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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 223758 matches for " R. Muthuvelayudham "
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Optimization and modeling of cellulase protein from Trichoderma reesei Rut C30 using mixed substrate
R Muthuvelayudham, T Viruthagiri
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2007,
Abstract: Bioethanol from cellulosic raw material has proved to be the best alternative renewable energy source. Cellulase is a multienzyme complex catalyses the bioconversion of cellulose to glucose, which can be used for ethanol production. The objective of this research is to reduce the cost of cellulase production by optimization of fermentation conditions and modeling of the fermentation process. Research surface methodology was suggested for optimization of process conditions of cellulase biosynthesis. Logistic kinetic model was the best model for the mixed substrates. A conceptual Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model was well incorporated in the fermentative production of cellulase. By adopting these models high yield of cellulase was obtained.
Fermentative production and kinetics of cellulase protein on Trichoderma reesei using sugarcane bagasse and rice straw
R Muthuvelayudham, T Viruthagiri
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2006,
Abstract: Cellulase a multienzyme made up of several proteins finds extensive applications in food, fermentation and textile industries. Trichoderma reesei is an efficient producer of cellulase protein. The comparative study was made on various carbon sources on the production of cellulase using strains of T. reesei QM 9414, 97.177 and Tm3. Pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse and rice straw offers very digestible cellulose and potentially less inhibition. Cellulase production was enhanced by multiple carbon sources because of diauxic pattern of utilization of substrates. This is the first attempt of combining the synthetic substrate (xylose, lactose) with natural substrate (sugarcane bagasse, rice straw). The mixture of substrates produced the highest maximal enzyme activity on cellulose with xylose, cellulose with lactose, bagasse with xylose, bagasse with lactose, rice straw with xylose and rice straw with lactose. In addition Monod growth kinetics and Leudeking piret product formation kinetics were studied using T. reesei with optimized medium under optimized conditions of inoculum concentration, D.O. level, agitator speed, temperature and pH.
Application of Statistical Design for the Production of Cellulase by Trichoderma reesei Using Mango Peel
P. Saravanan,R. Muthuvelayudham,T. Viruthagiri
Enzyme Research , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/157643
Application of Statistical Design for the Production of Cellulase by Trichoderma reesei Using Mango Peel
P. Saravanan,R. Muthuvelayudham,T. Viruthagiri
Enzyme Research , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/157643
Abstract: Optimization of the culture medium for cellulase production using Trichoderma reesei was carried out. The optimization of cellulase production using mango peel as substrate was performed with statistical methodology based on experimental designs. The screening of nine nutrients for their influence on cellulase production is achieved using Plackett-Burman design. Avicel, soybean cake flour, KH2PO4, and CoCl2·6H2O were selected based on their positive influence on cellulase production. The composition of the selected components was optimized using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). The optimum conditions are as follows: Avicel: 25.30?g/L, Soybean cake flour: 23.53?g/L, KH2PO4: 4.90?g/L, and CoCl2·6H2O: 0.95?g/L. These conditions are validated experimentally which revealed an enhanced Cellulase activity of 7.8?IU/mL. 1. Introduction The food and agricultural industries produce large volumes of wastes annually worldwide, causing serious disposal problems. This is more in countries where the economy is largely based on agriculture and farming practice is very intensive. Currently, these agrowastes are either allowed to decay naturally on the fields or are burnt. However, these wastes are rich in sugars due to their organic nature. They are easily assimilated by microorganisms and hence serve as source of potential substrates in the production of industrially relevant compounds through microbial conversion. In addition, the reutilization of biological wastes is of great interest since, due to legislation and environmental reasons, the industry is increasingly being forced to find an alternative use for its residual matter [1]. One of the agrowastes currently causing pollution problems is the peels of the mango (Mangifera indica L.) fruit. Mango is one of the most important fruits marketed in the world with a global production exceeding 26 million tons in 2004 [2]. It is cultivated or grown naturally in over 90 countries worldwide (mainly tropical and subtropical regions) and is known to be the second largest produced tropical fruit crop in the world [3]. The edible tissue makes up 33–85% of the fresh fruit, while the peel and the kernel amount to 7–24% and 9–40%, respectively [4]. In fact, mango peel as a byproduct of mango processing industry could be a rich source of bioactive compounds and enzymes such as protease, peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase, carotenoids, and vitamins C and E [5]. While the utilization of mango kernels as a source of fat, natural antioxidants, starch, flour, and feed has extensively been investigated [6, 7], studies on peels are
Enhanced Production of Xylitol from Corncob by Pachysolen tannophilus Using Response Surface Methodology
S. Ramesh,R. Muthuvelayudham,R. Rajesh Kannan,T. Viruthagiri
International Journal of Food Science , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/514676
