oalib

Publish in OALib Journal

ISSN: 2333-9721

APC: Only $99

Submit

Any time

2020 ( 2 )

2019 ( 200 )

2018 ( 274 )

2017 ( 292 )

Custom range...

Search Results: 1 - 10 of 223816 matches for " R. Piarroux "
All listed articles are free for downloading (OA Articles)
Page 1 /223816
Display every page Item
From research to eld action: example of the ght against cholera in the Democratic Republic of Congo
R. Piarroux,D. Bompangue,P.-Y. Oger,A. Boinet
Field Actions Science Reports , 2010,
Abstract: The Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) is the country in the world which reported the highest number of cholera cases to WHO from 2002 to 2007 (128 936 cases out of a worldwide 902 071 cases). We, therefore, implemented research work which intends to understand the epidemiology of cholera in the DRC and to ensure improvements in the strategy to ght against cholera. This broad study enabled us to accurately determine the cholera epidemic’s mechanisms on di erent scales; to identify the source zones of the disease, and the groups of populations acting as vectors of the spread. It was then possible to demonstrate the role of “sanctuary”, played by some suburbs of lakeside cities. A collaborative network, including several scienti c institutions in Europe and in the DRC, local and national government administrations in the eld of public health and sanitation, international agencies, NGOs and private foundations, was progressively set up. Following the conclusions of our epidemiological studies, a drastic change of strategy was proposed: the limited curative approach on the one hand, the few existing water/sanitation programs on the other hand, have been merged in a global approach involving a larger scale water and sanitation infrastructure improvement, environmental protection, hygiene awareness and medical surveys targeting a few focus areas playing a central role in the epidemics. In conclusion, by better targeting intervention zones, one can gather human and technical resources previously scattered on the vast territory of the DRC. The strategy presented here revives the hope to eliminate cholera in the DRC. La République Démocratique du Congo (RDC) est le pays qui a déclaré le plus grand nombre de cas de choléra à l’OMS entre 2002 et 2007 (128 936 cas sur un nombre total de 902 071 de cas dans le monde). Face à cette situation, nous avons mis en uvre un travail de recherche qui vise à comprendre l’épidémiologie du choléra en RDC et à améliorer la stratégie mise en uvre pour combattre cette maladie. Cette vaste étude nous a permis de déterminer avec précision les mécanismes de l’épidémie de choléra à différentes échelles ; d’identifier les zones sources de la maladie et les groupes de population agissant comme vecteurs de propagation de celle-ci. Nous avons alors pu démontrer le r le de réserve joué par certaines banlieues de villes situées sur les rives des lacs. Un réseau collaboratif associant plusieurs institutions scienti ques en Europe et en RDC, des administrations gouvernementales au niveau local et national dans le domaine de la santé pu
Epidemiologic Relationship between Toscana Virus Infection and Leishmania infantum Due to Common Exposure to Phlebotomus perniciosus Sandfly Vector
Laurence Bichaud,Marc Souris,Charles Mary,La?titia Ninove,Laurence Thirion,Rapha?l P. Piarroux,Renaud Piarroux,Xavier De Lamballerie,Rémi N. Charrel
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0001328
Abstract: Sand flies are recognised vectors of parasites in the genus Leishmania and a number of arthropod-borne viruses, in particular viruses within the genus Phlebovirus, family Bunyaviridae. In southern France, Toscana phlebovirus (TOSV) is recognized as a prominent cause of summer meningitis. Since Leishmania and TOSV have a common vector (Phlebotomus perniciosus), an epidemiologic link has been assumed for a long time. However, there is no scientific evidence of such a link between human leishmaniosis and phleboviral infections. To identify a possible link, we investigated the presence and distribution of antibodies against these two microorganisms (i) in individuals and (ii) at a spatial level in the city of Marseille (south-eastern France). Five hundred sera were selected randomly in the biobank of the Department of Parasitology of the Public Hospitals of Marseille. All sera were previously tested for IgG against Leishmania by Western Blotting, and TOSV IgG were detected by indirect immunofluorescence. The seropositivity rates were 21.4% for TOSV and 28% for Leishmania. Statistical analysis demonstrated that seropositivity for one pathogen was significantly associated with seropositivity to the other pathogen. This result provided the first robust evidence for the existence of an epidemiological relationship between Leishmania infantum and TOSV. Addresses of tested patients were geolocalized and integrated into Geographical Information System software, in order to test spatial relationship between the two pathogens. Spatial analysis did not allow to identify (i) specific patterns for the spatial distribution of positive serological results for TOSV or Leishmania, and (ii) a spatial relationship between Leishmania and TOSV positive serological results. This may reflect the fact that the sample studied was not powerful enough to demonstrate either a spatial clustering or co-location, i.e. that the actual risk exposure area is smaller than the mean of distance between patients in our study (245 m).
