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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 224491 matches for " R. R. Freeman "
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It’s Not Just the Money: Why Consumers Do Not Purchase Pharmacist-Provided Services  [PDF]
Patricia R. Freeman, Mikael Jones, Karen Blumenschein
Pharmacology & Pharmacy (PP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/pp.2014.56067

The reimbursement model for pharmaceutical care remains a barrier to successful widespread implementation of pharmacist-provided services. In some instances, community pharmacists have been successful in obtaining direct compensation for services from patients; however, evidence suggests that lack of patient demand for pharmacist-services may ultimately undermine the campaign for widespread third-party payment. The purpose of this study is to conduct a secondary analysis of data indicating consumer/patients’ rationale for not purchasing pharmacist-provided disease management services when offered the opportunity to do so in community pharmacies. Our review of the data indicates that while financial concerns are clearly important in consumer demand for pharmacist-provided services, other considerations exist. The consumer/patient belief that pharmacist-provided services are duplicative or that these services are not needed are significant barriers to overcome. Intensive education and marketing campaigns are needed to sway consumer opinion on the value of pharmacist-provided services.

Pressure effects on the electronic properties and superconductivity in the $β$-pyrochlore oxides: $A$Os$_2$O$_6$ ($A$ = Na, K, Rb, Cs)
R. Saniz,A. J. Freeman
Physics , 2005,
Abstract: We present a first-principles study of the electronic structure and superconducting parameters of the compounds $A$Os$_2$O$_6$ ($A$ = Na, K, Rb, and Cs) and at ambient and applied hydrostatic pressure. We find that the sensitivity of the density of states at the Fermi energy, $E_{\rm F}$, and related electronic properties to the size of the alkali metal atom as well as to applied pressure is driven by a van Hove singularity with energy very close to $E_{\rm F}$. Further, a computation of the superconducting parameters of these materials allows us to show that the observed change of $T_c$, both upon substitution of the alkali metal and under applied hydrostatic pressure, can be well understood within a phonon-mediated pairing scenario. In this regard, we find that the correction to the effective electron mass due to spin fluctuations plays a significant role.
Abatement of mixing in shear-free elongationally unstable viscoelastic microflows
R. M. Bryce,M. R. Freeman
Physics , 2010,
Abstract: The addition of minute amounts of chemically inert polyacrylamide polymer to liquids results in large instabilities under steady electro-osmotic pumping through 2:1 constrictions, demonstrating that laminar flow conditions can be broken in electro-osmotic flow of viscoelastic material. By excluding shear and imposing symmetry we create a platform where only elongational viscoelastic instabilities, and diffusion, affect mixing. In contrast to earlier studies with significant shear that found up to orders of magnitude increase in mixing we find that inclusion of polymers excites large viscoelastic instabilities yet mixing is reduced relative to polymer-free liquids. The absolute decrease in mixing we find is consistent with the understanding that adding polymer increases viscosity while viscoelastic flows progress towards elastic turbulence, a type of mild (Batchelor) turbulence, and indicates that electro-osmotic pumped devices are an ideal platform for studying viscoelastic instabilities without supplementary factors.
Extensional Instability in Electro-Osmotic Microflows of Polymer Solutions
R. M. Bryce,M. R. Freeman
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevE.81.036328
Abstract: Fluid transport in microfluidic systems typically is laminar due to the low Reynolds number characteristic of the flow. The inclusion of suspended polymers imparts elasticity to fluids, allowing instabilities to be excited when substantial polymer stretching occurs. For high molecular weight polymer chains we find that flow velocities achievable by standard electro-osmotic pumping are sufficient to excite extensional instabilities in dilute polymer solutions. We observe a dependence in measured fluctuations on polymer concentration which plateaus at a threshold corresponding to the onset of significant molecular crowding in macromolecular solutions; plateauing occurs well below the overlap concentration. Our results show that electro-osmotic flows of complex fluids are disturbed from the steady regime, suggesting potential for enhanced mixing and requiring care in modeling the flow of complex liquids such as biopolymer suspensions.