Abstract: Optimization of the culture medium and process variables for xylitol production using corncob hemicellulose hydrolysate by Pachysolen tannophilus (MTTC 1077) was performed with statistical methodology based on experimental designs. The screening of nine nutrients for their influence on xylitol production was achieved using a Plackett-Burman design. Peptone, xylose, MgSO4·7H2O, and yeast extract were selected based on their positive influence on xylitol production. The selected components were optimized with Box-Behnken design using response surface methodology (RSM). The optimum levels (g/L) were peptone: 6.03, xylose: 10.62, MgSO4·7H2O: 1.39, yeast extract: 4.66. The influence of various process variables on the xylitol production was evaluated. The optimal levels of these variables were quantified by the central composite design using RSM, for establishment of a significant mathematical model with a coefficient determination of . The validation experimental was consistent with the prediction model. The optimum levels of process variables were temperature (36.56°C), pH (7.27), substrate concentration (3.55?g/L), inoculum size (3.69?mL), and agitation speed (194.44?rpm). These conditions were validated experimentally which revealed an enhanced xylitol yield of 0.80?g/g. 1. Introduction Lignocellulosic materials represent an abundant and inexpensive source of sugars and can be microbiologically converted to industrial products. Xylitol (C5H12O5), a sugar alcohol obtained from xylose, is generated during the metabolism of carbohydrates in animals and humans. Its concentration in human blood varies from 0.03 to 0.06?mg/100?mL [1]. Xylitol was present in fruits and vegetables [2], at low concentration, which makes its production from these sources economically unfeasible [3]. As a sweetener, xylitol is a substitute for conventional sugars [4]. Its sweetening power was comparable to that of sucrose and is higher than that of sorbitol and mannitol [5]. Furthermore, xylitol has anticariogenic properties. Because it is not consumed by streptococcus mutans, xylitol prevents the formation of acids that attack tooth enamel [6]. In addition to reducing dental caries, xylitol also promotes tooth enamel remineralization by reversing small lesions. This happens because, when in contact with xylitol, the saliva seems to be favorably influenced; the chemical composition of xylitol induces the calcium ions and phosphate [7]. For these characteristics, xylitol was a feed stock of great interest to food, odontological, and pharmaceutical industries [1]. Currently, xylitol
Power Aware Routing Protocol (PARP) for Wireless Sensor Networks  [PDF]
R. Prema, R. Rangarajan
Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/wsn.2012.45019
Abstract: Several wireless sensor network applications ought to decide the intrinsic variance between energy efficient communication and the requirement to attain preferred quality of service (QoS) such as packet delivery ratio, delay and to reduce the power consumption of wireless sensor nodes. In order to address this challenge, we propose the Power Aware Routing Protocol (PARP), which attains application-specified communication delays at low energy cost by dynamically adapting transmission power and routing decisions. Extensive simulation results prove that the proposed PARP attains better QoS and reduced power consumption.
An Innovative Low Cost EM Pollution Measurement System  [PDF]
R. Sittalatchoumy, R. Seetharaman
Circuits and Systems (CS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/cs.2016.78176
Abstract: Mobile phones and other electronic devices are emitting radiations that will provide harmful effects to the human health. In order to measure the radiation, an innovative low cost measurement system is proposed in this paper. The ideology is to simplify the circuit’s value by converting a voltage detecting circuit to a field detecting circuit by finding an optimum resistance on trial and error basis. The requirement for a trial and error technique is to not allow too high or too low resistance which can be either short or open, resulting provides more damage to the circuit.
Ant Lion Optimization Approach for Load Frequency Control of Multi-Area Interconnected Power Systems  [PDF]
R. Satheeshkumar, R. Shivakumar
Circuits and Systems (CS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/cs.2016.79206
Abstract: This work proposes a novel nature-inspired algorithm called Ant Lion Optimizer (ALO). The ALO algorithm mimics the search mechanism of antlions in nature. A time domain based objective function is established to tune the parameters of the PI controller based LFC, which is solved by the proposed ALO algorithm to reach the most convenient solutions. A three-area interconnected power system is investigated as a test system under various loading conditions to confirm the effectiveness of the suggested algorithm. Simulation results are given to show the enhanced performance of the developed ALO algorithm based controllers in comparison with Genetic Algorithm (GA), Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), Bat Algorithm (BAT) and conventional PI controller. These results represent that the proposed BAT algorithm tuned PI controller offers better performance over other soft computing algorithms in conditions of settling times and several performance indices.
Obtaining Optimal Solution by Using Very Good Non-Basic Feasible Solution of the Transportation and Linear Programming Problem  [PDF]
R. R. K. Sharma
American Journal of Operations Research (AJOR) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ajor.2017.75021
Abstract: For the transportation problem, Sharma and Sharma [1] have given a very computationally efficient heuristic (runs in O(c*n2) time) to give very good dual solution to transportation problem. Sharma and Prasad [2] have given an efficient heuristic (complexity O(n3) procedure to give a very good primal solution (that is generally non-basic feasible solution) to transportation problem by using the very good dual solution given by Sharma and Sharma [2]. In this paper we use the solution given by Sharma and Prasad [2] to get a very good Basic Feasible Solution to transportation problem, so that network simplex (worst case complexity (O(n3*(log(n))) can be used to reach the optimal solution to transportation problem. In the second part of this paper, we give a simple heuristic procedure to get a very good BFS to linear programming problem from the solution given by Karmarkar [3] (that generally produces a very good non-basic feasible solution in polynomial time (O(n5.5)). We give a procedure to obtain a good BFS for LP by starting from the solution given by Karmarkar [3]. We note that this procedure (given here) is significantly different from the procedure given in [4].
Power Analysis of Sensor Node Using Simulation Tool  [PDF]
R. Sittalatchoumy, R. Kanthavel, R. Seetharaman
Circuits and Systems (CS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/cs.2016.713348
Abstract: Power consumption of sensor node is analyzed in this paper. In order to analyze the energy consumption, the node model is simulated using Proteus Software tool. The proposed sensor nodes power characteristics are measured by using different combinations of microprocessors and sensors. Using this, the energy consumption of the node is calculated. This is a cost-effective method and provides appropriate power model for specific applications.
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