Frequency of Drug Resistance Gene Amplification in Clinical Leishmania Strains
C. Mary,F. Faraut,M. Deniau,J. Dereure,K. Aoun,S. Ranque,R. Piarroux
International Journal of Microbiology , 2010, DOI: 10.1155/2010/819060
Abstract: Experimental studies about Leishmania resistance to metal and antifolates have pointed out that gene amplification is one of the main mechanisms of drug detoxification. Amplified genes code for adenosine triphosphate-dependent transporters (multidrug resistance and P-glycoproteins P), enzymes involved in trypanothione pathway, particularly gamma glutamyl cysteine synthase, and others involved in folates metabolism, such as dihydrofolate reductase and pterine reductase. The aim of this study was to detect and quantify the amplification of these genes in clinical strains of visceral leishmaniasis agents: Leishmania infantum, L. donovani, and L. archibaldi. Relative quantification experiments by means of real-time polymerase chain reaction showed that multidrug resistance gene amplification is the more frequent event. For P-glycoproteins P and dihydrofolate reductase genes, level of amplification was comparable to the level observed after in vitro selection of resistant clones. Gene amplification is therefore a common phenomenon in wild strains concurring to Leishmania genomic plasticity. This finding, which corroborates results of experimental studies, supports a better understanding of metal resistance selection and spreading in endemic areas.
From research to field action: example of the fight against cholera in the Democratic Republic of Congo
R. Piarroux, D. Bompangue, P.-Y. Oger, F. Haaser, A. Boinet,T. Vandevelde
Field Actions Science Reports (FACTS) , 2009, DOI: 10.5194/facts-2-69-2009
Abstract: The Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) is the country in the world which reported the highest number of cholera cases to WHO from 2002 to 2007 (128 936 cases out of a worldwide 902 071 cases). We, therefore, implemented research work which intends to understand the epidemiology of cholera in the DRC and to ensure improvements in the strategy to fight against cholera. This broad study enabled us to accurately determine the cholera epidemic's mechanisms on different scales; to identify the source zones of the disease, and the groups of populations acting as vectors of the spread. It was then possible to demonstrate the role of "sanctuary'', played by some suburbs of lakeside cities. A collaborative network, including several scientific institutions in Europe and in the DRC, local and national government administrations in the field of public health and sanitation, international agencies, NGOs and private foundations, was progressively set up. Following the conclusions of our epidemiological studies, a drastic change of strategy was proposed: the limited curative approach on the one hand, the few existing water/sanitation programs on the other hand, have been merged in a global approach involving a larger scale water and sanitation infrastructure improvement, environmental protection, hygiene awareness and medical surveys targeting a few focus areas playing a central role in the epidemics. In conclusion, by better targeting intervention zones, one can gather human and technical resources previously scattered on the vast territory of the DRC. The strategy presented here revives the hope to eliminate cholera in the DRC.
Frequency of Drug Resistance Gene Amplification in Clinical Leishmania Strains
C. Mary,F. Faraut,M. Deniau,J. Dereure,K. Aoun,S. Ranque,R. Piarroux
International Journal of Microbiology , 2010, DOI: 10.1155/2010/819060
