Abstract:
The ways for improving on techniques for finding new solvable potentials based on supersymmetry and shape invariance has been discussed by Morales et al. [1] In doing so they address the peculiar system known as the one-dimensional hydrogen atom. In this paper we show that their remarks on such problem are mistaken. We do this by explicitly constructing both the one-dimensional Coulomb potential and the superpotential associated with the problem, objects whose existence are denied in the mentioned paper.

Abstract:
in this paper we study a simple analytic continuation of the riemann ζ, function, using bernoulli numbers and an analytic continuation of the γ function in the complex plane. we use our results to study the critical condition in bosonic string theory. the approach is simple and gives the student an alternative point of view of the subject. we also show that the mathematical basis needed to understand the critical condition is based on well known properties of the dirichlet series and the theory of entire functions, and is within reach of the average graduate student.

Abstract:
In this paper we study a simple analytic continuation of the Riemann ζ, function, using Bernoulli numbers and an analytic continuation of the Γ function in the complex plane. We use our results to study the critical condition in bosonic string theory. The approach is simple and gives the student an alternative point of view of the subject. We also show that the mathematical basis needed to understand the critical condition is based on well known properties of the Dirichlet series and the theory of entire functions, and is within reach of the average graduate student. En este trabajo estudiamos una continuación analítica simple de la función ζ de Riemann, usando los números de Bernoulli y una continuación analítica de la función Γ e n el plano complejo. Utilizamos nuestros resultados para estudiar la condición crítica en teoría bosonica de cuerdas. El desarrollo es simple y da al estudiante un punto de vista alternativo del tema. También demostramos que la base matemática necesaria para entender la condición crítica está basada en las características bien conocidas de la serie de Dirichlet y de la teoría de funciones enteras, lo cual está al alcance de un estudiante de posgrado.

Abstract:
We determine exact recurrence relations which help in the evaluation of matrix elements of powers of the radial coordinate between Dirac relativistic hydrogenic eigenstates. The power $\lambda$ can be any complex number as long as the corresponding term vanishes faster than $r^{-1}$ as $r \to \infty$. These formulas allow determining recursively any matrix element of radial powers --$r^\lambda$ or $\beta r^\lambda$, $\beta$ is a Dirac matrix-- in terms of the two previous consecutive elements. The results are useful in relativistic atomic calculations.

Abstract:
We review some recent results on recursion relations which help evaluating arbitrary non-diagonal, radial hydrogenic matrix elements of $r^\lambda$ and of $\beta r^\lambda$ ($\beta$ a Dirac matrix) derived in the context of Dirac relativistic quantum mechanics. Similar recursion relations were derived some years ago by Blanchard in the non relativistic limit. Our approach is based on a generalization of the second hypervirial method previously employed in the non-relativistic Schr\"odinger case. An extension of the relations to the case of two potentials in the so-called unshifted case, but using an arbitrary radial function instead of a power one, is also given. Several important results are obtained as special instances of our recurrence relations, such as a generalization to the relativistic case of the Pasternack-Sternheimer rule. Our results are useful in any atomic or molecular calculation which take into account relativistic corrections.

Abstract:
Recurrence formulae for arbitrary hydrogenic radial matrix elements are obtained in the Dirac form of relativistic quantum mechanics. Our approach is inspired on the relativistic extension of the second hypervirial method that has been succesfully employed to deduce an analogous relationship in non relativistic quantum mechanics. We obtain first the relativistic extension of the second hypervirial and then the relativistic recurrence relation. Furthermore, we use such relation to deduce relativistic versions of the Pasternack-Sternheimer rule and of the virial theorem.

Abstract:
Recently obtained recurrence formulae for relativistic hydrogenic radial matrix elements are cast in a simpler and perhaps more useful form. This is achieved with the help of a new relation between the $r^a$ and the $\beta r^b$ terms ($\beta$ is a $4\times 4$ Dirac matrix and $a, b$ are constants) in the atomic matrix elements.

Abstract:
General recurrence relations for arbitrary non-diagonal, radial hydrogenic matrix elements are derived in Dirac relativistic quantum mechanics. Our approach is based on a generalization of the second hypervirial method previously employed in the non-relativistic Schr\"odinger case. A relativistic version of the Pasternack-Sternheimer relation is thence obtained in the diagonal (i.e. total angular momentum and parity the same) case, from such relation an expression for the relativistic virial theorem is deduced. To contribute to the utility of the relations, explicit expressions for the radial matrix elements of functions of the form $r^\lambda$ and $\beta r^\lambda$ ---where $\beta$ is a Dirac matrix--- are presented.

Abstract:
The Dirac oscillator is an exactly soluble model recently introduced in the context of many particle models in relativistic quantum mechanics. The model has been also considered as an interaction term for modelling quark confinement in quantum chromodynamics. These considerations should be enough for demonstrating that the Dirac oscillator can be an excellent example in relativistic quantum mechanics. In this paper we offer a solution to the problem and discuss some of its properties. We also discuss a physical picture for the Dirac oscillator's non-standard interaction, showing how it arises on describing the behaviour of a neutral particle carrying an anomalous magnetic moment and moving inside an uniformly charged sphere.

Abstract:
The bound eigenfunctions and spectrum of a Dirac hydrogen atom are found taking advantage of the $SU(1, 1)$ Lie algebra in which the radial part of the problem can be expressed. For defining the algebra we need to add to the description an additional angular variable playing essentially the role of a phase. The operators spanning the algebra are used for defining ladder operators for the radial eigenfunctions of the relativistic hydrogen atom and for evaluating its energy spectrum. The status of the Johnson-Lippman operator in this algebra is also investigated.