of Mexican Gray Wolf in Captivity
M. Alonso-Spilsbury,I. Escobar-Ibarra,L. Mayagoitia,R. Ramirez-Necoechea
International Journal of Zoological Research , 2006,
Abstract: The social and maintenance behaviors of two pairs of Mexican gray wolf in captivity were studied. Wolves belonged to Zacango (ZZ) and Leon Zoo (LZ). For the ZZ pair significant differences were observed (p<0.01) for the social behaviors, whereas no differences were found for neutral or affiliative behaviors. The LZ pair showed no differences in social behavior before the breeding season, but after this significant differences were observed for playing and sexual activity (p<0.001). Wolves showed a preference (p<0.0001) to perform their activities on a reduced place far away from the human transit, especially those related with the courtship behavior. For the ZZ pair a total number of 389 mounting observations were registered during 11 consecutive days, most of them with pelvic movements but only two culminating with copulation (0.6%). The LZ pair showed a reproductive activity of 180 mountings, three of them culminating with copula (1.6%); none of the pairs showed reproductive success. Reproductive success depends on both physiological and behavioral compatibility, but some other causes may be involved in the reproductive failure of the ZZ pair, among them the stress of restraining for the cytology studies and the housing conditions like the presence of large predators as closer neighbors to the wolves.
Scent Marking Around the Breeding Season in Two Newly Formed Mexican Grey Wolf (Canis lupus baileyi) Pairs Kept in Captivity
I. Escobar-Ibarra,L. Mayagoitia,C. Gonzalez-Rebeles,R. Ramirez-Necoechea
International Journal of Zoological Research , 2006,
Abstract: The aim of the study was to analyse the scent marking patterns in frequency, type and position throughout the reproductive period of two pairs of Canis lupus baileyi housed in two zoos (LZ = Leon and ZZ = Zacango), in terms of newly and established pairs. Focal behaviour sampling was used to register 1,211 scent markings. Data were grouped in three periods: before, during, after and posterior to the reproductive season. Between newly formed pairs no significant difference was found in the previous period (U = 6.50, p>0.065); also, no significant difference was observed in the double marking (U = 54.0, p>0.083) during the reproductive season, although it was greater in the LZ compared to the ZZ pair. After commingling together for one year the established LZ couple, showed an increase in double marking (U = 16.5, p<0.001) during the mating period in comparison with the prior year. Male wolves marked with greater frequency with the leg raised in both, the double and single marking, whereas females marked more in a squatting position. It is concluded that scent marking is different in recently formed pairs in captivity, which are found in a reduced space and have not free choice to elect its mate.
Piglet Survival in Early Lactation: A Review
M. Alonso-Spilsbury,R. Ramirez-Necoechea,M. Gonzlez-Lozano,D. Mota-Rojas,M.E. Trujillo-Ortega
Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances , 2012,
Abstract: Piglet death during the perinatal and lactation period is one of the more easily identified causes of reduced production efficiency in swine herds. Pre-weaning mortality rates vary between 12 and 25%. The present review analyses factors related with non-infectious pre-weaning mortality. Among the maternal factors, farrowing and intra-uterine asphyxia, behaviour and maternal ability are discussed. Piglet factors include newborn vigour, teat seeking ability, acidosis, hypothermia and hypoglucemia. Even though there had been technological changes and improvements in husbandry, housing designs and preventive measures, piglet mortality in lactation remains a major economical and welfare problem. The major causes of pre-weaning mortality are those associated with basic husbandry skills, starvation and crushing by the sow. One potential alternative to reduce neonatal mortality in pigs is the monitoring of foetal stress during birth, it is also important to consider the physiological, behavioural and biochemical changes that take place during early lactation which subsequently affect the vitality, maturity and development of neonatal pigs. A mortality rate of say 8% of piglets born alive is possible and should be the target, getting more knowledge of factors influencing piglet non-infectious mortality within the first three days may help improve piglet welfare.