Abstract: Experimental studies about Leishmania resistance to metal and antifolates have pointed out that gene amplification is one of the main mechanisms of drug detoxification. Amplified genes code for adenosine triphosphate-dependent transporters (multidrug resistance and P-glycoproteins P), enzymes involved in trypanothione pathway, particularly gamma glutamyl cysteine synthase, and others involved in folates metabolism, such as dihydrofolate reductase and pterine reductase. The aim of this study was to detect and quantify the amplification of these genes in clinical strains of visceral leishmaniasis agents: Leishmania infantum, L. donovani, and L. archibaldi. Relative quantification experiments by means of real-time polymerase chain reaction showed that multidrug resistance gene amplification is the more frequent event. For P-glycoproteins P and dihydrofolate reductase genes, level of amplification was comparable to the level observed after in vitro selection of resistant clones. Gene amplification is therefore a common phenomenon in wild strains concurring to Leishmania genomic plasticity. This finding, which corroborates results of experimental studies, supports a better understanding of metal resistance selection and spreading in endemic areas. 1. Introduction Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) constitutes a public health problem in East Africa, Asia, Mediterranean basin, and Central and South America. It is estimated that about 500?000 new cases occur each year. In East Africa and India, VL cause large-scale and tenacious epidemics with high case-fatality rates [1]. In numerous countries that cannot afford the cost of liposomal amphotericin B, first line treatment still relies on sodium stibogluconate or N-methyl glucamine [2]. Cases refractory to antimony treatment have been described for a long time in humans [3] as well as in dogs [4]. During the last decades, incidence of resistance to antimony drugs in Leishmania spp. increased dramatically in some VL foci [5]. The mechanisms contributing to drug resistance in vivo are poorly understood. In vitro studies of strains selected for metal resistance showed that several independent pathways could concur to the resistance phenotype [6]. Among them, overexpression of energy dependent transporters seems to play a major role in resistance to antimonials (reviewed in [7]). Genes coding for “ATP binding cassette” (ABC) transporters [8] and multidrug resistance (MDR) genes [9] have been shown to be amplified as extrachromosomal elements in strains selected in vitro for resistance to heavy-metals. Some works showed that
Paris-palimpseste.
Yveline Lévy-Piarroux
EspacesTemps.net , 2003,
Abstract: Pas perdus : il n'y en a pas , écrit Breton dans Nadja , et c'est sous l'égide de ce célèbre promeneur ainsi que de quelques autres, et d'abord Walter Benjamin, que se situe l'ouvrage. Promenade parisienne, au fil des lieux classés par zones géographiques, qui consiste à mettre à nu les strates du passé, en évoquant les gens, les mouvements, les relations nouées ici ou là, les évolutions de l'habitat, la colonisation surtout par la ville de lieux ...
La chorématique appliquée à l’art.
Yveline Lévy-Piarroux
EspacesTemps.net , 2003,
Abstract: Dans un essai éclairé et éclairant, le géographe Laurent Grison explore, comme le titre le son ouvrage l'indique explicitement, des figures géographiques dans des manifestations artistiques de l'art occidental. En fait, il s'attache surtout à trois configurations spatiales fondamentales : la bifurcation, le carrefour, le rond-point, autrement dit, si l'on veut, le Y, le X, le O (ou orbe). Formé à la chorématique de Brunet (mais disposant d'autres cordes à son ...
Parcours (à la loupe) d’un artiste en perspective.
Yveline Lévy-Piarroux
EspacesTemps.net , 2004,
Abstract: Marianne Le Blanc est ma tre de conférences en histoire de l’art à Paris 10 Nanterre, spécialiste de l’art fran ais du 17 e siècle. Les éditions du CNRS publient d’elle un ouvrage concernant l’aqua-fortiste protestant bien connu, Abraham Bosse, dont les gravures sont un fourmillement de renseignements pour l’historien de la civilisation et pour la réflexion sur les mentalités au 17e siècle autant qu’un plaisir pour les yeux étant donné leur finesse d’exécution et de ...
Nécessaire de sociolinguistique urbaine.
Yveline Lévy-Piarroux
EspacesTemps.net , 2004,
Abstract: Deux volumes rassemblent les contributions de 17 chercheurs, essentiellement originaires de pays francophones (France, Belgique, Suisse, Canada), sous la direction de Thierry Bulot (Université de Rennes 2), qui introduit l’ensemble avec Cécile Bauvois (Université de Mont-Hainaut). Ces deux auteurs posent une question liminaire : peut-on distinguer une sociolinguistique urbaine d’une qui ne le serait pas ? Ou encore, peut-on distinguer entre une sociolinguistique dont les études sont ...
Mike Davis, guérilla dans les sciences sociales.
Yveline Lévy-Piarroux
EspacesTemps.net , 2009,
Abstract: La plaine est morne et morte ― et la ville la mange. Emile Verhaeren, La plaine in Les villes tentaculaires Le titre anglais de l’ouvrage de Mike Davis et Daniel B. Monk est Evil Paradises: Dreamworlds of Neoliberalism (2007). Les traducteurs ont conservé l’oxymore de la première formulation. Les mondes de rêve sont devenus les villes hallucinées , allusion croisée à deux recueils de poésie d’émile Verhaeren, Les campagnes hallucinées (1893) ...
Page 1 /223816
Display every page Item


Home
Copyright © 2008-2017 Open Access Library. All rights reserved.