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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 223799 matches for " R. Frascaria "
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Assortative mating and differential male mating success in an ash hybrid zone population
Pierre R Gérard, Etienne K Klein, Frédéric Austerlitz, Juan F Fernández-Manjarrés, Nathalie Frascaria-Lacoste
BMC Evolutionary Biology , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2148-6-96
Abstract: We detected a very high pollen immigration rate and a fat-tailed dispersal kernel, counter-balanced by slight phenological assortative mating and short-distance pollen dispersal. Early intermediate flowering hybrids, which had the highest male mating success, showed optimal sex allocation and increased selfing rates. We detected asymmetry of gene flow, with early flowering trees participating more as pollen donors than late flowering trees.This study provides striking evidence that long-distance gene flow alone is not sufficient to counter-act the effects of assortative mating and selfing. Phenological assortative mating and short-distance dispersal can create temporal and spatial structuring that appears to maintain this hybrid population. The asymmetry of gene flow, with higher fertility and increased selfing, can potentially confer a selective advantage to early flowering hybrids in the zone. In the event of climate change, hybridization may provide a means for F. angustifolia to further extend its range at the expense of F. excelsior.Hybrid zones, where lineages differentiable by one or more heritable traits meet and intercross, provide unique opportunities for studying the nature and dynamics of barriers to gene exchange. The evolution of these barriers can have many different outcomes, including divergence of populations leading to speciation, collapse of differentiated populations, hybrid speciation or invasion. The structure and evolution of hybrid zones depend mainly on the relative importance of dispersal, local adaptation and the fitness of hybrids [1,2], influencing the strength of reproductive isolation. For example, with relatively high dispersal between adjacent populations, gene exchange between species is prevented only if local adaptation is sufficiently strong to eliminate hybrids. Temporal isolation is a particular ecological isolation process that can result from divergent adaptations and cause assortative mating by itself. It involves differenc
All graphs with at most seven vertices are Pairwise Compatibility Graphs
Tiziana Calamoneri,Dario Frascaria,Blerina Sinaimeri
Computer Science , 2012,
Abstract: A graph $G$ is called a pairwise compatibility graph (PCG) if there exists an edge-weighted tree $T$ and two non-negative real numbers $d_{min}$ and $d_{max}$ such that each leaf $l_u$ of $T$ corresponds to a vertex $u \in V$ and there is an edge $(u,v) \in E$ if and only if $d_{min} \leq d_{T,w} (l_u, l_v) \leq d_{max}$ where $d_{T,w} (l_u, l_v)$ is the sum of the weights of the edges on the unique path from $l_u$ to $l_v$ in $T$. In this note, we show that all the graphs with at most seven vertices are PCGs. In particular all these graphs except for the wheel on 7 vertices $W_7$ are PCGs of a particular structure of a tree: a centipede.
Realtime calibration of the A4 electromagnetic lead fluoride calorimeter
S. Baunack,D. Balaguer Ríos,L. Capozza,J. Diefenbach,R. Frascaria,B. Gl?ser,D. v. Harrach,Y. Imai,R. Kothe,R. Kunne,J. H. Lee,F. E. Maas,M. C. Mora Espí,M. Morlet,S. Ong,E. Schilling,J. van de Wiele,C. Weinrich
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1016/j.nima.2011.02.099
Abstract: Sufficient energy resolution is the key issue for the calorimetry in particle and nuclear physics. The calorimeter of the A4 parity violation experiment at MAMI is a segmented calorimeter where the energy of an event is determined by summing the signals of neighbouring channels. In this case the precise matching of the individual modules is crucial to obtain a good energy resolution. We have developped a calibration procedure for our total absorbing electromagnetic calorimeter which consists of 1022 lead fluoride (PbF_2) crystals. This procedure reconstructs the the single-module contributions to the events by solving a linear system of equations, involving the inversion of a 1022 x 1022-matrix. The system has shown its functionality at beam energies between 300 and 1500 MeV and represents a new and fast method to keep the calorimeter permanently in a well-calibrated state.