Cytokine Immune Response in Mexican Creole and Commercial Pigs Under Uncontrolled Conditions
K. Mejia-Martinez,C. Lemus-Flores,J.F. Zambrano-Zaragoza,R. Ramirez-Necoechea,D. Mota-Rojas,M. Alonso-Spilsbury
Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances , 2012,
Abstract: The aim of the study was to measure the cytokine immune response in 2 Mexican creole biotypes and compare it to commercial pigs (COM) as disease resistance indicators. Twenty six commercial (COM), 25 Cuino (CP) and 25 Mexican hairless (MHP) pigs were vaccinated with a commercial bacterin containing Salmonella, E. coli and Pasteurella at 45 days of age; a sample was taken a week later to test serum levels of interleukin 1 (IL-1 ), interleukin 4 (IL-4), interferon-gamma (INF- ) and alfa tumor necrosis factor (TNF- ). Cytokine quantification serum tests were carried out with commercial kits using the ELISA sandwich method. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare cytokine concentrations and the Wilcoxon test was run to look for differences among breeds. IL-1 and IL-4 production was higher in HMS as compared to the other breeds. No significant differences between INF- and TNF- production were seen. Results suggest that MHP have a higher response capacity before an infection, compared to the other breeds.
Studies on Growth of Pelon Mexicano Pigs: Effect of Rearing Conditions on Performance Traits
M. Becerril,C. Lemus,J.G. Herrera,M. Huerta,M. Alonso-Spilsbury,R. Ramirez-Necoechea,D. Mota-Rojas,J. Ly
Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances , 2012,
Abstract: A 2x2 factorial arrangement was used for evaluating performance traits during 16 weeks in 2 groups of 22 Yorkshire x Landrace (YL) and 13 Pelón Mexicano (PM) castrate male and female pigs 63 days old which were allotted at random into 2 rearing systems consisting of total (15 and 7 pigs) or partial confinement (7 and 6 pigs). Partial confinement included rearing animals outdoors in a grass prairie (Brachiaria brizantha) from 9:00-16:00 h. No significant differences (p<0.05) for the interaction rearing system x genotype were found in any measured performance trait. It was observed that treatments involving Yorkshire x Landrace animals had a high significant (p<0.001) live weight at any age, as compared to the PM pigs. It was evident that YL pigs had a higher daily feed intake than PM animals and on the other hand, results from animals in confinement clearly indicated that feed intake in those pigs was higher than in the others, permitted to graze during 8 h every day. Calculated daily gain was 820 and 757 g in YL pigs when reared in total confinement or partially outdoors, whereas this same trait was 414 and 335 g in PM pigs. When a comparison was made between improved and local pigs reared in total confinement, feed conversion was on average, 3.07 kg kg-1 in the YL animals and 5.03 kg kg-1 in the PM pigs.
Diagnosis of Microbiological Contamination Risks in Frankfurt Type Sausage, Virginia Ham and Dried Salted Pork
M.G. Nunez-Gutierrez,J.M. Tapia-Gonzalez,M. Becerril-Herrera,R. Ramirez-Necoechea,M. Alonso-Spilsbury,D. Mota-Rojas
Journal of Food Technology , 2013,
Abstract: The objective of this study was to diagnose the risks of microbiological contamination in 3 meet products: Frankfurt type sausage, Virginia ham and dried salted pork, made in the meat processing plant at the University of Guadalajara. The influence from the physical infrastructure of the plant was evaluated such as the type and number of handlers, number of people present when the handling was carried out, as well as the time of manipulation and storage in refrigeration, the environmental conditions in processing areas and refrigeration and water from the municipal source (used to wash hands), equipment and utensils. Meat products with various preparation processes were chosen, individual microbiological tests for Salmonella, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were made. The 90 point sanitary questionnaire was used to verify sanitation for physical risks in the processing plant. The results were analyzed using the EpiInfo 2002 data base. There was a significant effect (p< 0.05) between independent variables, number of people coming in per day, and time of refrigeration with S. aureus present in the sampled food. Using standard comparison we observed that 100% of the products had some kind of microorganism. The installations complied entirely with the 90 point questionnaire by 23.08%, partially by 42.31% and was incompliant by 34.62%.