Stereotactic body radiotherapy for low-risk prostate cancer: five-year outcomes
Debra E Freeman, Christopher R King
Radiation Oncology , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1748-717x-6-3
Abstract: Between Dec. 2003 and Dec. 2005, a pooled cohort of 41 consecutive patients from Stanford, CA and Naples, FL received SBRT with CyberKnife for clinically localized, low-risk prostate cancer. Prescribed dose was 35-36.25 Gy in five fractions. No patient received hormone therapy. Kaplan-Meier biochemical progression-free survival (defined using the Phoenix method) and RTOG toxicity outcomes were assessed.At a median follow-up of 5 years, the biochemical progression-free survival was 93% (95% CI = 84.7% to 100%). Acute side effects resolved within 1-3 months of treatment completion. There were no grade 4 toxicities. No late grade 3 rectal toxicity occurred, and only one late grade 3 genitourinary toxicity occurred following repeated urologic instrumentation.Five-year results of SBRT for localized prostate cancer demonstrate the efficacy and safety of shorter courses of high dose per fraction radiation delivered with SBRT technique. Ongoing clinical trials are underway to further explore this treatment approach.Prostate cancer is thought to have unique radiobiology, characterized by a low α/β ratio relative to surrounding normal tissues [1,2]. A growing body of evidence from clinical studies using hypofractionated radiation provides support that the α/β ratio for prostate cancer is lower than that for the bladder and rectum, and that consequently a therapeutic gain could be achieved using fewer, high-dose fractions (see reviews by Dasu [3] and Macias and Biete [4]). High-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy can deliver radiation to a tightly constrained treatment volume using large doses per fraction. Recent multi-institutional findings reported by Martinez et al. for early stage prostate cancer show a 5-year biochemical disease-free survival of about 90% for HDR brachytherapy, which is comparable to their own low-dose-rate (LDR) brachytherapy outcomes, with lower late toxicity levels [5-7].Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) has recently emerged as an alternative technique
The impact of atypical early histories on pet or performer chimpanzees
Hani D. Freeman,Stephen R. Ross
PeerJ , 2015, DOI: 10.7717/peerj.579
Abstract: It is widely accepted that an animal’s early history, including but not limited to its rearing history, can have a profound impact on later behavior. In the case of captive animals, many studies have used categorical measures such as mother reared or human reared that do not account for both the influence of human and conspecific interaction. In order to account for the influence of both human and conspecific early exposure to later behavior, we collected 1385 h of data on 60 chimpanzees, of which 36 were former pets or performers, currently housed at accredited zoos or sanctuaries. We developed a unique metric, the Chimpanzee-Human Interaction (CHI) Index that represented a continuous measure of the proportion of human and chimpanzee exposure subjects experienced and here focused on their exposure during the first four years of life. We found that chimpanzees who experienced less exposure to other chimpanzees as infants showed a lower frequency of grooming and sexual behaviors later in life which can influence social dynamics within groups. We also found chimpanzees who experienced more exposure to other chimpanzees as infants showed a higher frequency of coprophagy, suggesting coprophagy could be a socially-learned behavior. These results help characterize some of the long-term effects borne by chimpanzees maintained as pets and performers and may help inform managers seeking to integrate these types of chimpanzees into larger social groups, as in zoos and sanctuaries. In addition, these results highlight the necessity of taking into account the time-weighted influence of human and conspecific interactions when assessing the impact that humans can have on animals living in captivity.
An implementation of the Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm on a three-qubit NMR quantum computer
N Linden H Barjat R Freeman
Physics , 1998,
Abstract: A new approach to the implementation of a quantum computer by high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is described. The key feature is that two or more line-selective radio-frequency pulses are applied simultaneously. A three-qubit quantum computer has been investigated using the 400 MHz NMR spectrum of the three coupled protons in 2,3-dibromopropanoic acid. It has been employed to implement the Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm for distinguishing between constant and balanced functions. The extension to systems containing more coupled spins is straightforward and does not require a more protracted experiment.
Orbital mixing and nesting in the bilayer manganites La$_{2-2x}$Sr$_{1+2x}$Mn$_2$O$_7$
R. Saniz,M. R. Norman,A. J. Freeman
Physics , 2008, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.101.236402
Abstract: A first principles study of La$_{2-2x}$Sr$_{1+2x}$Mn$_2$O$_7$ compounds for doping levels $0.3\leq x\leq 0.5$ shows that the low energy electronic structure of the majority spin carriers is determined by strong momentum dependent interactions between the Mn $e_g$ $d_{x^2-y^2}$ and $d_{3z^2-r^2}$ orbitals, which in addition to an $x$ dependent Jahn-Teller distortion, differ in the ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic phases. The Fermi surface exhibits nesting behavior that is reflected by peaks in the static susceptibility, whose positions as a function of momentum have a non-trivial dependence on $x$.
On The Origin of Super-Hot Electrons from Intense Laser Interactions with Solid Targets having Moderate Scale Length Preformed Plasmas
A. G. Krygier,D. W. Schumacher,R. R. Freeman
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1063/1.4866587
Abstract: We use PIC modeling to identify the acceleration mechanism responsible for the observed generation of super-hot electrons in ultra-intense laser-plasma interactions with solid targets with pre-formed plasma. We identify several features of direct laser acceleration (DLA) that drive the generation of super-hot electrons. We find that, in this regime, electrons that become super-hot are primarily injected by a looping mechanism that we call loop-injected direct acceleration (LIDA).
Glycemic Response of Type 2 Diabetics to Raisins  [PDF]
Ted Wilson, Jared A. Anderson, Kristine F. Andersen, Rachael A. Heimerman, Megan M. Larson, Michelle R. Freeman, Sarah E. Baker
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2012.38153
Abstract: Background: Raisins are a nutritious fruit snack containing fiber, antioxidants, and potassium. Diabetics tend to have low fruit intakes, possibly due to concerns about glycemic response. Aim: This study sought to characterize the utility of raisins as a way to improve fruit consumption by type 2 diabetics. Methods: Fasting type 2 diabetics randomly received 100 Calorie servings of bananas (BA; 103.1 g), white bread (WB; 40.2 g), raisins (RA; 30.3 g), or Thompson seedless grapes (TG; 112.4 g) on each of four separate lab visits in single cross-over fashion. Blood glucose (n = 15) and plasma insulin (n = 7) were measured before and 30, 60, 120 minutes after snack consumption. Results: Relative to baseline, blood glucose peaked significantly at 30 minutes for TG, RA and WB at 204.6 ± 16.2, 180.5 ± 12.7, and 176.2 ± 12.2 mg/dL, respectively, the 30 minute value for BA (173.2 ± 11.6 mg/dL) approached significance (p = 0.12). At 30 minutes, the blood glucose values for BA and TG differed significantly, at all other times no significant differences were observed, and all values returned to near baseline 120 minutes after consumption. Postprandial plasma insulin increased for all treatments, though not significantly. Conclusion: The extended shelf life and portability of raisins may make them an attractive choice for improving fruit consumption in type 2 diabetics.
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