Measurement of the Transverse Beam Spin Asymmetry in Elastic Electron Proton Scattering and the Inelastic Contribution to the Imaginary Part of the Two-Photon Exchange Amplitude
F. E. Maas,K. Aulenbacher,S. Baunack,L. Capozza,J. Diefenbach,B. Gl?ser,Y. Imai,T. Hammel,D. von Harrach,E. -M. Kabub,R. Kothe,J. H. Lee,A. Sanchez-Lorente,E. Schilling,D. Schwaab,G. Stephan,G. Weber,C. Weinrich,I. Altarev,J. Arvieux,M. Elyakoubi,R. Frascaria,R. Kunne,M. Morlet,S. Ong,J. Vandewiele,S. Kowalski,R. Suleiman,S. Taylor
Physics , 2004, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.94.082001
Abstract: We report on a measurement of the asymmetry in the scattering of transversely polarized electrons off unpolarized protons, A$_\perp$, at two Q$^2$ values of \qsquaredaveragedlow (GeV/c)$^2$ and \qsquaredaveragedhighII (GeV/c)$^2$ and a scattering angle of $30^\circ < \theta_e < 40^\circ$. The measured transverse asymmetries are A$_{\perp}$(Q$^2$ = \qsquaredaveragedlow (GeV/c)$^2$) = (\experimentalasymmetry alulowcorr $\pm$ \statisticalerrorlow$_{\rm stat}$ $\pm$ \combinedsyspolerrorlowalucor$_{\rm sys}$) $\times$ 10$^{-6}$ and A$_{\perp}$(Q$^2$ = \qsquaredaveragedhighII (GeV/c)$^2$) = (\experimentalasymme tryaluhighcorr $\pm$ \statisticalerrorhigh$_{\rm stat}$ $\pm$ \combinedsyspolerrorhighalucor$_{\rm sys}$) $\times$ 10$^{-6}$. The first errors denotes the statistical error and the second the systematic uncertainties. A$_\perp$ arises from the imaginary part of the two-photon exchange amplitude and is zero in the one-photon exchange approximation. From comparison with theoretical estimates of A$_\perp$ we conclude that $\pi$N-intermediate states give a substantial contribution to the imaginary part of the two-photon amplitude. The contribution from the ground state proton to the imaginary part of the two-photon exchange can be neglected. There is no obvious reason why this should be different for the real part of the two-photon amplitude, which enters into the radiative corrections for the Rosenbluth separation measurements of the electric form factor of the proton.
Measurement of Strange Quark Contributions to the Nucleon's Form Factors at Q^2=0.230 (GeV/c)^2
A4 Collaboration,F. E. Maas,P. Achenbach,K. Aulenbacher,S. Baunack,L. Capozza,J. Diefenbach,K. Grimm,Y. Imai,T. Hammel,D. von Harrach,E. -M. Kabuss,R. Kothe,J. H. Lee,A. Lorente,A. Lopes Ginja,L. Nungesser,E. Schilling,G. Stephan,C. Weinrich,I. Altarev,J. Arvieux,B. Collin,R. Frascaria,M. Guidal,R. Kunne,D. Marchand,M. Morlet,S. Ong,J. van de Wiele,S. Kowalski,B. Plaster,R. Suleiman,S. Taylor
Physics , 2004, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.93.022002
Abstract: We report on a measurement of the parity-violating asymmetry in the scattering of longitudinally polarized electrons on unpolarized protons at a $Q^2$ of 0.230 (GeV/c)^2 and a scattering angle of \theta_e = 30^o - 40^o. Using a large acceptance fast PbF_2 calorimeter with a solid angle of \Delta\Omega = 0.62 sr the A4 experiment is the first parity violation experiment to count individual scattering events. The measured asymmetry is A_{phys} =(-5.44 +- 0.54_{stat} +- 0.27_{\rm sys}) 10^{-6}. The Standard Model expectation assuming no strangeness contributions to the vector form factors is $A_0=(-6.30 +- 0.43) 10^{-6}$. The difference is a direct measurement of the strangeness contribution to the vector form factors of the proton. The extracted value is G^s_E + 0.225 G^s_M = 0.039 +- 0.034 or F^s_1 + 0.130 F^s_2 = 0.032 +- 0.028.
