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Cost-effective method of serotyping streptococcus pneumoniae using staphylococcal co-agglutination
Rajalakshmi B,Kanungo R
Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology , 2001,
Abstract: Typing of Streptococcus pneumoniae to determine the serotype prevalence has paved the way for polyvalent vaccines to prevent invasive pneumococcal infection. Variation of serotype prevalence in different geographical areas necessitates typing of strains from these areas for effective vaccine protection. High cost of antisera very often is a hindering factor in undertaking this exercise. We have tried to evaluate typing by co-agglutination to reduce cost. Clinical isolates of S.pneumoniae from Pondicherry and surrounding Tamil Nadu were serotyped using antisera coated Staphylococcus aureus Cowan I strain and compared with standard quellung reaction. There was hundred percent correlation. By this method we could determine the serotypes causing invasive infections in this area. A commercially available Pneumotest kit was used as source of type specific antisera. Serotype 1 was found to be the major isolate (20.1%) by both the tests. Twenty-four isolates (13%) belonged to the nonvaccine types. Rest of the isolates was made up by serotypes 6, 5, 19, 23 and 12. Co-agglutination method was found to be a simple rapid and economical technique. Ten milliliters of the reagent could be made, using 0.1 ml of standard antisera. Shelf life was found to be six months at 40C.
FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF BILAYER LIQUISOLID TABLETS OF ATORVASTATIN CALCIUM AND FELODIPINE
K. Rajesh,R. Rajalakshmi
International Research Journal of Pharmacy , 2013,
Abstract: Oral route is one of the most popular routes of drug delivery due to its ease of administration, patient compliance, and flexible design of dosage forms. Though it is a convenient route it provides several challenges to the formulator to design a medication. The objective of this study was to develop and evaluate bilayer liquisolid tablets of Atorvastatin calcium as immediate release layer and Felodipine as sustained release layer, to provide polytherapy through a single tablet. The new mathematical model was used to formulate various liquisolid compacts of Atorvastatin calcium and Felodipine and compared with the direct compression tablets. Fourier Transform Infra Red Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were performed and there was no significant interaction between drug and excipients. The release rates of prepared liquisolid compacts were higher compared to the directly compressed tablets. Dissolution profiles were carried out by using model independent approach. Felodipine liquisolid tablets follow Zero order as “best fit model”.
Corrosion Inhibition Effect of Dicycloimine Hydrochloride (DCI) on Mild Steel in 1M HCl
R. Rajalakshmi,S. Subhashini
Journal of Chemistry , 2010, DOI: 10.1155/2010/968340
Abstract:
Drought and UV stress response in Spilanthes acmella Murr., (tooth-ache plant)
Reshmi G. R.,Rajalakshmi R.
Journal of Stress Physiology & Biochemistry , 2012,
Abstract: In the present investigation, experiments were conducted to investigate the growth, morphological, anatomical and biochemical responses of to UV and drought stresses in Spilanthes acmella (toothache plant). Results were shown that both UV and drought treatments retarded plant growth. Although there was no significant difference in the internal structure of leaf and stem. Morphometric changes such as curling of leaves and shiny surface due to waxy coatings were noticed in plants grown under UV radiation however these changes were absent in water stressed plants but yellowing was observed in the entire leaves. Chlorophyll content and relative water content in leaves were significantly affected by UV and drought. Relative water content markedly increased in UV treated plants and reduced in drought. In UV treated plants chlorophyll a, chlorophyll band total chlorophyll contents were considerably decreased than the drought treated plants. The carotenoid, flavonoids and anthocyanins concentration increased in both treatments. Changes in contents of antioxidative metabolites under the stresses were observed. Free proline and MDA accumulations also showed significant increase in droughttreatment than in UV treatment. During drought condition the catalase activity decreased as compared with the control plant whereas UV treated plants showed increase in the catalase activity.