Studies on Growth of Pelon Mexicano Pigs: Effect of Rearing Conditions on Carcass Traits and Meat Quality
M. Becerril,C. Lemus,J.G. Herrera,M. Huerta,M. Alonso-Spilsbury,R. Ramirez-Necoechea,D. Mota-Rojas,J. Ly
Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances , 2012,
Abstract: A 2x2 factorial arrangement was used for evaluating carcass traits and meat quality of 22 Yorkshire x Landrace (YL) and 13 Pelón Mexicano (PM) castrate male and female pigs 63 days old which were allotted at random during 16 weeks into 2 rearing systems consisting of total (15 and 7 pigs) or partial confinement (7 and 6 pigs). Partial confinement included rearing animals outdoors in a grass prairie (Brachiaria brizantha) from 9-16 h. There were no significant differences (p<0.05) for the interaction rearing system x genotype in any measurement conducted throughout this experiment. Highly significant (p<0.001) differences between genotypes was encountered for carcass yield and primary cuts adjusted to slaughter weight as covariable. However, carcass yield expressed as percentage of slaughter weight only tended (p<0.103) to favour YL pigs. Differences between rearing systems were less marked, with better carcass traits in either totally confined YL animals or partially confined PM pigs. The genotype effect was at least significantly (p<0.01) different in all measurements indicating a higher fat content in carcasses of PM pigs, when compared to YL animals. Length of some reservoir digestive organs were significantly (p<0.001) higher in PM than in YL pigs. There were no significant differences (p>0.05) in meat quality indices, including meat pH, water holding capacity, color and marbling. It is considered that a total or partial confinement, consisting on daily grazing outdoors, rearing system, has less influence on carcass traits in pigs when Pelón Mexicano and Yorkshire x Landrace pigs are compared.
Phosphorus Derived From Animal Production: A Review
J.A. Toca Ramirez,E. Salazar Sosa,R.T. Zuniga,J.S.C. Serrato,M.E. Pereda Solis,J. Toca Ramirez,F.O. Carrete Carreon,H. Herrera Casio,R. Ramirez-Necoechea
Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances , 2012,
Abstract: We make a review of the importance of Phosphorus manure (P) as an environment contaminant and its relationship with organic and sustainable agriculture. The P elimination pathway related with intensive livestock production in described as well as the soil harmful effect. The natural resistance against high levels of soil P shown by some plants is pointed out. Also, procedure to reduce manure P excretion. The poor handling of livestock manure coming out from intensive farming has a very high P contents with represent a dangerous challenge to the environment. Two main tools are available to reduce for P harmful effect one are the phytase inclusion in feed stuffs and two the growing of P resistant plants.
Triticale (X Triticosecale Wittmack) Forage Production with Solarized Sheep or Cattle Manure
J.A. Toca-Ramirez,E. Salazar Sosa,T.R. Zuniga,J.S.C. Serrato,M.E. Pereda Solis,J. Toca-Ramirez,F.O. Carrete Carreon,R. Ramirez-Necoechea
Agricultural Journal , 2013, DOI: 10.3923/aj.2011.172.176
Abstract: In order to study the effect of solarization of cattle and sheep manure on dry matter production of triticale forage, a factorial experiment 2x2x4 was developed with two types of cattle and sheep manure, two treatments, nonsolarized and solarized and four levels of application 0, 80, 120 and 160 ton ha-1 with three replications for this purpose, plots of 1x1 m with a used plot of 0.5x0.05 m to be planted with triticale. Manure was solarized for a period of 90 days using manure from dairy cattle fed pasture, alfalfa and concentrate and manure of pasture-fed sheep. For solarization, a 1 mm thick transparent (polyethylene film) rubber covers was used for the manure. The results show that solarization has a positive effect on forage production, under the conditions of this study, a dry matter production of 6,173 kg ha-1 was obtained with sheep solarized manure at a rate of 120 kg ha-1 while the control only reached an average production of 2,049 kg ha-1. Treatments with sheep solarized manure at equivalent rates of 120 kg ton-1 showed higher productions.
Effect of Carcass Electric Stimulation on Meat Quality
M. Carrillo del Valle,D.T. Velez-Trujillo,I. Guerrero-Legarreta,M. Becerril-Herrera,R. Ramirez-Necoechea,M. Alonso-Spilsbury,S. Flores-Peinado,D. Mota-Rojas
Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances , 2012,
Abstract: The research for post-mortem tenderizing methods comes about from the need to provide good tasting and uniform quality in meat products, considering tenderness as the most important quality characteristic. A number of researchers studied various methods in order to improve meat tenderness cause by the physico-chemical condition of muscle contractile proteins, connective tissue or both. During post mortem storage, the muscle undergoes a series of biochemical, histological and physical events which collectively are called rigor mortis. Variation of rigor mortis events largely influences meat acceptability. Electric Stimulation (ES) directly affects meat sensory characteristics (color, odor and flavor and tenderness). Other factor determining meat quality of stimulated meat are time elapsed from slaughtering to stimulation, ripening and storage temperature after stimulation.
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