Evidence for Strange Quark Contributions to the Nucleon's Form Factors at $Q^2$ = 0.108 (GeV/c)$^2$
F. E. Maas,K. Aulenbacher,S. Baunack,L. Capozza,J. Diefenbach,B. Gl?ser,T. Hammel,D. von Harrach,Y. Imai,E. -M. Kabu?,R. Kothe,J. H. Lee,A. Lorente,E. Schilling,D. Schwaab,M. Sikora,G. Stephan,G. Weber,C. Weinrich,I. Altarev,J. Arvieux,M. El-Yakoubi,R. Frascaria,R. Kunne,M. Morlet,S. Ong,J. van de Wiele,S. Kowalski,B. Plaster,R. Suleiman,S. Taylor
Physics , 2004, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.94.152001
Abstract: We report on a measurement of the parity violating asymmetry in the elastic scattering of polarized electrons off unpolarized protons with the A4 apparatus at MAMI in Mainz at a four momentum transfer value of $Q^2$ = \Qsquare (GeV/c)$^2$ and at a forward electron scattering angle of 30$^\circ < \theta_e < 40^\circ$. The measured asymmetry is $A_{LR}(\vec{e}p)$ = (\Aphys $\pm$ \Deltastat$_{stat}$ $\pm$ \Deltasyst$_{syst}$) $\times$ 10$^{-6}$. The expectation from the Standard Model assuming no strangeness contribution to the vector current is A$_0$ = (\Azero $\pm$ \DeltaAzero) $\times$ 10$^{-6}$. We have improved the statistical accuracy by a factor of 3 as compared to our previous measurements at a higher $Q^2$. We have extracted the strangeness contribution to the electromagnetic form factors from our data to be $G_E^s$ + \FakGMs $G_M^s$ = \GEsGMs $\pm $ \DeltaGEsGMs at $Q^2$ = \Qsquare (GeV/c)$^2$. As in our previous measurement at higher momentum transfer for $G_E^s$ + 0.230 $G_M^s$, we again find the value for $G_E^s$ + \FakGMs $G_M^s$ to be positive, this time at an improved significance level of 2 $\sigma$.
Deciduous Trees and the Application of Universal DNA Barcodes: A Case Study on the Circumpolar Fraxinus
Mariangela Arca, Damien Daniel Hinsinger, Corinne Cruaud, Annie Tillier, Jean Bousquet, Nathalie Frascaria-Lacoste
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0034089
Abstract: The utility of DNA barcoding for identifying representative specimens of the circumpolar tree genus Fraxinus (56 species) was investigated. We examined the genetic variability of several loci suggested in chloroplast DNA barcode protocols such as matK, rpoB, rpoC1 and trnH-psbA in a large worldwide sample of Fraxinus species. The chloroplast intergenic spacer rpl32-trnL was further assessed in search for a potentially variable and useful locus. The results of the study suggest that the proposed cpDNA loci, alone or in combination, cannot fully discriminate among species because of the generally low rates of substitution in the chloroplast genome of Fraxinus. The intergenic spacer trnH-psbA was the best performing locus, but genetic distance-based discrimination was moderately successful and only resulted in the separation of the samples at the subgenus level. Use of the BLAST approach was better than the neighbor-joining tree reconstruction method with pairwise Kimura's two-parameter rates of substitution, but allowed for the correct identification of only less than half of the species sampled. Such rates are substantially lower than the success rate required for a standardised barcoding approach. Consequently, the current cpDNA barcodes are inadequate to fully discriminate Fraxinus species. Given that a low rate of substitution is common among the plastid genomes of trees, the use of the plant cpDNA “universal” barcode may not be suitable for the safe identification of tree species below a generic or sectional level. Supplementary barcoding loci of the nuclear genome and alternative solutions are proposed and discussed.