Staminate Flower of Cocos Nucifera as Green Inhibitor for Mild Steel in HCl Medium
R. Rajalakshmi,A. S. Safina
Journal of Chemistry , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/138463
Abstract: Corrosion control methods, especially the use of inhibitors, have gained monumental importance in the present scenario of expunging corrosion and the quest for eco-friendly reasons continues. To arrive at an inexpensive non-toxic, eco-friendly inhibitor formulations the present study on the use of Staminate Flower extract of Cocos Nucifera has been carried out by the classical weight loss measurements and electrochemical polarization measurements. The acid extract could bring out a maximum of 97.3% inhibition of mild steel corrosion in 1M HCl. Thermodynamic parameters of the corrosion process were calculated from temperature study. The adsorptive behaviour of Staminate Flower extract in acid solution may be approximated both by Langmuir and Temkin type isotherms. The results obtained by Tafel, Linear polarization resistance, and impedance spectroscopy have been correlated with the classical weight loss measurements. Values of Tafel constant ba and bc confirmed that the Staminate Flower extract acts like mixed type inhibitor. Examination of the surface of the metal in the presence of the inhibitor confirmed the deposition of inhibitor on the metal surface. The Staminate Flower extract in HCl medium efficiently inhibits the corrosion and proved to be zero cost inhibitor, eco-friendly, non-toxic, and highly economical.
Inhibitory Action of Borassus Flabellifer Linn. (Palmyra Palm) Shell Extract on Corrosion of Mild Steel in Acidic Media
P. R. Vijayalakshmi,R. Rajalakshmi,S. Subhashini
Journal of Chemistry , 2010, DOI: 10.1155/2010/453694
Abstract:
1′-Benzylspiro[chromene-2,4′-piperidine]-4-carbonitrile
P. Rajalakshmi,N. Srinivasan,R. V. Krishnakumar
Acta Crystallographica Section E , 2012, DOI: 10.1107/s1600536812035568
Abstract: In the title compound, C21H20N2O, the piperidine ring adopts a chair conformation while the pyran ring adopts a screw-boat conformation. The piperidine ring forms dihedral angles of 65.75 (3) and 67.79 (5)° with the chroman and methyl-substituted benzene rings, respectively. The crystal structure features weak C—H...π and π–π [centroid–centroid distance = 3.8098 (8) ] interactions.
4-Cyano-N-ethylspiro[chromene-2,4′-piperidine]-1′-carboxamide
P. Rajalakshmi,N. Srinivasan,R. V. Krishnakumar
Acta Crystallographica Section E , 2013, DOI: 10.1107/s1600536812051124
Abstract: The title compound, C17H19N3O2, crystallizes with two independent molecules (A and B) in the asymmetric unit. In both molecules, the pyran ring has a twisted conformation (5S4), with Q = 0.301 (3) , θ = 116.7 (6) and = 213.6 (7)° for molecule A, and Q = 0.364 (2) , θ = 113.7 (3) and = 213.0 (4)° for molecule B. In molecule B, the terminal ethyl group is disordered over two orientations with an occupancy ratio of 0.55 (1):0.45 (1). In the crystal, molecules A and B form very similar but separate R12(7) motifs through N—H...O and C—H...O hydrogen bonds. The resulting chains along [001] are interlinked by weaker C—H...O and C—H...π interactions, forming layers parallel to the bc plane.
On certain applications of differential subordinations for $Phi$-like functions
V. Ravichandran,N. Magesh,R. Rajalakshmi
Tamkang Journal of Mathematics , 2005, DOI: 10.5556/j.tkjm.36.2005.137-142
Abstract: Let $ f(z) $ be a normalized analytic function in $ Delta={z | zin{Bbb C} mbox{ and } |z| <1} $ satisfying $ f(0)=0 $ and $ f'(0)=1 $. Let $ Phi $ be an analytic function in a domain containing $ f(Delta) $, with $ Phi(0) = 0 $, $ Phi^{'}(0) = 1 $ and $ Phi(omega) eq 0 $ for $ omegain f(Delta) - { 0 } $. Let $ q(z) $ be a fixed analytic function in $ Delta$, $q(0)=1 $. The function $ f $ is called $Phi$-like with respect to $ q $ if $$ frac{zf^{'}(z)}{Phi(f(z))} prec q(z) quad (zinDelta). $$ In this paper, we obtain some sufficient conditions for functions to be $ Phi $-like with respect to $ q(z) $.
Acyclovir versus valacyclovir
Rajalakshmi R,Kumari Rashmi,Thappa Devinder
Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology , 2010,
Abstract:
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