Environmental Heterogeneity Explains the Genetic Structure of Continental and Mediterranean Populations of Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl
Martina Temunovi?, Jozo Franji?, Zlatko Satovic, Marin Grgurev, Nathalie Frascaria-Lacoste, Juan F. Fernández-Manjarrés
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0042764
Abstract: Tree species with wide distributions often exhibit different levels of genetic structuring correlated to their environment. However, understanding how environmental heterogeneity influences genetic variation is difficult because the effects of gene flow, drift and selection are confounded. We investigated the genetic variation and its ecological correlates in a wind-pollinated Mediterranean tree species, Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl, within a recognised glacial refugium in Croatia. We sampled 11 populations from environmentally divergent habitats within the Continental and Mediterranean biogeographical regions. We combined genetic data analyses based on nuclear microsatellite loci, multivariate statistics on environmental data and ecological niche modelling (ENM). We identified a geographic structure with a high genetic diversity and low differentiation in the Continental region, which contrasted with the significantly lower genetic diversity and higher population divergence in the Mediterranean region. The positive and significant correlation between environmental and genetic distances after controlling for geographic distance suggests an important influence of ecological divergence of the sites in shaping genetic variation. The ENM provided support for niche differentiation between the populations from the Continental and Mediterranean regions, suggesting that contemporary populations may represent two divergent ecotypes. Ecotype differentiation was also supported by multivariate environmental and genetic distance analyses. Our results suggest that despite extensive gene flow in continental areas, long-term stability of heterogeneous environments have likely promoted genetic divergence of ashes in this region and can explain the present-day genetic variation patterns of these ancient populations.
The Phylogeny and Biogeographic History of Ashes (Fraxinus, Oleaceae) Highlight the Roles of Migration and Vicariance in the Diversification of Temperate Trees
Damien Daniel Hinsinger, Jolly Basak, Myriam Gaudeul, Corinne Cruaud, Paola Bertolino, Nathalie Frascaria-Lacoste, Jean Bousquet
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0080431
Abstract: The cosmopolitan genus Fraxinus, which comprises about 40 species of temperate trees and shrubs occupying various habitats in the Northern Hemisphere, represents a useful model to study speciation in long-lived angiosperms. We used nuclear external transcribed spacers (nETS), phantastica gene sequences, and two chloroplast loci (trnH-psbA and rpl32-trnL) in combination with previously published and newly obtained nITS sequences to produce a time-calibrated multi-locus phylogeny of the genus. We then inferred the biogeographic history and evolution of floral morphology. An early dispersal event could be inferred from North America to Asia during the Oligocene, leading to the diversification of the section Melioides sensus lato. Another intercontinental dispersal originating from the Eurasian section of Fraxinus could be dated from the Miocene and resulted in the speciation of F. nigra in North America. In addition, vicariance was inferred to account for the distribution of the other Old World species (sections Sciadanthus, Fraxinus and Ornus). Geographic speciation likely involving dispersal and vicariance could also be inferred from the phylogenetic grouping of geographically close taxa. Molecular dating suggested that the initial divergence of the taxonomical sections occurred during the middle and late Eocene and Oligocene periods, whereas diversification within sections occurred mostly during the late Oligocene and Miocene, which is consistent with the climate warming and accompanying large distributional changes observed during these periods. These various results underline the importance of dispersal and vicariance in promoting geographic speciation and diversification in Fraxinus. Similarities in life history, reproductive and demographic attributes as well as geographical distribution patterns suggest that many other temperate trees should exhibit similar speciation patterns. On the other hand, the observed parallel evolution and reversions in floral morphology would imply a major influence of environmental pressure. The phylogeny obtained and its biogeographical implications should facilitate future studies on the evolution of complex adaptive characters, such as habitat preference, and their possible roles in promoting divergent evolution in trees.
Nuclear break-up of 11Be
V. Lima,J. A. Scarpaci,D. Lacroix,Y. Blumenfeld,C. Bourgeois,M. Chabot,Ph. Chomaz,P. Desesquelles,V. Duflot,J. Duprat,M. Fallot,N. Frascaria,S. Grevy,D. Guillemaud-Mueller,P. Roussel-Chomaz,H. Savajols,O. Sorlin
Physics , 2007, DOI: 10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2007.07.005
Abstract: The break-up of 11Be was studied at 41AMeV using a secondary beam of 11Be from the GANIL facility on a 48Ti target by measuring correlations between the 10Be core, the emitted neutrons and gamma rays. The nuclear break-up leading to the emission of a neutron at large angle in the laboratory frame is identified with the towing mode through its characteristic n-fragment correlation. The experimental spectra are compared with a model where the time dependent Schrodinger equation (TDSE) is solved for the neutron initially in the 11 Be. A good agreement is found between experiment and theory for the shapes of neutron experimental energies and angular distributions. The spectroscopic factor of the 2s orbital is tentatively extracted to be 0.46+-0.15. The neutron emission from the 1p and 1d orbitals is also studied.
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